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how Wesley had preached and printed his obnoxious sermon, in consequence of drawing a lot. The conclusion however is remarkable for the honest confidence and the warmth of affection which it breathes.

That this letter was intended for publication is certain ; but there seems to have been a hope in Whitefield's mind that the effect which its perusal would produce might render publication needless. His friends in London, however, thought proper to print it

, without either his permission or Wesley's, and copies were distributed at the door of the Foundry, and in the meeting itself. Wesley holding one in his hand stated to the congregation the fact of its surreptitious publication, and then saying, “I will do just what I believe Mr. Whitefield would were he here himself," he tore it in pieces. Every person present followed his example; and Wesley, in reference to the person by whose means these unlucky copies had been circulated, exclaims in his Journal, “Ah poor Ahitophel! Ibi omnis effusus labor !"

The person who seems to have been most active in enforcing Calvinism in opposition to Wesley at this time was the Rev. John Cennick," whom he employed at Kingswood in the

*"The Rev. John Cennick was one of Whitefield's most popular and useful fellow-laborers. He possessed a sweet simplicity of spirit, with an ardent zeal in the cause of his Divine Master. On the 4th of July, 1755, his happy spirit took its flight to the mansions of bliss, to enjoy, through eternal ages, uninterrupted communion and fellowship with a triune Jehovah, reconciled in Christ Jesus, after he had passed a life of thirty-five years, in this world of sin and sorrow.

Mr. Cennick was rather below the middle stature, of a fair countenance, but of a fairer mind. A good understanding, an open temper, and a tender heart characterized the man. His christian qualities were not less remarkable. If unaffected humility, deadness to the world, a life of communion with God, and a cheerful reliance on a crucified Savior, constitute the real christian, he was one in an eminent degree. Nor were the evidence of his call to the ministry less striking. Few ministers have felt a warmer love to Jesus Christ ; few were more unwearied in preaching his gospel ; few triumphed more in his cross, or suffered more patiently in his cause. As to success in his labors, perhaps there was not one in his day, except Mr. Whitefield, more highly honored in this particular. 'Tis true, his language was not with the enticing words of man's wisdom; yet his doctrine and address were powerful, and found access to the hearts of thousands. The gospel he so diligently and faithfully dispensed, was the food of his own soul. He drank deeply of the cup of religious pleasures. His altar was not to an unknown God; he exalted noi a Savior whose virtues he had never proved; he pointed not to a spirit, under whose almighty influence he had not fived; he directed not to a heaven, the happiness of which he had not anticipated. His career was short; but if life may be estimated, by the comparative quantity of good produced in it, then this truly active, spiritual, and useful man, may be said to have lived to a good old age.

Where, on this side heaven, can a more enviable person be found, than he whose mind is thus furnished; whose soul is thus enriched; whose lips thus drop sweetness; whose life is ihus devoted; whose services are thus blessed ? He may not have moved in the circles of the great ; he may not have ranked with characters of literary fame; he may not be able to trace his pedigree


school which Whitefield had designed for the children of colliers. Whitefield had collected some money for this good work, and had performed the ceremony of laying the founda

but further than this ceremony it had not proceeded when he embarked the second time for America, and left it to be carried forward by Wesley. There was the great difficulty of want of money in the way; but this was a difficulty which faith would remove, and in faith Wesley began building without having a quarter of the sum necessary for finishing it. But he found persons who were willing to advance money if he would become responsible for the debt; the responsibility and the property thus devolved upon him, and he immediately made his will, bequeathing it to his brother Charles and Whitefield. Two masters were provided as soon as the house was fit to receive them, and Mr. Cennick was one. He was not in holy orders, but the practice of lay preaching which had at first been vehemently opposed by the Wesleys, nad now become inevitably a part of their system, and Mr. Cennick, who had great talents for popular speaking, labored also as one of these helpers, as they were called. He in his horror against the doctrines of the Wesleys wrote urgently to Whitefield, calling upon him to hasten from America that he might stay the plague. "I sit,” said he, “solitary like Eli, waiting what will become of the ark; and while I wail and fear the carrying of it away from among my people, my trouble increases daily. How glorious did the gospel seem once to flourish in Kingswood! I spake of the everlasting love of Christ with sweet power. But now brother Charles is suffered to open his mouth against this truth, while the affrighted sheep gaze and fly, as if no shepherd were among them. It is just as if Satan were now making war with the saints in a more than common way. Oh! pray for the distressed lambs yet left in this place, that they faint not ! Surely they would if preaching would do it, for they have nothing whereon to rest, who now attended on the sermons, but their own faithfulness. With universal redemption brother Charles pleases the world. Brother John follows him in every thing. I believe no Atheist can more preach against predestination than they; and all who believe election are counted enemies to God, and called so. Fly dear brother! I am alone,- I am in the midst of the plague! If God give thee leave, make haste !" through families of noble blood; he may not have soared on the wings of philosophic pursuits ; but he has pierced the clouds ; he has explored the celestial regions, he has presented its delicious fruits, and invited us to arise and possess the land. O my soul, come thou into his secret, into his assembly mine honor be thou united I”-See Life of the Rev. John Cennick, by the Rev. Matthew Wilks, prefixed to his Sermons.

A copy of this letter came into Wesley's hands, and it stung him, because he said the writer was one I had sent for to assist me, a friend that was as my own soul, that even while he opposed me lay in my bosom." Charles in consequence addressed a letter to him which forcibly expresses the feeling of the two brothers upon having one of their disciples thus rise against them. “You came to Kingswood," says he,“ upon my brother's sending for you. You served under him in the gospel as a son, I need not say how well he loved you. You used the authority he gave you to overthrow his doctrine. You every where contradicted it, (whether true or false is not the question.) But you ought first to have fairly told him, 'I preach contrary to you: are you willing, notwithstanding, that I should continue in your house, gainsaying you? If you are not, I have no place in these regions. You have a right to this open dealing. I now give you fair warning. Shall I stay here opposing you, or shall I depart ? My brother, have you dealt thus honestly and openly with him? No. But you have stolen away the people's hearts from him. And when some of them basely treated their best friend, God only aeeepted, how patiently did you take it! When did you ever vindicate us as we have you? Why did you not plainly tell them, you are eternally indebted to these men ? Think not that I will stay among you to head a party against my dearest friend and brother, as he suffers me to call him, having humbled himself for my sake, and given me, no bishop, priest, or deacon, the right hand of fellowship. If I hear that one word more is spoken against him, I will leave you that moment. This had been just and honest, and not more than we have deserved at your hands."

This was put into John Wesley's hands that he might deliver it to Mr. Cennick if he thought proper. But matters had proceeded so far that Mr. Cennick was forming a separate society, and Wesley deemed it better to speak to him and his adherents publicly and reprove them for inveighing against him behind his back. One of them replied, that they had said no more of him behind his back than they would say to his face, which was that he preached false doctrine ;--he preached that there is righteousness in man. “So," says Wesley," there is, after the righteousness of Christ is imputed to him through faith. But who told you that what we preached was false doctrine? Whom would you have believed this from, but Mr. Cennick ?” Mr. Cennick then boldly answered, “ You do preach righteousness in man. I did say this, and I say it still. However, we are willing to join with you; but we will also meet apart from you ; for we meet to confirm one another in those

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truths which you speak against.” Wesley replied, "You should have told me this before, and not have supplanted me in my own house, stealing the hearts of the people, and by private accusations separating very friends."

By mutual agreement the meeting was adjourned a week, and when they re-assembled, Mr. Cennick and his friends were surprised to find themselves arraigned by Mr. Wesley as follows: “By many witnesses it appears that several members of the Band Society in Kingswood have made it their common practice, to scoff at the preaching of Mr. John and Charles Wesley; that they have censured and spoken evil of them behind their backs, at the very time they professed love and esteem to their faces; that they have studiously endeavored to prejudice other members of that society against them, and in order thereto, have belied and slandered them in divers instances; therefore, not for their opinions, nor for any of them, (whether they be right or wrong) but for the causes abovementioned, viz. for their scoffing at the word and ministers of God, for their tale-bearing, back-biting, and evil speaking, for their dissembling, lying, and slandering; I, John Wesley, by the consent and approbation of the Band Society in Kingswood, do declare the persons above mentioned to be no longer members thereof. Neither will they be so accounted until they shall openly confess their fault, and thereby do what in them lies to remove the scandal they have given.”

Having come prepared for a discussion of their opinions and conduct

, they were astonished at hearing themselves thus excommunicated. As soon as they recovered from their surprise they affirmed that they had heard both him and his brother preach popery many times. However, they were still willing to join with them, but they would not own that they had done any thing amiss. Wesley desired them to consider upon it yet again, but finding after another week had elapsed that they still refused to acknowledge that they had been in the wrong, he once more assembled the bands, and told them that every one must now take his chance and quit one society or the other. One of the Calvinistic leaders observed, that the true reason of his separating from them was because they held the doctrine of election. Wesley made answer, “You know in your own conscience it is not. There are several predestinarians in our societies both at London and Bristol ; nor did I ever yet put any one out of either, because he held that opinion.” They then offered to break up their society, provided he would receive and employ Mr. Cennick as he had done before. To this Wesley replied, “ My brother has wronged me much: but he doth not say I repent." Mr. Cennick made answer, “ Un

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less in not speaking in your defense I do not know that I have wronged you at all.” “It seems then,” says Wesley,“ nothing remains but for each to choose which society he pleases."

At this time Whitefield was on the way from America. While upon the passage he wrote to Charles Wesley, expostulating with him and his brother, in strong but affectionate terms. “My dear, dear brethren,” said he, “why did you throw out the bone of contention? Why did you print that sermon against predestination? Why did you in particular, my dear brother Charles, affix your hymn, and join in putting out your late hymn book? How can you say you will not dispute with me about election, and yet print such hymns, and your brother send his sermon against election over to America ? Do not you think, my dear brethren, I must be as much concerned for truth, or what I think truth, as you? God is my judge, I always was, and hope I always shall be, desirous that you may be preferred before me. But I must preach the gospel of Christ, and that I cannot now do without speaking of election.” He then informed Charles, that one copy of his answer to the sermon was printing at Charleston; that another had been sent to Boston for the same purpose; and that he was bringing a copy to be printed in London. “If,” said he, “ it occasion a strangeness between us, it shall not be my fault. There is nothing in my answer exciting to it that I know of. O my dear brethren, my heart almost bleeds within me! Methinks I could be willing to tarry here on the waters forever, rather than come to England to oppose you." But although, when he was thus addressing the Wesleys, the feelings of old friendship returned upon him, his other letters, written during the voyage,

evince that he looked on a separation as the cer. tain consequence of this difference in opinion. “Great perils," he says,

“ await me; but Jesus Christ will send his angel, and roll away every stone of difficulty." "My Lord's command now, I believe, is, 'Take the foxes, the little foxes that spoil the vines, for our vines have tender grapes.' Help me by your prayers; it is an ease thus to unbosom myself to a friend. I have sought the Lord by prayer and fasting, and he assures me that he will be with me ; whom then should I fear ?" Lord is girding me for the battle, and strengthening me mightily in the inner man.”

In this state of mind he reached London. Charles Wesley was there, and their meeting was affectionate. "It would have melted any heart," says Whitefield, “to have heard us weeping after prayer, that, if possible, the breach might be prevented.” Old feelings of respect and love revived with such strength in his heart, that he promised never to preach against

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