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the Wesleys, whatever his private opinion might be. But many things combined to sour him at this time. He had written against Archbishop Tillotson's works, and the whole Duty of Man, a book in those days of unrivalled popularity, in a manner which he himself then felt to be injudicious; and this had offended persons, who were otherwise favorably disposed towards him. His celebrity also seemed to have passed away; the twenty thousands who used to assemble at his preaching had dwindled down to two or three hundred; and in one exhibition at Kennington common, the former scene of his triumphs, scarcely a hundred were gathered together to hear him. Worldly anxieties, too, were fretting him, and those of a kind which made the loss of his celebrity a serious evil. The Orphan-house in Georgia was to be maintained : he had now nearly a hundred persons in that establishment, who were to be supported by his exertions: there were not the slightest funds provided, and Georgia was the dearest part of the British dominions. He was above a thousand pounds in debt upon that score, and he himself not worth twenty. Seward, the wealthiest and most attached of his disciples, was dead, and had made no provision for him, nor for the payment of a heavy bill on the Orphan-house account, which he had drawn, and for which Whitefield was now responsible, and threatened with an arrest. He called it truly a trying time: “Many, very many of my spiritual children," says he, who, at my last departure from England, would have plucked out their own eyes for me, are so prejudiced by the dear Messrs. Wesleys dressing up the doctrine of election in such horrible colors, that they will neither hear, see nor give me the least assistance; yea, some of them send threatening letters that God will speedily destroy me.” This folly on the part of Wesley's adherents irritated him, and that irritation was fomented by his own feelings; and when Wesley, who had been summoned by his brother Charles to London on this occasion, went to him, to see if the breach might yet be closed, Whitefield honestly told him, that they preached two different gospels, and therefore he not only would not join with him, or give him the right hand of fellowship, but would publicly preach against him wheresoever he preached at all. He was reminded of the promise which he had but a few days before made, that whatever his opinion might be he would not do this : but he replied, that promise was only an effect of human weakness, and he was now of another mind.
Thus was the breach consummated betw se co-workers with Christ; who, in a more confined sense, may be said to have now ceased being co-workers with each other.
From the establishment of the church in Moor fields under Mr. Cen
nick, and his visit through Scotland, till his departure from Edinburgh, with some letters showing his reception in that country, 1741.
About this time he intended to return with all possible expedition to America. Meantime, it being inconvenient, on account of the weather, to preach morning and evening in Moorfieldssome free Grace Dissenters (who stood by him closely in that time of trial) obtained the loan of a piece of ground, and engaged with a carpenter to build a large temporary shed, to screen the auditory from cold and rain, which he called a tabernacle, as it was only intended to be made use of for a few months, during his stay in his native country. The place fixed upon was very near the Foundry, which he disliked, because he thought it looked like erecting altar against altar; but, upon this occasion, he remarks, “All was wonderfully overruled for good and for the furtherance of the gospel. A fresh awakening immediately began. Congregations grew exceeding large, and at the people's desire I sent (necessity reconciling me more and more to lay-preaching) for Messrs. Čennick, Harris, Seagrave, Humphries, and some others to assist."
Fresh doors were now open to him, and invitations sent to him from many places where he had never been. At a common, near Braidtree in Essex, upwards of ten thousand persons attended. At Halstead, Dedham, Cossleshall, Weathersfield, Colchester, Bury, and Ipswich, the congregations were very large and much affected.*
Åt this time, also, he was strongly solicited by religious persons, of different persuasions, to visit Scotland. Several letters had passed between him and the Messrs. Erskines, some time before, and he had a great desire to see them. He therefore
Sweet was the conversation I had with several ministers of Christ. But our own clergy grew more and more shy, now they knew I was a Calvinist; though no doubt (as Mr. Bedford told me when going to the Bishop of London) our Articles are Calvinistic."
+ See his Journals, and his Letters to the Rev. Mr. R. Erskine, and the Rev. Mr. E. Erskine.
In his last letter to Mr. E. Erskine before coming to Scotland, he writes" May 16, 1741. This morning I received a kind letter from your brother Ralph, who thinks it best for me wholly to join the Associate Presbytery, if it should please God to send me into Scotland. This I cannot altogether come into. I come only as an occasional preacher, to preach the simple gospel to all that are willing to hear me, of whatever denomination. I write this, that there may not be the least misunderstanding between us. I love and honor the Associate Presbytery in the bowels of Jesus Christ : But let them not be offended, if in all things I cannot immediately fall in with them.” To the same purpose he writes to Mr. R. Erskine, May 23.
took his passage from London to Leith, where (after five days, which he employed in writing many excellent letters to the orphans, &c.) he arrived July 30, 1741. Several persons of distinction most gladly received him, and would have had him preach at Edinburgh directly; but he was determined that the Rev. Messrs. Erskines should have the first offer; and therefore went immediately to Dumfermline, and preached in Mr. Erskine's meeting house.
Great efforts were made to detain him at Dumfermline, and as great to keep him from preaching for, and visiting, the Rev. Mr. Wardlaw, who had been colleague with Mr. Ralph Erskine about twenty years; and who, as well as the Rev. Mr. Davidson, a dissenting minister in England, that went along with Mr. Whitefield, were looked upon as perjured, for not adhering to the Solemn League and Covenant. This was new language to him, and therefore unintelligible. But that he might be better informed, it was proposed that the Rev. Mr. Moncrief, Mr. Ebenezer Erskine, and others, members of the Associate Presbytery, should convene in a few days, in order to give him farther light.
In the mean time, Mr. Ralph Erskine accompanied him to Edinburgh, where he preached in the Orphan-house park (field preaching being no novelty in Scotland) to a very large and affected auditory, upon these words—“The Kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost." The next day he preached in the West Kirk, and expressed great pleasure in hearing two gospel sermons from the Rev. Mr. Gusthart, and the Rev. Mr. Macvicar. And the following day, he preached in the Cannongate church, where Mr. Ralph Erskine went up with him into the pulpit.
According to promise, he returned with him to Dumfermline, where Mr. E. Erskine, and several of the Associate Presbytery, were met together. When Mr. Whitefield came they soon proposed to proceed to business. He asked them for what purpose. They answered, to discourse and set him right about church government, and the Solemn League and Covenant. He replied, they might save themselves that trouble, for he had no scruple about it, and that settling church government, and preaching about the Solemn League and, Covenant, was not his plan. He then told them something of his experience, and how he was led into his present way of acting. One of them, in particular, said he was deeply affected. And Mr. E. Erskine desired they would have patience with him, for that having been born and bred in England, and never studied the point, he could not be supposed to be perfectly acquainted with it. But Mr. Macvicar insisted, that he was therefore more inexo
rable, for England had revolted most with respect to church government; and that he, being born and educated there, could not be acquainted with the matter in debate. Mr. Whitefield told him, he had never inade the Solemn League and Covenant the subject of his study, being too busy about matters which he judged of greater importance. Several replied, that every pin of the tabernacle was precious. He answered, that in every building there were outside and inside workmen ; that the latter, at present, was his province: that if they thought themselves called to the former, they might proceed in their own way, and he would proceed in his. He then asked them seriously, what they would have him to do. The answer was, that he was not desired to subscribe immediately to the Solemn League and Covenant, but to preach only for them, till he had further light. He asked, why only for them? Mr. R. Erskine said, they were the Lord's people. He then asked, were no others the Lord's people but themselves. If not, and if others were the devil's people, they had more need to be preached to; that for his part, all places were alike to him; and if the pope himself would lend him his pulpit, he would gladly proclaim in it the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. Something passed about taking two of their brethren with him to England, to settle a Presbytery there; and then, with two more, to go and settle a Presbytery in America. But he asked, suppose a number of Independents should come, and declare that after the greatest search, they were convinced that independency was the right church government, and would disturb nobody, if tolerated, should they be tolerated ? They answered, no. Soon after this the company broke up. And Mr. M. preached upon Isa. xxi. 11, 12. "Watchman, what of the night ?”' &c. and took occasion to declaim strongly against the ceremonies of the Church of England, and to argue,* “That one who held communion with that Church, or with the backslidden Church of Scotland, could not be an instrument of reformation.”
The consequence of all this was, an open breach. Mr. Whitefield retired thoughtful and uneasy to his closet; and, after preaching in the fields, sat down and dined with them, and then took a final leave.t
"I attended; but the good man so spent himself in the former part of his sermon, in talking against prelacy, the Common Prayer Book, the surplice, the rose in the hat, and such like externals; that when he came to the latter part of his text to invite poor sinners to Christ, his breath was so gone that he could scarce be heard. What a pity that the last was not first, and the first last !"
+ " Having dropped something about persons building a Babel, Mrs. said, it was a hard saying. Upon which I replied, I feared it was a true one, and that they would find the Babel fall down about their ears. I was never received into their house any more. Thus was I called to make another sac
Many waited at Edinburgh to know the issue of the conference, who were not disappointed in the event. Thither he returned, after preaching, always twice, often thrice, and once seven times a day, for some weeks together. The churches were open, but, not being able to hold half the congregations, he generally preached
twice a day in the Orphan-hospital park to many thousands. The most fashionable, as well as those of meaner rank attended ;* at some of their houses he generally expounded every evening. And every day, almost, there were new evidences of the success of his labors. Numbers of ministers and students came to hear him, and aged, experienced christians told him they could set their seal to what he preached.
In this first visit to Scotland, he preached at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Paisley, Perth, Sterling, Crief, Falkirk, Airth, Kinlassie, Culross, Kinross, Couper of Fife; and also, at Stonehive, Benholm, Montrose, Drechin, Forfar, Couper of Angus; and at Innerkeithing, Newbottle, Galashields, Maxton, and Haddington; and in the west country, at Killern, Fintry, and Balfrone. To other places to which he was invited,t he did not go at this time. But (having collected above five hundred pounds, in money and goods, for his orphans) he left Edinburgh in the latter end of October, to go through' Wales in his way to London. His reception, ministrations and success, at the principal places in Scotland, will farther appear from the following letters from ministers and , private christians in Scotland, representing Mr. Whitefield's reception and success there, in the year 1741.
At Edinburgh, one of the ministers of that city thus writes to him :-“ April 20, 1742. Rev. and dear sir: Knowing that many are careful to inform you, from time to time, what passes here, I have hitherto delayed answering your most acceptable letter, until I should tell you with the greatest certainty, what were the blessed effects of your ministrations among us; and can now assure you, that they were not more surprising than lasting. I do not know or hear of any wrought upon by your ministry, but are holding on in the paths of truth and righteousness. They seem possessed of a truly christian spirit. Jesus is precious to their souls; and, like the morning light, they are advancing with increasing brightness to the perfect day. Since you left Scotland numbers in different corners have been awakened. Many in a hopeful way. Religion in rifice of my affections. But what I had met with in England made this the more easy.
* Among his particular friends were the Marquis of Lothian, the Earl Leven, Lord Rae, Lady Mary Hamilton, Lady Frances Gardiner, Lady Jean Nimmo, Lady Dirleton. + Among these was Cambuslang, and some places in the north of Scotland.