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rare a genius as to be alike suited to a camp or court, and no less capable of commanding in the field, than of giving advice in the closet. When the marriages were made by the king's directions at Sufa, Eumenes was in some measure allied to him, for he had then given him Artonis, whom some call Barfire the daughter of Artabazus, and fifter of Barsina, who was the mother of Hercules by Alexander. These were the busy actors at this period, Perdiccas full of ambition, Meleager selfish and revengeful, Aridæus or Philip weak and timorous, Eumenes brave, wife and inviolably attached to the royal

house d. The fediti- The foot under Meleager held Babylon, had the king's on aipees- person in their hands, and were cloathed with his authority, ed.

which however Meleager over-stretched when he sent some to feize Perdiccas; but that great officer so frighted them with his frowns and words, that they returned re infecta, and so made the breach the wider. The cavalry under Perdiccas, Ptolomy, Lagus, and other generals, invested the city, or rather thut up the passages thereto, so that presently famine began to appear, and even to be felt. The inhabitants of the adjacent villages fled for safety to Babylon, and multitudes, pinched by hunger, issued from the city to seek subsistence in the country. This confusion compelled the phalanx to think of treating, and. Eumenes, who, as a stranger by birth, had hitherto affected a neutrality, easily brought about an accommodation by blending both schemes together, allowing Aridaus or Philip the regal title, and vesting the authority in great officers, of whom Meleager was to be held the third.

In confequence of this accommodation, all the great officers of the army came to court, especially Perdiccas and Ptolemy, the former eagerly desiring to assume the sovereignty under the specious title of protector, and the latter secretly aiming at the division of the empire, that under the name of a government he might secure a kingdom to himself. Perdiccas soon gained an ascendancy over Philip, insomuch that he

conducted all things according to his own will, though in the Perdiccas name of that prince. The first design of confequence he takes off aimed at putting in execution was the taking of Meleager, in Meleager. order to which he framed a plot equally subtil and successful;

be put some of his own adherents on complaining openly of Meleager's being made equal to Perdiccas ; this naturally led Meleager to expostulate with him ; upon which Perdiccas with an air of frankness told him, that such incendiaries ought immediately to be punished, and proposed a general lustration of the army, as the only probable method of taking off such

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disturbers of the public peace. Meleager readily came into this, looking upon it as an indubitable testimony of Perdiccas's friendship. But when the horse and foot were drawn into the field, and the king quitting the phalanx, rode along the first line of the right wing with Perdiccas; the foot began to be in some terror, and in that terror all their courage forsook them ; sometimes they thought of retiring into the city, at others of oppofing force by force. Meleager of all others was leaft present to himself, so that after deliberating long, and propofing many things, they resolved on nothing, till Perdiccas formed the horse over-against them with the elephants in front. Then taking the king with him, he rode along the first line of the phalanx, and demanded the authors of the late fedition. Meleager and his soldiers answered nothing, yet by the dejection of their countenances, they plainly shewed how low their spirits were sunk; this encouraged Perdiccas to draw out by force three hundred, who in the late affair had been most active for Meleager, whom without more ado he cast to the elephants, and suffered to be trampled to death in the fight of the army, the king looking on rather as a surprized spectator, than as the author of fo cruel a deed. As no body pretended to lay hands on Meleager himself, he neither spoke nor ftirred to save those who had acted by his authority, which answered the end of Perdiccas, for on his return to Babylon every body shunned and was afraid of him, which had such an effeat on his mind, already disordered, that he took sanctuary in a temple, vainly hoping that his enemies would not pursue him to the altar ; whereas ambitious men Thew no respect to religion, but when it is their tool, and therefore Perdiccas, who thought himself not fafe while this man lived, ordered him who is without ceremony there to be sain, which was accordingly sain at performed ; and thus the authority of Perdiccas was for the the altar. present established • (B).

To e Diodor. Curt. Justin. ubi fupra.


(B) In this note we intend to than a very brief account of their acquaint the reader with the contents preserved by the famous authors on whose authority we Photius, who, at the end of his build what is delivered in this extract, hach added a character section. The firlt of these is of this author worthy of the serArrian, the fame whom we vice which he has done to the chiefly followed in our history of commonwealth of letters. He Alexander the Great. He wrote tells us, that as an historian he upon this subject a creatise, con- knows none who ought to be fiiting of ten books, which are preferred before him, his file, all unfortunately lott; and what continues he, is strong and uniwequote in their stead is no more form, his narration seldom in.


A 4

To satisfy the ambition of the principal commanders in the pire dicik army, to provide for the safety of the empire, and to free ed.

himself from competitors, Perdiccas quickly called a general council, wherein the following distribution of honours and governments was made. Aridæus, and the son of Roxana now born, and named Alexander, were to enjoy the regal authority. Antipater had the government of the European provinces as general of the army there. Craterus had the title of protector. Perdiccas had in reality the office, with the style of general of the houshold troops, in the room of Hephæstion. Ptolemy the son of Lagus had Egypt, Libya, and that part of Arabia which borders upon Egypt. Cleomenes, a man of infamous character, whom Alexander had made receiver-general in Egypt, was made Ptolomy's deputy. Leomedon had Syria, Pbiletas Cilicia, Pithon Media, Eumenes Cappadocia, Paj hlagenia, and all the country bordering on the Euxine sea, as far as Trapezus; but these were not yet conquered, so that he was 2 governor without a province. Antigonus had Pamphilia, Lycia, and Phrygia Major, Cassander Caria, Menander Lydia, Leonnatus Phrygia, on the Hellefpont. In Europe, Thrace, the Chersonese, and the countries adjoining as far as Salmydessus on the Euxine sea, were given to Lyfimachus ; the rest of the countries subject to the Macedonians, as far as the Ceraunian mountains, with all Greece, were left to Craterus and Antipater. As to the rest of the provinces, not mentioned in this division, they remained under the governors appointed them by Alexander. We have in this account followed our old guide Arrian; what other authors have delivered on this subject, the readers will perceive by a note' (C).

terrupted by digreffions ; those trius, and in many other trea- . there are alike pertinent and tises of his, hath afforded us free fort. His eloquence nerer mif. quently materials. To these we leads him into any thing forced, may add Juffin (4) We have or hard to be underflood, and collated them all ; and where while he preferves all the dignity they differ, have selected what of history, he introduces no- was most probable, and most thing of that unintelligible fub- consistent with other parts of the lime, which is the bane of wri- narration. In most of our colters of warm imaginations, and lections of general history, this who have judgments as warm. period is remarkably distracted Yet in point of elegance his work and confused, not so much for is no less valuable than in point want of authorities, as for want of veracity; his periods are of using them ; as also from a sweet and perfectly well turned ; prejudice against the matter ithis language fo accurately pro. felf, as if the wars of Alexander's per, that it is impossible to say successors, till such time as the he ever rises above, or sinks be- four capital empires, into which low his subject. In a word,' his was broken, arose, were of there is such a harmony, peró little importance. Whereas the spicuity, and noble fimplicity in giving a full, diftinct, and perthe works of this writer, chit to spicuous account of such peradd or take away from them, plexed parts of history, is one of would be doing visible injury the greatest services a writer can both to the author and reader render to posterity ; and in fup. (1). Diodorus Siculus hath writ- port to this observation, we beg ien as well and more copiously leave to remark, that though than any on the matters of which Arrien wrote but seven books we treat in this section (2). Cur- of the life of Alexander, yet he tills at the close of his work wrote ten of the division of his treats very fully of what hap empire, notwithstanding he carpened at, and immediately af- ries his history no lower than ter the death of Alexander, in Antipater's return to Europe ; which he the rather deserves so necessary it appeared to him, credit, because what he relates that the transactions in this

peagrees very well with Arrian, riod should be well underltood. particularly in the division of the Add to this, that the latter exprovinces (3). Plutarch, in the tract in Photiies is four times as clcfe of his life of Alexander, in long as the former (5). his lives of Eumenes and Deme

(1) Pbor. Biblioibes, Cod. xcii. (3) Curt, lib. x,

(4) Julin. l. xiii. Cod, xci. xcii.

(2) Dioclor. Sicul, lib. xviii.

(5) Vide Pbet. Bibl.

THIS FARRIAN. apud Phot. ubi fupra. Curt. ubi fupra.

(C) The division of Alexan. Sogdia ; to Phrataphernes Parder's empire, according to other thia and Hyrcania ; to Peuceftes authors, ran thus : Diodorus Si- Perfis ; to Tlepolemus Carmania; culus affirms, that Perdiccas con- to Atropas Media ; to Archon firmed the kingdom to Aridaus, Babylonia; to Arcefilaus Mesogave to Ptolemy Egypt ; to Py- potamia ; to Seleucus the comibon Media ; to Eumenes Paphla. mand of the royal cavalry, which gonia, with Cappadocia, and the Hepbætion had first, and Perdicneighbouring countries ; to Caf- cas afterwards ; to Taxiles and Sander Caria; to Meleager Ly-' Porus each theit own kingdoms, dia; to Leonnatus Phrygia upon as restored and augmented by the Hellefpont ; to Lifimachus Alexander. The king kept Pere Thrace, with the adjacent nacie diccas with him, and conitituted ons as far as the sea ; to Anti- him captain of the guards, and pater Macedonia, with the neigh. the forces which attended him bouring countries ; to the rest (6). According to Juftin, the of the officers he distributed the provinces and chief commands other provinces in Afia ; to Oy were thus divided. Ptolemy had ertes Caucasus, and the Paropa. Egypt, Afric, and part of Aramifas ; to Sybirtius, Arachofia bia ; Loome.dom Syria ; Philotas and Gedrofia'; lo Stafunor i he and his son Cilicia and Illyricum; Solian, Ária and Dianziana ; Atropatos, it should be stropere to Pbilip the prætor Bactria and tes, Melia the greater ; Alceiving

(6) Diodor, Sicul, lb, xviii.

Perdiccas This division of the empire, as well as all other things, afjames re- had the fanction of the royal name, and seemed to be done by gal power. authority of king Philip; but in truth, it was the mere act of

Perdiccas, and his associates, who shared, at their pleasure, the empire of their deceased master, treating his lawful heirs as pageants and cyphers; but we need not wonder at this, when we find that Alexander himself was no less slighted ; for while these disputes were on foot, his body was altogether neglected, and seven days elapsed before any orders were given for its embalment (D).


the brother of Perdiccas, Media first, here are some names misthe less ; Scynus Susiana ; Anti- spelt, or changed through the gonus, the son of Philip,

of Philip, ignorance of transcribers, which Phrygia the greater; Nearchus creates a seeming without a real Lycia and Pamphilia; Caf- difference. As for instance, Scyjander Caria ; Menander Lydia; nus is undoubtedly iput for AntiLeonaotus Phrygia the less; Ly- gonus, though there is not the fimachus. Thrace, and the coun- least conformity between them. tries adjacent to the Pontic sea ; Extarches is for Oxyartes, and Eumenes Cappadocia and Paphla- Scythæus is put for Sybirtius, and gonia ; Seleucus, the son of in Diodorus, the fame person is Antiochus, the chief command called Ibertius. Secondly, Justin of the forces ; Cassander, the does not distinguish between the son of Antipater, the command first and second division, neither of the king's guards ; Taxiles the do Dexippus, Orofius, or other countries between the rivers In. authors; whence their differences dus and Hydafpes; Pithon, the with Arrian. Diodorus indeed son of Agenor, the colonies set- mentions both the divisions by tled in India ; Parapomenus the Perdiccas, and by Antipater, and borderers on mount Caucasus; is in all respects more correct as Extarches the Argæans ; well as more copious than the Anyntas the Boĉtrians ; Scythæus rest. The author of the first the Sogdions ; Nicanor the Par- book of Maccabees hath a very thians ; Philip the Hyrcanians; short and very expressive account Phrataphernes the Armenians ; of this matter in the beginning Tlepolenus the Persæ ; Peuceftes of his work. S. Alexander reign. the Bibylonians ; Archos the Pe- ed twelve years, and then died, Ife ; Archelaus Mesopota. and his servants bare rule every min. There are other accounts one in his place, and after his of this division, which agree not death, they all put crowns upon either with these or with that of themselves, fo did their fons after Arrian in the text ; but in pro them many years, and evils were ducing those of Diodorus and multiplied in the earth (8). Jullin, we have done enough to (D) It is said, that the Egypput it in the reader's power tians and Chaldeans, who were plainly to perceive the sources ordered to perform this office, of these discordances (7i. For, found the royal corps, not only

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(7) Mufin, lib. xii,

(8) Maccab, i. 7, S.


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