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centrated, and the only combatants, vice and VIRTUE-VILLAINY and INNOCENCE. The ground is measured, the time of battle chosen, and may the arm of justice prevail ! Onc thing is certain, if Vice triumphs it cannot reign long. If the Queen be divorced by an act of parliament, another parliament may come equally potent to annul that divorce. Queen Elizabeth was declared an illegitimate child, and so was her sister Mary; but when parliament opposes the sense of the nation on such an occasion, its decree is but momentary and shall be reversed.
THE EFFORT TO REVIVE THE DYING EMBERS OF MONARCHY FURTHER CONSIDERED AND ELUCIDATED.
The following is the Memorial of the French government, referred to in the article in last week's Republican relative to the proposed monarch in South America, addressed to Don Valentin Gomez: Sur,
The French government takes the liveliest interest in the situation of the government of Buenos Ayres, and is disposed to exert itself in every possible way to facilitate the means of erecting the latter into a constitutional monarchy, as that is the only forın of government which can suit their reciprocal interests, and secure to Buenos Ayres in future all the necessary securities, both with the powers of Europe and with those in its own neighbourhood.
The French government, obliged by political circumstances to act with the greatest circumspection, in order to avoid the obtacles which may present themselves, principally on the part of Eugland, in the progress of so important a uegociation, will not immediately manifest the desire of forming relations with the government of Buenos Ayres, but it will omit no opportunity of giving it convincing proofs of the interest with which it views it.
lo conformity with this profession, and to arrive at the object se much desired by the South Americans, namely, their independence: of the crown of Spain, and to found the basis of their constitution in a firm and durable manner, which may place them in a condition to treat with all powers, the French government proposes to take the
necessary steps to obtain the consent of all the European Courts to place on the throne of South Anierica the Prince of Lucca and Eturia, to whom it will give the necessary assistance both in maritime force and in expeditionary troops ; so that he will not only be able to make himself respected, but likewise may be able to make head against every power which may oppose his elevation.
That prince, eighteen years of age, is of the family of the Boure bons, and, although connected with that of Spain, can excite no fear that his principles will be contrary to those of the South Americans, whose cause he will doubtless embrace with enthusiasm. He possesses as eminent qualities as can be desired, both in respect to morals and a military education, which has been conducted with the greatest care, and holds out a flattering prospect. To consolidate and secure his
dynasty, it is proposed, that if the prince should be agreeable to the United Provinces, an alliance with a princess of Brazil should be solicited for him; -an event which would be productive of incalculable advantages to both governments, which, united by the ties of blood, would be drawn sțill closer together. Another advantage, and not the least, is, that the principal condition of this alliance would be the obliging Brazil to renounce the possession of the “ Banda-Oriental,” without requiring compensations, and the formation, between both, of an alliance offensive and defensive. As far as respects the United States, as they have nothing to fear so much as England, and as it is their interest to live in good understanding with South America, it is evideut that the obstacles which might be presented by them to the establishment of a monarchical government would be overcome without great difficulty. The French government, on the other hand, wil take charge of the diplomatic negociations for this object, and promises to graut to the Prince of Lucca all the support, assistance, and protection, which it would afford to a French prince. It prays that you would lay before your government those propositions which it believes advantageous, and which cannot be laid before them better in any other form. It believes that a powerful party desires the eslablishment of a republic in the Vuited Provinces: it will not enler into any detail on the difference of situation in which the United States of Norih America and South America are placed. You know, continues the memorialist, that it is not necessary for me to employ logic to convince you of this : you know very well that a state cannot be organized into a republic unless when its territory is limited in extent, when its manners are pure, and when its civilization is general. That which constitutes the strength of a republic, and that which secures its duration, is harmony among all classes, and a sincere desire in cach to contribute to the general good: in a word, it is necessary that it should possess virtues very rare in our age. Since, then, South America, that is to say, the country of Buenos Ayres and Chili, want for the greater part the elements necessary for the purpose -- since their extent is great-since the civilization is but in its infancy, and far from having reached its proper limits-since the passions and the
spirit of party are in continual contest, and, in a word, since anarchy has reached its acme in many parts which ought to be subject to Buenos Ayres, as is evident by the situation of the “ Banda Oriental," which, on account of its position, cannot be separated from the neighbouriug provinces, without occasioning inextinguishable wars. In this state of things, I see no other way of securing the happiness of the country, and for putting an end to the contest of parties which paralyze in a great degree the means of government, and for uniting and binding together all parties iu the same cause, then a constitutional and liberal monarchy, which guaranteeing the happiness of the people and their rights, will bring them into amicable relations with all the powers of Europe. This being the case, the country would have a government at once well constituted and recognized by other powers. Agriculture would arrive at that state when it would be a source of riches and abundance. The arts and sciences would flourish; the European population would add to that which is at present insufficieut for those immense countries which are at present a wilderness, and which to the eye of the observant traveller presents nothing but sterility, but which might be converted into the most fertile lands.
The treasures which the mines contain might likewise be explored, and be brought forward one day, not only to the incalculable advantage of those engaged in them, but likewise to contribute to the happiness of many other nations.
I think that all these consid erations are more than sufficient to de. termine your government to adopt the proposed plan; for to procure for your country a bappy condition, is to acquire a right to its gratitude and to immortality-titles the most glorious, and the only ones, which the ambition of virtuous men can require.
I know, likewise, that there are in the United Provinces a considerable party disposed towards the English, and I beg you to allow me to make some reflections and speculations on this subject. Suppose England were to place a prince of its family on the throne of South America, and by the ascendency which it has acquired in Europe, by virtue of extensive wars, which contributed to its interests, should be able to protect the country from new wars, and to give it a physical force which would secure its power, do you believe that the people would be more happy? In what consists the happiness of a people, especially such a people as that of the United Provinces, which has been labouring so long to obtain that independence which must constitute its glory and secure to it that prosperity to which it has a right to aspire, in consequence of its great sacrifices?
1st. In the establishment of the rights which nature demands.
2d. In the free exercise of the religion which it professes, and the doctrines of which it acknowledges and appreciates.
And lastly, a due respect for that unconquerable spirit distinguishing the iuhabitants of South America froni all other nations, but
which has not yet acquired that degree of civilization in wbich consists the general happiness of nations.
What can it expect under any of those heads, from England, or from a prince imbued even to bigotry with the principles of his own nation? It will have to fear the overthrow of the Catholic religion, or perhaps civil wars on account of religion fraught with calansities to the people. Moreover, the national character, formerly opposed to that of civilized America, would occasion acts contrary to social happiness, and, rendering itself odious to the natives, would irritate their self-love, driving them by vengeance, if not to destroy the nation which excited them, at least to weaken it in such a way as may be done by unbridled power.
By this picture, which unfortunately is too true, you see that far from having established on solid foundations the edifice which has been so well commenced, its foundations would be destroyed, and a people which doubtless deserves a better lot would fall again into slavery, if you did not adopt some new step.
In recapitulation, I would say, that if you consult the happiness of your country, you would not deliver it up into ihe hands of those who will enslave it, and destroy its rising prosperity purchased by so maný sacrifices. On the contrary, receiving for a sovereign a prince whoni France proposes, there will be no reason to dread the degradation of religioii. It may be confident of finding in bin the most solid supports exempt from that bigotry so huriful to all religion ; that liberal spirit, free from a licentiousness so 'contrary to the interest of every civilized 'state; all the qualities which can secure to South America complete prosperity, and, in a word, a prince, who, becoming an American, will have, and can have, no other object than to make agriculture, the arts, the sciences, and trade, to flourish, and by this means to secure the affection of his subjects,
I think, then, that in these circumstances it is necessary on the part of your government to make a speedy determination, in order not to let slip an opportunity more favourable than any that can present itself for its happiness, and the increase of its trade.
Although the foregoing article is in some measure a repetition of that we printed last- week, still our readers will no doubt feel satisfaction in re-perusing the official document itself. It now appears that it formed one of the causes of the late revolution in the government of Buenos Ayres, and will, we doubt not, prove useful in accelerating the downfall of that system, which it had vainly hoped to prop and perpetuate. The English ministers say, that they have had no official communication on the subject; and we are inclined to think that they never will have any, which they may be disposed to lay on the table of parliament. Every effort will be
made to hush the subject now it has failed, and we shall hear nothing, but from the other side of the Atlantic. To us it appears a subject that must necessarily come under discussion by the Cortes of Spain; for, although Buenos Ayres has been long separated from that country, still the negotiation has the external appearance of being underhanded, as far as Spain was concerned. Religion was to have been the stepping stone to this new monarchy; and the French government knew well, that, although the thing is laughed out of France, there might be enough of it left in South America, to encourage their attempt to work upon it. The reader will mark the attempt of the French government to cry down the interests of the English nation, on the score of a differenoe in religion, and to raise the dying embers of popish bigotry against the heretical church of England. 'Tis religion that has been the cause of the continual broils that exist among nations. It was for the worship of Jehovah that the Jews extirpated so many tribes. It was for the worship of Mahomet that the Saracens and Turks made such havoc, throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe ; and were within a nicety of making the Mahometan religion universal to the then known world, and a fortunate circumstance it would have been: it depended on a single defeat that the Saracens met with in France, after they had overran Spain, Portugal, and the best part of Italy. It is the worship of Jesus, that has since that time, kept up a continual broil and war in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Since the time of Luther, we find the European Christians find cause for war in sectarianism; although they say there is no other road to eternal happiness but through their Man God, Jesus, still they cannot help cutting each other's throats when they are journeying the right road ; and cannot be called off from this horrid atrocity, but by the appearance of a party who have been travelling in some other road. , The Popish religion will never long thrive under a republican form of government, it is an utter impossibility: they are two emanations that cannot amalgamate. And we have no fear, that after the South American governments are fully revolutionized and established, on the republican and true representative basis, that there will be much of the poison of religion remaining amongst them. The earth has groaned under the curse of monarchical governments much too long. · Civilization has struggled against it almost in vain; and nature herself, seemed almost to despair of shaking it off. But the monarchical form of government is like every other vice, it will destroy itself in