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but a slight notice of the first document, under the idea that from the distance of Petersburgh from Madrid, the Emperor had but an imperfect notion of what had really occurred in Spain, and the result of it. But now he has laid himself open, and his opinions are not private communications to any one despot, or a number of despots, but he has addressed the people of Europe in a language not to be misunderstood, and it now becomes their duty to echo back their sentiments and determination on the occasion.

The first document that appeared on the subject was not quite decisive, but a mere expression of an abstract monarchical idea; and as the second document in every respect combines the first, we shall print it at length, and let it speak for itself; for although it is in some places ambiguous, and written rather in the style of an insinuating pamphlet than a state document, it is sufficiently explicit to display the real disposition of the heart that dictated it; and that disposition is to crush by military force the spread of liberal opinion, and again to deluge the soil of Europe with human blood! The following is the document alluded to:


THE AFFAIRS OF SPAIN. The Chevalier de Zea Bermudez has presented to the Imperial Cabinet the annexed Note, relative to the events which have just taken place in the Peninsula, and of which we were already informed by the dispatches that were forwarded to us by our agents at foreign Courts.

Al. de Zea, in this document, confines himself to informing us, that the Constitution promulgated by the Cortes, in the year 1812, has been accepted by the King, and expresses a desire to know how the Empe. ror has viewed this change of the Government. If the distance which separates us from Spain, and from the States which are best enabled to weigh maturely the nature of the disasters with which she is menaced, be considered, it will be readily acknowledged, that the position of the Imperial Ministry, with regard to the Representatives of the Spanish nation, was difficult and delicate.

The Revolution of the Peninsula fixes the altention of the two homispheres; the interests which it is about to decide, are the interests of the universe; and if ever the Emperor wished that the opinion of his Allies might conduce to regulate his own, it certainly was at the moment when the Note of the Cheavalier de Zea imposed upon his Impe. rial Majesty the obligation of pronouncing upon an event which involies, perhaps, the future destinies of all civilized nations. This obligation, however, exisled; for, in these days, every subject of doubt be comes an instrument of malevolence.

The necessity of replying to M. de Zea, was therefore, evident; but, is this important conjuncture, it appeared natural, that previously to propouncing an opivion, the Emperor should consider the object wbich

the Allied Powers proposed to themselves in their relations tuith Spain ; that he should consult ihe views which they had expressed to that same Power, and that he should take as a guide for his own, the principles of European policy. This is what his Imperial Majesty was bound to do; this is what he has done.

Since the year 1812, more than one Diplomatic Document attests the generous solicitude which the several Courts of Europe have constantly manifested in behalf of Spain. They applanded the noble perseverance with which her intrepid people resisted a foreigo soke. They rendered homage to their wisdom when they rallied round a constitutional throne, the dearest interests to their country ;- the interests of ber indepen. dence. Finally, from the period when Provideuce restored Ferdinand VII. to his people, they never failed to acknowledge that solid institutions that can alone secure on its basis, the ancient Spanish Monarchy.

The allied Sovereigos did more. In the course of long conferences, relative to the differences with Rio de la Plata, and to the pacification of the Colonies, they let it be sufficiently understood that these institulions would cease to be a means of peace and happiness, if, instead of being granted by kindness, as a voluntary concession, they should be adopted by weakness, as a last resource of salvation.

Let us investigate, on the other hand, the great transaction which established the European Alliance,

What is the object of the eogagements that were renewed on the (318) 15th of November, 1818 ?

l'he Allied Monarchs had just then obliteraled the last traces of the revolution in France ; but that revolution seemned ready to produce new calamities.

The obligation of the monarchs was, therefore, and their design was, to prevent the same storia bursting from the same horizon a third time to desolate Europe.

Nevertheless, as if the alarms which were then excited by the state of France, and which it still excites, were not sufficient as il governments and nations entertained but slight doubts with respect to its future condition, it was necessary that the genius of evil should select a new theatre, and that Spain, in her turn, should be offered up as a fearful sacrifice. Revolution has therefore changed its ground, but the duties of movarchs cannot have changed their nature, and the power of the insurrection is neitber less formidable, por less dangerous, than it would have been in France.

In unison, therefore, with his allies, his Majesty cannot but desire to sce gravted to the Peniusola, as to its trans-marine provinces, a government wbich he considers as the only one that can get justify some hopo in this age of calamities. But in virtue of his engagements of the (30) 15th of November, 1818, his Majesty is bound to mark, with the most forcible reprobation, the revolutionary measures set in action to give new institutidos to Spain. Such is the two-fold idea which is found developed in the next answer, which the Cabinet of Russia has made to the Chevalier de Zea, by order of his Imperial Majesty.* The Empe. ror does not doubt, that his angust Allies will prove its contents, and perhaps they have already addressed similar sentiments to the Court of Madrid. The same wishes may, in fact, have inspired the same lan

• This refers to the “Note of the Imperial Russian Ministry to the resident Spanish Minister," which appeared on the 31st ult.


guage ; and convinced, like his Majestr, that crimé must alwaye yield pernicious fruit, they have, doubtless, deplored, as he has, the outrage which has recently tarnished the annals of Spain. We repeat it-this outrage is deplorable. It is deplorable for the Peninsula ; it is deplorable for Europe ; and the Spanish nation now owes the example of an ex. piatory deed to the people of the two hemispherer. Till this be done, the unhappy object of their disquietude can only make them fear the contagion of their calamities. Nevertheless, amidst all these elements of disaster, and when so many motives combine to afflict the real friends of the welfare of the nations, may a better future still be looked for? Is there any wise and redeeming measure, whose effect may be to reconcile Spain with herself, as well as with the other powers of Europe ?

We dlare not affirm it; for experience has taught us to consider almost always as an allusion, the hope of a happy event.-But, if we might trust the calculations which personal interest would seem bound to indicate; if it were permitted to presume that the Cortes would consult the interest of their own preservation, it might be believed that they would hasten to extirpate, by a solemn measure, all that is culpable in the cir. cumstances which accompanied the change of the administration in Spain. The interests of the Cortes are here identified with the interests of Europe. The misled soldiery who prolected, may to-morrow assail them; and their first duty towards their monarch, towards their country, and themselves, seems to be to prove that they will never consent to legalize insurrection. These are hopes which would got appear to be without some foundation. The emperor, however, is far from cherishing them; and if he admitted the possibility of a result so useful, he would make it depend upon the unanimity, which might manifest itself in the opinion of the principal powers of Europe, as lo the act by which the representatives of the Spanish people ought to sig. nalise the opening of their deliberations. This unanimity, always 10 powerful when it takes the character of an irrevocable deed, will per haps carry conviction to the minds of the most eminent members of his Catholic Majesly; and the Allied Courts would seem to have an easy means of impressing upon their language such an imposing uniformity.

Their ministers in France have hitherto treated, in their name, with a Plenipotentiary of the Court of Madrid. Can they not uow present to him, in comnion, observations, the summary of which follows, and which would recal to the Spanish Government the conduct, as well as the political principles of the Allied Monarchs ?

"The monarchs," would say the five ministers, "have never ceased to entertain wishes for the prosperity of Spain. They will always en. tertain then. They have desired, that, in Europe, as in America, institutions conformable to the progress of civilization, and to the wants of the age, might procure to all Spaniards long years of peace and happiness. They desire the same at this inoment. They have wished that all these institutions should become a real blessing, hy the legal mapper io which they slould be introduced. They now wish the same.

“ This last consideration will, convey to the ministers of bis Catholic Majesty with what sentiments of affliction and grief ihey have learned the events of the 8th of March, and those which preceded it. Accor, ding to their opinion, the salvation of Spain, as well as the welfare of Furope, will require that this crime should be disavowed, this stain effaced, this bad example estirminated. The honour of such a repa. ration appears to depend upon the Corter. Let them deplore, and for

sibly reprobate, the meaus employed lo establish a new mode of Governmenit in their country, and in consolidating an administration wisely constitutional, let then adopt the most rigorous laws agaiost sedition and revolt.

." Then, and only then, the Allied Cabinets will be able to maintain friendly and amicable relations with Spain.”

The observations, arged in common by the representatives of the five Courts, would, from thenceforth, demonstrate to the Spanish ministry the conduct which the allied goverumeots would observe, in case the consequences of the 8th of March should perpetuate in Spain, trouble and anarchy. If these salutary councils be listened to: it the Corles offer to their King, in the name of the nation, a pledge of obedience ; if they succeed in establishing, upon durable bases, the tranquillity of Spain, and the peace of Southero America, the Revolution will have been defeated, at the very moment when it thought to obtain a triumph.

If, on the contrary, alarms, perhaps too reasonable, be realised, at least the five courts will have discharged a sacred duly : at least a new occurrence will have developed the principles, indicated the object, and displayed the scope, of the European alliaoce.

The Emperor awaits the answer of the Courls of Vienna, London, Berlin, and Paris, to the communications which his ministers have addressed to him on this subject. He inforing them, that the present Memorial is the instruction which he has caused to be dispatched to all bis Ministers on the subject of the affairs of Spain.

After recapitulating what the Allied Sovereigns had done in the behalf of Spain in assisting to expel the French from that country, the Emperor seems to tax the Spanish nation with ingratitude, but be it remembered, and it was then the opinion of all the world, that if Spain had not displayed the resolution to repel the aggressions and ambition of Buonaparte, and set the example of its success, the Russian Autocrat would have knelt before him in 1812, and suffered Russia to become a province of France, as his neighbour of Prussia had repeatedly done before. It does not therefore become the Emperor of Russia to assume so high a tone, and we have felt surprise in noticing the deference and weight which seems to be universally attributed to him. He displayed nothing but cowardice and imbecility before Buonaparte, and bad not the climate of his territory been more determined than himself, he never would have made any figure in Europe.

The Emperor calls Revolution the genius of evil; strange infatuation this ! It is the reverse, and ever combats and opposes the genius of evil. It is to arrest the progress of the genius of evil, that revolutions become necessary: and if the genius of evil did not triumph, revolution never could never would take place in any government. Again he says, although revolution has changed its ground, tħe duties of monärche cannot have changed their nature; we know it

despot, and that the duties and dispositions of monarchs never change. It is the only thing in nature that is stable. But it is an excrescence, a disease, and must be cured.

His Imperial Majesty has now convinced us of what we knew before, we have now his explanation of the purposes of the holy alliance, namely, that his Majesty is bound by virtue of his engagements in November, 1818, to mark with the most forcible reprobation, the revolutionary measures set in action to give nero institutions to Spain. Yes! Yes! this is just what was apprehended from the holy alliance, although, its articles were secret.

A great part of this document is a tissue of nonsense and contemptible falsehood, such as, that the revolution has tarnished the annals of Spainthat it is deplorable for Spain as well as Europe. We need not say a word upon this subject--look at Spain and judge from the past and present. The Emperor's greatest fear seems to be,' that this disposition will spread among the military of other countries: we promise him that it will, although, it is not likely to reach Russia for some time, yet the more the Russian soldier is accustomed to the climate of the South of Europe, the sooner will he imbibe the general spirit of freedom. We feel astonished at the sudden and general change running through the British army, 'tis not only foot guards, but cavalry regiments and militia that are beginning to avow their disaffection to the present system of misrule and misery Military discipline now avails nothing, and we find that a party of the 10th light dragoons, now lying at Ipswich, were sent to the guard-house for drinking the Queen's health, and immediately rescued by a party of their comrades. This looks well. Soldiers are beginning to ruminate on their condition, and that of their friends, and will no longer be made instruments of wanton destruction. It is singular, that the despot of Russia should be calling on the Spanish Cortes to punish the troops under the command of Quiroga, for putting thera into authority, just at the moment that they are deliberating on the best means of giving them a reward due to their virtues and services ! I would ask no further proof of the imbecility of the Emperor of Russia than this very sentence. Such a man would better become the tailor's shopboard, than to sway the interest of so many millions of men.

To us it appears, that every effort is making to wage a new war with such states as may avow the determination to change their condition, and a few months will again make Europe &

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