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cloud-belts constantly visible favour of human hair examined, he obtained the belief that they are thrown up a reddish, a yellow, and a black pigfrom enormous depths. And when ment ; and he has shown the present the mathematical evidence, drawn writer some really artistic drawings from an examination of the observed on cardboard painted with these movements of the moons of Jupiter, is colour-extracts of the hair of man. considered, it is certain that the In bright red hair the red concentral part of the planet must be stituent was found alone ; while dark very much denser than the outer hair contains a certain proportion of part. It may thus be regarded as the black colouring matter. Golden highly probable that this huge planet hair has less red and more yellow presents conditions in his envelope, pigment; while (sandy' hair is a vast as it must be, which will make product of the red and black with a even the remarkable phenomena large proportion of the yellow ; in referred to above, possible.
dark brown hair the black principle
is more abundant ; in black hair Mr. H, C. Sorby has been making scarcely anything remains but the careful investigations into the char- black pigment. But in some curious acter of the colouring matter of instances of Negro hair, the red pighuman hair. He finds that the hair ment was so abundant as to be equa) itself is a colourless, horny substance, in aniount to the quantity present in the tint in different specimens being the bright red hair of Europeans ; so due to three or, at most, four distinct that had the supply of black pigment pigmentary bodies.
The pigments fallen off from any cause, the Negro's protected by the horny sheath are head would have been covered with insoluble in water, alcohol or ordinary hair as red as that of a typical Celt. solvents. From the different kinds
AUTHORSHIP OF HYMN 935. In this Magazine for February last, ' An readers could furnish me with inforOld Methodist’ suggests the probability mation respecting this Mr. J. Hinchliffe ; that the author may have been . Perronet.' and, in response, received a letter from The Rev. S. W. Christophers, in his work a lady in Shields, who said that Mr. on The New Methodist Hymn-Book and Joseph Hinchliffe was her mother's its Writers, attributes the hymn to Hugh uncle, and she remembered her mother Bourne ; so also does Mr. G. J. Stevenson, often singing the hymn and saying that in his Notes on the New Hymn-Book in her uncle composed it. From this letter The Methodist Recorder. Seeing these and another afterwards received I learnt statements, I wrote to the Recorder, stating that Mr. Joseph Hinchliffe was a silverthat I had an old 12mo. twenty-four page smith and cutler in Sheffield, a member of Tract entitled Farourite Hymns,Odes and the Methodist Society, and, together with Anthems; as sung at the Methodist John Wilde, assisted in conducting the Chapels in the Sheffield, Rotherham, Don. singing in Norfolk Street Chapel. His caster and Nottingham Circuits. The fifth health being delicate, and finding the air edition, improved. By J, Wilde. 1797. at Dumfries to agree with him, he removed Price Twopence. Hymn 25 in this
Tract is, his business thither. Crowds were attracted The Wheat and Tares,' by Mr. J. Hinch- to the services in the Methodist chapel liffe :“This is the field, the world below, etc.' there by the singing of his numerous
In my note to the Recorder I said family. He died, August 12th, 1807, aged that I should be glad if any of its forty-seven.
RICHARD HARLAND.* * We have to thank Mr. G. J. Stevenson, M.A., for a subsequent communication to . the same effect as that of Mr. Harland.
LINES SUGGESTED BY A PICTURE OF THE SAVIOUR. WE hail the art which paints the flowers, In virtues which are not of earth, Reminding us of summer hours
Bat of mystic, heavenly birth,
Wrought by the hand Divine.
In hope and love and joy and peace, Survive the wrecks of time.
An ever-growing holiness ;
No shade of earthly strife :
Engraved upon my life.
Let patience and humility
And meekness my adorning be ;
These are the robes of price : But, how shall limner's skill portray No gaudy symbol would I wear, That form, where dwelt in mystery
My daily toil and daily care
I would ascend the hill of scorn
And share the burden Thon hast borne,
In grief and shame for me : Too impotent is human gaze
Not halting in life's troubled day, To view the sun's directer rays,
To Calvary's shades I press my way The vision all too bright;
To weep and die like Thee.
Thine image in me thus be shown : Bending to mortal sight.
The copy may the Pattern own,
Pronounce the welcome word : So, I would Jesu's likeness see,
From mists and clouds of time set free, In a reflected purity :
More perfect shall the likeness beHis image best doth shine
The servant as his Lord.
THE WESLEYAN CHAPEL FUND REPORT, 1878. THE Chapel Fund has just completed to strange to Wesleyan-Methodism. By another decade. For sixty years it bas erections and enlargements effected during now held on its way, waxing stronger and the year, accommodation has been prostronger, and taking firmer hold on the vided for more than thirty-eight thousand sympathies of the Connexion.
additional hearers. The building of fourA glance at the Report will convince teen new'schools has been authorized. the reader that this year has witnessed no It is gratifying to find that there is an diminution in the energy of the Com- increase in the total receipts of the Fund. mittee or in the effectiveness of their In the amount obtained by annual private operations. Though the number and subscriptions we note a slight decrease, but character of the new schemes inaugurated this deficiency is more than compensated do not quite equal those of one or two by the liberal gifts of influential laymen. former and exceptionally prosperous years,' In these are included three handsome yet much solid and sorely-needed work has Ministers' houses and the valuable Newton been accomplished. Of this, the fact that Memorial Schools, established in the the Fund has made a larger outlay than Sheffield (Thorncliffe) Circuit. in any previous year is—when its excel- Though the prevalent commercial delent administration is borne in mind- pression has not told markedly on the sufficient guarantee. The Committee has income of the Fund, its influence is clearly sanctioned the building of one hundred traceable. Fewer demands have been made and twenty-three chapels, of which sixty. for aid in the erection of new chapels : seven have been placed in localities hither- enterprise has been crippled for lack of
power to supplement by private subscrip- will, it is hoped, attract many who passed tions the grants of the Committee. On by the unpretending edifice it has superthe other hand, applications for loans have seded. Similar improvements have been been received from Circuits which, in effected at Ilfracombe, Filey, Cowes and more prosperous times, would have kept Guernsey themselves free from debt. In ninety The crowning achievement of the year cases we find that means are wanting to is, unquestionably, the completion of Oxfulfil the conditions on which help, is ford Chapel. In the last few years Methgranted. There is great cause to fear that odism has become keenly alive to the unless special effort be made to meet pres- desirability of showing a bold front in our ent necessity these Trusts will soon be in- University towns. Above all, it was felt volved in complicated difficulties.
incumbent that our interests should be In pleasing contrast with these finan. well represented in the city which may be cial embarrassments are the zeal and per- regarded as the cradle of our Church. The severance with which many Societies have work inaugurated by labourers since called carried out schemes of aggression and to their reward has been brought to a progress. New chapels at Southport, successful issue by the erection of a holy Sheffield and Rochdale witness to the and beautiful house not unworthy to take growing influence of Methodism in our rank amongst the noble buildings of which Northern towns. The erection of the Oxford is justly proud. handsome chapel at Bury St. Edmund's is While the Committee thank God and an encouraging proof that Methodists are take courage on a review of the past year, looking up in the Eastern counties. Many they are fully conscious that much remains applications have been made for aid in to be done if we would make adequate extending Methodist influence in North provision for the spiritual needs of our and South Wales. Our friends in water- population. We wish them God speed ing -places have been notably active. in their noble work, which, with the Divine Southsea has been moved to lengthen the blessing, 'cannot fail to produce results cords and strengthen the stakes of its grow- which will not only be beneficial and ing Society. A handsome Gothic building permanent, but ever multiplying.'
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY IN SOUTHERN FRANCE : *
BY GUSTAVE MASSON, B.A. Ir all geographical works were written in grouped with consummate artistic skill. the same manner as the two volumes we No one who takes up the geographical are about to review ; if they were as full of production of M, Lenthéric will regret the ingenious remarks ; of interesting descrip- time he has bestowed upon it, tions and of exhaustive notes, we should Let us begin with the Villes Mortes du be the last to accuse geography of being Golfe do Lyon. These dead cities are five the dull, dry, lifeless science which some in number : Elne, Rurcino, Maguelone, sourcritics deem it to be. M. Lenthéricstyles Aigues-Mortes, les Saintes-Maries, to which himself an engineer, and some of the re- we must add three others: Agde, Narbonne marks he offers on subjects connected with and Arles, in a state of ever-increasing decay. drainage, embankments, etc., show clearly M. Lenthéric invites us to visit these difthat he has mastered all the details of his ferent localities ; but, in the first place, he difficult profession; he might, however, introduces considerations of a geological have put on the title-page of his work the kind, describing the variations which have designation historian ; for the social, do- occurred in the Mediterranean sea-board, mestic and political life of the various and proving that science can ascertain a tribes which once inhabited the shores of chronological series of shores, if we may the Mediterranean is sketched by him with so say, and that the determination of the an amount of learning perfectly wonder- encroachments made by the sea is of the ful; and, finally, all the facts he places utmost importance in settling certain hisbefore us, all the particulars contained in torical problems. these two volumes, are arranged and The formation of the deltas is another
Les Villes Mortes du Golfe de Lyon. La Grèce et l'Orient en Prorence. Par Charles Lenthéric. Two vols., 8vo, with twenty-two Maps and Plans. Paris : Plon.
point which deserves the attention of stu- reigned at Agde and at Saint-Gilles; and dents, and on which M. Lenthéric gives us Provence was to become a French depen. the most curious particulars. Studying in dency only three centuries later. The only a kind of parallel manner the deltas of the available territory was the marshy district Rhone and of the Nile, he shows their won- of Aigues-Mortes, held in possession by derful similarity : the district of the lower the monks of Psalmodi, whose abbey, situRhone seems evidently to have passed ated on the summit of a hillock, in the through the same geological phases as midst of the lagoons, was one of the richest that of the Nile ; the transformations have establishments of the kind at that time. been exactly identical in both cases, and it is Saint Louis entered upon a negotiation a singular coincidence that certain writers with the religious of Psalmodi, and in have ascribed to the Rhone, as well as to exchange for certain Crown lands situated the Nile, seven mouths or outlets : both near Sommières, he obtained from them the rivers, now, have only two.
cession of Aigues-Mortes, together with all After thus introducing his book by the surrounding tract of territory as far scientific remarks of a general nature, our as the coast. author describes the Gulf of Lyons, and, to We have quoted the above passage to begin with, asks, Whence comes the name show how M. Lenthéric illustrates importGolfe de Lyon ? Are we to suppose that a ant historical episodes, in the course of his portion of the shore of Languedoc and journey along the Mediterranean shore. He Provence has been designated after a city follows throughout their vicissitudes the more than three hun ed kilometres dis- destinies of Aigues-Mortes, and with the astant from the sea ? No; M. Lenthéric sistance of some excellent maps and plans, observes that very few Latin texts give us he makes us share the deep interest he feels the corresponding Sinus Lugdunensis ; in in a town which, after a brief space of most cases we have Sinus Gallicus, or even prosperity, is now almost as much a city of Sinus Leonis; and if we consider that the the dead as Herculanum or Carthage. majority of modern French maps have the The last chapter, treating of engineering appellation Golfe du Lion, we are led to questions, deserves serious notice from adopt the view of the old chronicler, another point of view ; our author endGuillaume de Nangis, who said : The Sea merates the best ways of restoring to the of the Lion, therefore so called, because it is districts he has been examining, not always savage, restless and cruel.'
merely material prosperity, but health and Time will not allow of our describing in the elementary conditions of existence. detail the cities and other points of interest The planting of trees carried out on & which are described in the second part of large scale, the careful regulation of allu. the volume on The Dead Cities': we say vial deposits and the discontinuance of points of interest, for M. Lenthéric does embankments are amongst the principal not merely stop at the centres of popala- remedies he urges : the first would, by tion, enumerated at the beginning of this altering atmospheric conditions, put an review ; he does not forget the rivers, the end to the fevers and agues which decimate lakes, the bays, but gives us an account of the population ; the second would help in their various transformations. The chapter the same direction, besides preserving for on Aigues-Mortes is one of the most in- the coasting trade and navigation parteresting in the volume, bearing, as it does, poses harbours which might add to the on the biography of Saint Louis, and being commercial prosperity of Southern France. connected with the history of the Crusades. Finally, although a system of embankments As soon as the French king had pledged is often useful, especially when large centres himself to take the cross (1244), his first of population are to be protected ; such as care was to secure on the coast of the Paris, London, Rouen, etc. ; yet in most Mediterranean a tract of land and a har- cases they are a cause of ruin, for the rise bour sufficient for the concentration of the of a river will frequently, by destroying troops which were to form the expedition. the barriers constructed at a great expense; The difficulty, says M. Lenthéric, was a carry along with it the most frightful serions one : Louis IX. had only a right of devastation ; whereas, if the river had been suzerainty over the southern parts of allowed free action, it would have, like the France, and he did not possess as his own Ganges and the Nile, fertilized the surany of the cities in Provence or in Langue- rounding land. doc. The harbour of Narbonne was ren- If we were asked to name the two prindered useless by accumulation of sand, cipal French cities on the Mediterranean besides which it belonged to the Viscounts shore, no one would be astonished at our of the city. The Port-Sarrazin, at Mague. pointing out Arles and Marseilles : Arles, lone had its Bishop as a ruler ; the graus, the city of the past, the Rome of Gaul, now or baye, of Montpellier, were owned by the completely shorn of its greatness, forsaken Kings of Aragon ; the Counts of Toulouse by those who have the greatest interest in its prosperity, a deserted harbour, an aggre- Arlesians spend hours and days exercising gate of empty mansions, a barren country the taste for flânerie and gossip, which left as a prey to fever and malaria ; Mar- was so characteristic of their ancestors. seilles, the centre of commerce, of political It is impossible within the limits of a short activity, and of intellectual vigour : the notice to describe in detail all the monupoint of contact where the East and the ments of Greek and Roman architecture West, Europe and Asia, meet for the dis- still extant at Arles : the reader will find, cussion of trading problems and the carry- however, a sufficient account of the prining on of venturesome speculations. Mar- cipal ones ; and an excellent map engraved seilles and Arles form the subject of M. on purpose for this work gives, from the Lenthéric's second volume, a volume fully most trustworthy authorities, the topoas interesting as the first, and addressing graphy of the classical Arelate. itself equally to the antiquarian and the If the restitution of the locality such as engineer, the scholar and the geologist. it was at the time of Constantine is a relaOur author begins by endeavouring to tively easy matter in the case of Arles, tne ascertain the various ethnic influences same process applied to Marseilles is, on which have successively contributed to the the contrary, beset with the most serious civilization of the Mediterranean region : difficulties. To quote M. Lenthéric : Iberi and Ligures, Phænicians, Greeks and Cities where development has been Romans appear as the colonists of Southern gradual and of an average kind, those esFrance, and the foundation of the city of pecially which have decayed and perished Arles can be safely ascribed to the Celtic by slow stages, present almost at the tribes, who selected that locality both as a surface of the ground a rich harvest of castellum where they could successfully valuable remains. The soil on which resist an attack from without, and as an Marseilles stands cannot be regarded even emporium from whence the small craft used as a heap of ruins ; the ruins have been in those days for commercial purposes carried away or used for building purposes ; could sail up the Rhone and penetrate into and it is absolutely necessary to excavate the interior of the country : the Celtic at a considerable depth if we wish to find name Ar-laith ("a damp place ') bears wit- here and there a doubtful vestige of classiness to the antiquity of Arles, and is much cal civilization.' The history of Marmore probable than the Greek and Latin seilles is really that of its harbour ; but ones suggested by certain critics. In con- where shall we find the elements of a nection with this part of the subject, M. trustworthy and really authentic account Lentbéric has given us a number of curious of the Phocæan colony? The narratives details on the oppida of Gaul, the trades- of the earliest writers are so lamentably unions, or guilds, as they existed in antiq- made up of fact and fiction blended, that it uity, etc., etc.
is impossible to determine what is strictly Arles, under the Romans, was a town historical as compared with the merely where all the refinements of civilization legendary past ; and the annalists, living occupied an important place : baths, many centuries subsequently to the events theatres, amphitheatres, public gardens, which they describe, seem to have delighted libraries, museums. Our author, in in casting around them a kind of poetical stating and explaining that fact, takes the and mysterious garb. opportunity of denouncing the madness for M. Lenthéric devotes a considerable pleasures of every kind, the decay of space to the Phænician period of Marseilles. patriotism, the absence of domestic life From the evidence of Thucydides, Paus. which was the prominent feature of heathen anias and other old writers, it is quite clear society during the last period of the empire. that as early as the sixth century, B.C., the
Men forget everything so long as they are present capital of the department of Bouches amused,' said Cassiodorus ; ‘and it is easier du Rhône occupied an important position as to lead them by pleasures than by the force a commercial centre. To say nothing of the or reason.' Arles reproduced, on a limited coins and medals struck at Tyre and at Carscale, the habits and usages of the metro- thage, which have been dug upin the whole polis of the world ; it had its arenæ, and extent of Southern Gaul, and at Marseilles its thermal establishments. There is not itself, the works of excavation carried on one of its streets which does not preserve from time to time have brought to light on some trace of Roman influence, and M. the site of the old Acropolis
no fewer than Lenthéric is not guilty of exaggeration forty-five small stone edifices (édicules, when he describes Arles as an open-air says M. Lenthéric) of an archaic style museum. The forum still exists after much anterior to the Greek epoch. These fifteen centuries of revolution. Occupying edifices are monolithic and portative the centre of the city, it has retained to chapels or shrines, offering the most strik. a certain extent its original destination ; ing and significant similarity to those refor there, says our author, the modern cently discovered in Africa on the site of