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revenge or by regard for public justice. That they were not inspired by private revenge we may infer not only from the fact that these Jews had received the Old Testament teaching which expressly forbade it, but that, in the case of David at least, his whole life showed him superior to such a spirit. Look at his treatment of Saul when he had him in his power twice-once at Engedi, and again in the hill of Hachilah—and read his infinitely tender lamentation over his death. It has been well said by Dr. Hibbard : ‘His characteristic habit and temper was exhibited in his reply to Abishai as he withheld him from killing Saul: “And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not.... David said furthermore, As the Lord liveth, the Lord shall smite him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall descend into battle, and perish."' Private revenge and public justice may contemplate the same issue—the ruin and death of an individual. But whilst the former is strictly forbidden, the latter is unquestionably demanded in Scripture.

Punishment for wrong-doing is right. The maintenance of law is right. When a man is killed, if need be, in maintenance of public law, we justify the act.

When a man, for crime and in due course of law, is imprisoned, or whipped, or executed, the common conscience of the country approves.

We habitually say we hope the thief, the ruffian, the murderer will be caught and punished. This, it is felt, ought to be done. Not to do it is wrong. Officers are appointed to do this. Policemen have to find and arrest the criminal. Judges and juries have to try him. Sheriffs have to carry out the sentence of the court. Prison officials and executioners have, as we say, to do their duty'--that duty involving sometimes hanging. The offices that these men discharge are proper and honourable. No man in England is more honoured than an upright judge. All the other officers that maintain justice are similarly honourable. They have a duty to discharge. It is as much the duty of the policeman to seize the criminal for punishment as it is the duty of the Minister to preach the Gospel, and the one has as real right to pray that he may be successful in his calling as the other. The Minister has no more right to pray for success in his ministry, or the merchant in his trade, than the policeman, the magistrate, the judge, the Sovereign that the criminal may be caught, tried, imprisoned and, if a murderer, executed. So a soldier, a sailor of the Royal Navy, fighting in a just cause, has a right to pray for success in his calling—for victory; though that involve the overthrow, the death, the destruction of the enemies of his nation. There is no feeling of private revenge in all this. The juryman is conscious of this, so is the judge, so are all the other officers of justice. If they feel a desire to punish wrong, it is public wrong.

And not only may the recognized officers of public law attempt to detect crime, and pray that it may be discovered and punished, but we may all do

When we pray for the maintenance of right in the world, necessarily praying for the overthrow of wrong, and of persistent wrongdoers, too. more, we habitually rejoice when it takes place. To do so is religious and Christian.

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Now David, the chief author of the Minatory Psalms, was the administrator of the law and the governor of the State. The other Psalmists were at least respectable and honest citizens, and they pray in Eastern poetry and with Eastern diffuseness and concreteness of expression, that crime may be put down and criminals punished.

Their language, though repugnant to modern taste, often means no more, in fact and effect, than refined modern language on such subjects. It must be remembered that in the New Testament, notwithstanding that it reveals the gentler side of God's dispensations, there is to be found language of great similarity to that of the severest utterances of the Psalmists; and, further, it cannot be disproved that all the imprecations here found were prayers, not of private revenge, but for public justice.

Now such thoughts will go far to relieve our minds of difficulty as to the inspiration of the Minatory Psalms. And if some difficulties should still remain, they are only such as lie also against our reception of other manifest revelations of Scripture-only such as lie against our recognition of God's government of the world in spite of the existence of moral and physical eril-only such as lie against our believing as inspired such portions of the Book as represent God commanding the wholesale destruction of Amalekites and Canaanites. And these difficulties, however great, will not justify our denying the inspiration of the Minatory Psalms, since Christ has expressly declared them, as well as every other portion of the Old Testament, to be inspired.

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WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D.

(Concluded from page 267.) At his first coming to Leeds Dr. performed I am therefore myself unHook set himself to secure a more

dertaking full Carate's daty. . . . My careful performance of the offices of

system is not to care for the trouble of the

Clergy, but to promote the convenience the Church. Writing to his sister, of the public, and to enamour them of he says : 'They heard nothing of me our services by having them devoutly and the first week. I first set my study in

solemnly performed. In this good work I order, and next the parish church

shall look forward to your kind and cor

dial co-operation. If you and I show that must be put in order; so to show how we attach importance to the solemn perall things shall and must be done, I formance of even the slightest duty conam taking all the full Curate's duty.

nected with our dear Master's service ; I have this day offered the prayers

that we consider even the office of a door

keeper in His house an office of honour; three times, besides burying, bap- that, convinced of His presence, we are as tizing and churching, The stated devout in offering the prayers when only services in this church are prayers

two or three are present, as when there three times a day.' (Vol. i., p. 401.)

are two or three hundred, we shall find

His blessing attend us, and we shall be the A day or two afterwards he writes

means of converting others.' (Vol. i., p. 402.) to a newly-appointed clerical helper:

When these things were set in order My business now is to get the minis

he began a course of constant preachterial work at the parish charch properly ing, with public catechising every Sunday afternoon in the parish church occasional calls of duty were met we after the second lesson ; preaching may refer to two letters giving an regularly four times a week, and in account of the visitation of cholera Lent every day of the week ; with in September, 1819. The church, he special services in Advent also. He, says, was quite filled on the Fast Day, also, at a later period, met two classes and while four thousand persons all every week for instruction in Scrip- bebaved devoutly, he prayed that he ture and the Liturgy ; and organized might be able to speak home to the District Committees of the Christian hearts of some who would attend then, Knowledge Society all over the parish, if not at other times. Five hundred in order that all might be supplied communicated. He adds : with Bibles, Prayer-Books and Tracts.

'I have the care of the two cholera As churches and Clergy were multi- hospitals, where I have thirteen very bad plied, the cares of the Vicar neces- cases to attend. I feel like a soldier on the sarily increased, and his days being

field of battle, not knowing for whom the occupied with religious services and

shots are intended. I have taken the chief

post of danger, because I am the chief parochial business, his studies were

Clergyman of the parish, and also to punpostponed till night, and often car- ish myself for my cowardice, for I confess ried far on in the night. Then the that as regards the natural man I am a church schools had to be reorganized

little frightened ; but I have full trust in

God. I feel the post of danger to be the and extended ; various other organi- post of honour. I am sure He will take me, zations assisted and guided, and an or spare me, as it seemeth best, and that immense correspondence to be carried if He takes me He will provide for my

children and my wife. Thank you mach on. From a diary which he began to

for your prayers.' (Vol. ii., p. 261.) keep in 1849, it appears that his No occasional work, however preasletters at that time ranged from ten ing, was suffered to interfere with to thirty a day, some of them being his stated parish work, though, of very voluminous and treating of course, it was easier for him to do the most important topics. His daily latter by deputy than the former, and calls from persons on general busi- a large staff of Curates became a neness at a time when he was preach- cessity, when in addition to preaching, ing every evening are thus entered

catechising, lecturing, visiting and in one of his diaries :

corresponding, he undertook much ' (1) Mr. Long, to consult about appoint- literary work. During his residence ing a parish clerk. (2) Mr. -, to con- in Leeds he published much; not sult about his love affairs. (3) Mrs. – content with single sermons and pamto consult about the propriety of a separa- phlets, called forth by various occation of her niece from her husband, who is treating her ill. (4) Dr. B., to obtain

sions, he projected a magazine and a letter of introduction. (5) Mr. W., to another periodical, and actually comconsult about his brother's marriage. (6) piled a Church Dictionary and a DicMr. -, to consultabout a dispute between tionary of Ecclesiastical Biography, him and Mr. (7) Mr. Long again. (8) Mr. Morris, to administer the oath pre

the latter in five or six volumes, and paratory to his license. (9) Mr. Teale, both requiring much research. He about my commission in London on the also edited a large number of devodivision of parishes. (10) Mr. W. Gott, tional tracts and books, as if deterto consult about sending his son to Oxford. (11) And here comes a note from the

mined to seize every avenue through Mayor, and I am to decide whether I am which knowledge could enter the to engage in a new educational agitation. mind, and occupy it for the Church. my poor brain, how bewildered it is!'

In such ceaseless labours his twentyii., p. 225.)

two years at Leeds passed away, and the a specimen of the way in which results of them are thus summarized

:

by his biographer: He found Leeds they owed very much indeed to Dr. Hook a stronghold of Dissent, he left it a as a citizen of that town for the long stronghold of the Church; he found

period of twenty-two years. There had

been no man of larger public spirit ; no it one parish, he left it many parishes; man who more eagerly and earnestly he found it with fifteen churches, he patronized all institutions of a public left it with thirty-six; he found it with

nature for the advancement of science, three schools, he left it with thirty;

literature and art; no man who had dishe found it with six parsonage-houses,

played more courtesy and kindness to all

his fellow-townsmen, of whatever opinion he left it with twenty-nine.' (Vol. ii., or whatever sect ; no man who had more p. 392.)

admirably discharged his duties to the poor, No wonder, then, that Bishop

the distressed and the afflicted.' (Vol. ii.,

p. 387.) Lonsdale should say to him: The

Mr. Baines's prediction was right, picture of your work is, I fully be

as the event shows.

There was no lieve, without a parallel, or anything like a parallel, in the history of our

ease or rest in the last years of his

life. As soon as he was well settled Church'; or that, on his leaving,

in his new seat he began what was, testimonials flowed in upon him like

for a man of more than sixty years of a spring-tide. The most valuable

an immense undertaking, namely, of these was originated at a public

to write the lives of the Archbishops meeting held in the Town-hall, and

of Canterbury from Augustine to attended by persons of all shades of

Howley. His literary tastes and opinion, political and religious, some

longings now had full scope; for the of whom had been among his vehe

subject was congenial; and he was ment opponents in earlier days. The biographer rightly judges that the

not interrupted by daily work such

as had to be done at Leeds. Before testimony borne on that occasion by leaving that town he had returned to Mr. Edward Baines was most re

his old practice of early rising, and markable.' We deem it worthy to be extracted because many of our

now, not unnaturally, rose earlier readers know the speaker, not only

than ever, being sometimes at work

at half-past three in summer. He as a prominent and decided Nonconformist , but as a religious man who

lived to publish eleven stout octavo

volumes. Of their merits we say would not stoop to flattery:

nothing, our only object being to “He confessed,' said Mr. Baines, 'that illustrate his amazing diligence. when Dr. Hook first came among them, he Even this did not content him ; for bad been inclined to look at him from an

he contemplated another series of antagonistic point of view, but he was now proad and delighted to remember him as

Lives of the Archbishops of York, and his friend. His honourable friend Mr. again another—Lives of the ArchBeecroft had drawn an admirable portrait bishops of Armagh. And to raise our of Dr. Hook, and there was only one point wonder to the full, we find him year upon which he felt inclined to differ irom him. Mr. Beecroft had said that Dr. Hook after year listening to the entreaties of could now enjoy the ease and rest to which friends, and undertaking occasional he was entitled by so many years of labour. services at a distance. A specimen or But he believed these were the last things Dr. Hook would enjoy on this side the

two of these exercises conclude

may grave. Such was his marvellous energy,

our sketch of this busy life : such the wonderful activity of his mind, 'I decline attending public-meetings in such his desire and determination always general. But Sir John Coleridge asks me to be doing, and to be doing good, that he to speak at Exeter, and the Archbishop of did not think he could enjoy that ease York at York; and a request from Colonel which Mr. Beecroft coveted on his behalf. Akroyd and Mr. Wheatley Balme is to He believed that wherever he was he would me as a command. So now I have to be a useful man; and wherever he was he preach in London on the 21st; on the 23rd must be a distinguished man. He felt that for Miss Gilbert's Institute ; on the 25th

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to speak for S.P.G. at Exeter ; on the 26th afterwards compelled to slacken in to preach for choirs at Tiverton; on the

his co-operation, was for some years 27th to speak at a school dinner ; then to Leeds, three sermons and two lectores ;

not only auxiliary to its advancethen to York, speak at Congress and ser- ment, but helped by it in his own mons on Sunday; then two sermons at line of action. When it was disBerwick-on-Tweed ; lecture at Newcastle ;

countenanced, however, he was not sermons at Morpeth and Sheffield; lecture at Derby.' (Abridged from a letter to his

silenced, but pursued the same course, aunt, dated Chichester, September, 1866. steadily professing the same principles Vol. ii., p. 429.)

and diffusing them by his own methods

until the end came. Four months after, he writes to Mr.

As he began so E. A, Freeman :

he ended. From first to last one

ceaseless iteration of the same cuckooOn the last day of Jannary, or first of February, I go to Halifax ; three sermons

cry, 'The Church, the Church!''Hear on Sunday; preside at Church Institute the Church !' 'Love the Church!' on Monday. On the 7th, a sermon at Leeds, ‘Live in the Church ! and, if need be, opening of a church. Three sermons at Leeds

Die for the Church!' the Sunday following; Monday, lecture

Doubtless there was great gain to at Bramley to Mechanics’ Institute; then to Manchester, a lecture, a private meet

the Church considered as an organiing, three sermons on Sunday ; and then, zation, both in his own particular to my great disgust. I must attend Convo

spheres of labour and throughout cation in London, for the Archbishop bas asked me to take part in the proceedings.

the country, if not throughout the I accepted this Deanery as a shelf on which world, as the fruit of his toil. But I might resume the literary pursuits of my whether the gain to the highest, that youth after a life of hard pastoral work

is, to the moral and spiritual interests and I think it hard to be forced from my shelf—but I must obey the call.' (Vol. ii.,

of his parishes, or his country, bore P. 433.)

any just proportion to the denomina

tional advantage, we more than doubt; When we look at this long career and, still more, whether what gain of active and diversified industry, there was to the moral interests of and ask ourselves as to its definite bis country was at all equal to what and appreciable results, a melancholy might and would have been realized feeling will arise in our minds. No had he held other principles, and acted one can deny that a great power was

in another spirit. His great powers wielded by Dr. Hook in person, or and his great industry and devotion that he was a means of evoking the were to a great extent wasted; and energies of multitudes of his country- this was the necessary result of the

One of the few who, before false principle which led him to the Tractarian movement, held firmly identify the Church with his own by the cause which it was designed to community, and to separate himself promote, he threw himself heartily from, and repudiate connection with, into it at its commencement, was a every other. He refrained indeed, trusted adviser and confidential asso- for the most part, * from personal ciate of its leaders; and though rudeness towards Dissenters, which is

men.

** For the most part, certainly, Dr. Hook was too genial and too politic a man to forget the gentleman in the ecclesiastic ; but his discourteously addressing a letter to the late Rev. Alfred Barrett as · Mr, Alfred Barrett,' was a gross exception ; which is still gloried in by his party. This was an act as insolent and as little-minded as it would have been for Mr. Barrett to deny the title Reverend to Dr. Hook, could Alfred Barrett have been conceived capable of such pettiness. In his Church Dictionary, under the

word Reverend, Dr. Hook cannot suppress an unmannerly and uncharitable Kneer : Dissenting Preachers are in these days ambitions of the title, and few Clergymen

i ise it.' He was, for a time, one of that ungracious few. Strange that so keen-sighted

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