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and when he described the relation pounds per boy is to be levied on of the Minister to the Church, and parents having sons at Kingswood and the significance of Ordination, in so Woodhouse Grove School, to pay for masterly a manner, and when he the clothing provided by the school proceeded to enforce the duty and authorities. Here, again, absolute advantage of a conscientious and necessity commanded the impost. But minute discharge of the pastoral func- it will bear very heavily upon Ministions, it was felt that the deliverance ters in country Circuits with small was worthy of the man.
allowances. Ministers in large towns Throughout the session of the can avail themselves of Grammar Representative Conference, retrench- Schools to secure their boys a good ment was the order of the day. Even and cheap education. There are very congratulations upon the success of few such schools in our country Cirthe Thanksgiving Fund were mingled cuits. And six pounds is only too with demands for a decrease of ex- frequently equivalent to one-twentieth penditure. Not even the Foreign of a Minister's stipend. In such cases Missions, the very pride and darling he cannot, without hardship, send one of the Methodist heart, were spared. of his sons to our school. If the The most protracted debate took place matter were properly understood by with regard to the Theological In- our people, we cannot doubt that an stitution. Ultimately it was resolved increase of contributions to the Schools' that the payment of travelling ex- Fund would solve the problem with penses to its students should immedi- a much less distressing answer. ately cease, and that after the Confer- The business of the Conference was ence of 1880 no allowance should be transacted rapidly, but efficiently. paid them, except in cases of proved Spite of the unusual business of the need, when a sum of ten pounds Thanksgiving Fund, and the many might be granted. Stern necessity knotty and delicate points requiring to alone justifies this measure. It was be settled, the Journal was signed strongly pressed that ministerial stu- about eight o'clock on the Friday dents in Dissenting Colleges receive evening. no allowances; but it should be borne By the time these pages are in our in mind that they are highly paid for readers' hands, the Connexional new their Sunday services, while our own year will have begun. We have students often receive barely their brought and are still bringing the travelling expenses. We trust that tithes into God's storehouse, at least retrenchment of the expenditure of the tithes of gold, and, we trust, the the Theological Institution has now firstfruits of prayer and faith and reached its limit; and that no re- love and labour. Now we wait, as duction will be found necessary
the President urged us, with patient in the tutorial staff. While the and humble, yet eager and confident poorest enjoy the benefits of primary expectation ; we are proving Him if education and other denominations He will not open'us' the windows of are straining every nerve to obtain heaven, and pour' us out a blessing, a cultured and trained Ministry, that there shall not be room enough Methodism cannot afford to have to receive it. Financial embarrassilliterate Preachers and Pastors. ments resulting from the multiplica
The reports of our Schools for tion of Ministers at a higher rate than Ministers’ Children, both Boys' and the multiplication of members would Girls', were highly satisfactory. But speedily disappear before times of here, again, the outgo exceeds the refreshing from the presence of the income. Henceforth a tax of six Lord.'
NOTES ON CURRENT SCIENCE :
BY THE REV. W. H. DALLINGER, F.R.M.S. The remarkable and constant advance die of its own inanition—but waiting of the human race in its knowledge until the truth is discovered ; and of the facts of Nature, the surprising whatever that may be, there is no character of the majority of those pure and enlightened mind that would facts, and the aptitude which the for a moment reject it. Now it can scientific mind has shown for apply. hardly be said that, as we actually ing them to the furtherance of human know them, the facts of geology interests and culture, has induced a irresistibly display evidence of a credulity in relation to scientific progressive development. But it is matters generally, which in the in- fallacious in the last degree to make terests of truth as a whole, and of too much of this. The geological theological truth specially, it would record must be eminently imperfect, be well to see checked. We need especially in its older pages. Neverhardly refer to the recent attempt to theless, it has to be remembered that impose upon human intellect by at the base of the Silurian rocks—50 affirming that a means bad been far as the evidence went for a long found of suspending animation and while, taking the position of the consciousness for an indefinite time, earliest strata giving evidence of and then restoring it at will: the utili- organized existences—there are found tarian aspect of which was of course biological remains of organized forms that animals might be thus operated that are very highly differentiated or upon for a voyage from the most developed But subsequently—in distant regions to the most lucrative 1859—Logan discovered in the Laumarket, consuming no food, however rentian formation in Canada, which long the journey, and being restored lies under the Silurian, and is composed living and plump when they had of extremely altered' or metamorreached their destination. One would phosed rocks, a curious imbedded have thought that so startling a structure, which after careful exstatement as this would have been amination was declared to be of received with at least caution, how- animal origin : a 'fossil,' indeed, har. ever animated by hope. But so re- ing a structure analagous to, but less ceptive have we become by the con- highly organized than, the Foraministant announcement of victory over fera, 80 widely distributed in time matter by mind, that some journals and space. This was not received profersedly scientific, many quasi- without question; but it was an scientific, and a host of others, on extremely delicate point to determine. the first blush of the thing accepted Confessedly the rocks in which it was it almost without the expression of a found had undergone much change; suspicion. In such times as ours the it must therefore have undergone critical faculty should be in full similar metamorphosis, and it would exercise. By the wonderful advances only be here and there that what of science, we may be led to the loss would be esteemed a perfect speciof truth, by the very credulity which men would be recovered. And even these advances have superinduced, in such instances it would require
We have lately had occasion more much special knowledge to arrive at than once to point out the necessity a definite conclusion, that exists in geological matters for This knowledge was undoubtedly suspended judgment—not antagon possessed by Dr. W. Carpenter and ism : we need pot fight the false, it will Principal Dawson; and both deter
mined that the evidence afforded inasmuch as it was an animal that by microscopical examination of sec- appeared first, and the vegetables did tions of the fossil, cut in all directions apparently present themselves and carefully compared and studied, until enormous periods of time had led to a necessary conclusion that it elapsed, it was inferred that the coswas a fossil animal of the lowliest mogony of Genesis was profoundly type; and it was named Eozoon at fault. We have recently had ocCANADENSE, or, The Dawn Animal. casion to point out in these columns Thus we commence the Biological how fallacious this mode of reasoning series that have inhabited the earth is, being based wholly upon negative with a very lowly form indeed_a evidence ; and to record the fact mere mass of protoplasm possessed that a highly-organized vegetablea of the power to secrete from the calamite has been in two or three ocean in which it dwelt a shell or different places found in the Laurentest of carbonate of lime; and the tian and Silurian rocks ; thus carryform which the fossil presents is ing a bighly-developed vegetable down comparatively indefinite externally, to a level with the most lowly-devebut internally it is chambered in loped animal, namely, the eozoön. tiers, each chamber communicating But the real point of interest is with that above and below it by this. Two extremely expert ininerameans of delicate channels. The logists, Messrs. King and Rowney, part representing what was supposed after an apparently close examination to be the animal, is now filled up of the Eozoon Canadense, declared with 'serpentine,' the shell being in that it was not a 'fossil' at all. They the form of limestone.
affirmed that it was a simple mineral There are no other definite fossils production. This, of course, led to found in thisformation-none, indeed, controversy, which some six years until we come to the Silurian rocks, since was both lively and long. On where we meet with fossil animals of, as neither side did the disputants conwe have before said, high development. vince their opponents ; but the result But this formation has been so meta- of the controversy was, on the whole, morphosed that it is quite conceiv- to leave the careful student of able that all the biological remains scientific evidence, not an expert, it might have contained were wholly with the impression, that although it destroyed; but that the eozoön was was by no
an established 80 profusely spread over the ocean, point, yet it was still highly probable and so peculiar in structure, that that the eozoon was an animal fossil. to careful investigation evidences of Since that time Dr. Dawson has pubits organic character had survived lished a popular treatise on it, which all changes.
So that development has somewhat strengthened this view. being assumed as proved in more But now a new critic has devoted recent formations, it was argued that himself to the question, and with the absence of evidence of its action somewhat remarkable results. Dr. between the eozoon and the advanced Karl Moebius, an eminent geologist organisms of the Silurian epoch was of Kiel, is a good microscopist and quite accounted for by 'metamor- well acquainted with the Foramioifera phosis ’ in the rocks ; but nature's as a group, and after what he affirms method was still made manifest, it to be a most prolonged, patient and was argued, since the earliest organ- unbiased study of a large variety of ism found at the base of the earliest sections of eozoon, he has come to the rocks containing fossils was of the conclusion, almost unwillingly, that lowliest conceivable type. Further, it is not a fossil, but simply a mineral.
The whole process of his examination as it really is. Because only an insight has been given, and some very
into the real condition of nature can, in the
long run, satisfy the scientific mind, which accurate and beautiful drawings ac
gives up as errors the most attractive company the paper. He tells us that
hypotheses regarding the essence and he examined it from a biological action of nature, if in the face of newly; point of view, expecting that he
discovered facts they can no longer hold should succeed in establishing its or
good; no matter whether these erroneous
hypotheses may have reigned supreme for ganic origin beyond a doubt. But a long time previously, and may have been facts' have led him to the contrary
held to be the best conceptions of nature conclusion. When he first saw the
by the most eminent authorities.' beautiful stem-systems in Dr. Car
It should be known, however, that penter's sections, he became at once Dr. Dawson and Dr. Carpenter have a partisan to the views Dr. Carpen- both written to the scientific journals ter held; but the more good sections declaring Dr. Moebius to be but and isolated stems he examined the incompetently informed on the submore doubtful he became as to its ject; and whilst admitting his accuorganic origin, until at length the racy of observation and illustration, most magnificent canal systems, yet contend that it is not extended taken altogether and closely com- enough; at the same time promising pared with Foraminifera sections, us a joint monograph on the subject, taught him nothing but its inorganic opening up new and convincing facts, origin.
and very naturally asking for the He further says that, with the suspension of final judgment until specimens now at his disposal, he has
this paper appears.
We think it been repeatedly enabled in an hour to highly probable that they will mainproduce the same mental change in tain their ground fairly, for they are skilful biologists in relation to it that on the whole the most competent it took so long to produce in himself. experts; but we cannot refrain from He is manifestly sorry to reach the pointing out the necessity for caution conclusion he has reached, having in making sweeping inferences of a been so courteously aided in every
definite kind from either unestablished way by Drs. Dawson and Car- 'facts' or mere negative evidence. penter; but while attributing to them We need not attempt to 'reconcile' complete honesty of work and in- 'geology and Genesis' until we know ference, he get claims to have made what geology it is we have to recona more thorough investigation. And cile.' he concludes as follows : *If eozoön ....... were really remains of an
The Committee of the House of undoubted Foraminifera species, then we
Commons appointed to enquire into should possess in (the specimens) certain the value of the electric light has proofs that, even during the formation of
completed its labours and issued its the most ancient strata of the earth's crust, living beings occurred, and that
report. It contains nothing specially the first organisms belonged to the lowest new. The only region in which animals, by which Biology and Geology electricity has made itself a practical would have gained two highly-important source of illumination is in our lightfacts. The proof that Eozoön is not a fossil rhizopod will perhaps for many persons
houses; and the report fully confirms take away an important link from the the opinion we have given in this beautiful picture of the development of Magazine, that the electric-light panic organic life upon the earth, which they
was a mere scare, and that in fact have drawn up for themselves. But the object of natural research does not consist
very little real progress in its practical in finding reasons for attractive concep
application to ordinary illuminating tions about nature, but in knowing nature
purposes had been made.
On the 13th of June last, M. has discovered another, making the Borelly, at Marseilles, discovered the two hundred and first, and the thirtyone hundred and ninety-eighth of the seventh discovered by him—the tenth asteroids ; and on the 10th of July, Professor Peters, at Hamilton College, The Russian Government has voted Clinton, United States, discovered two hundred and fifty thousand rubles another, and still another on the 17th. for the construction of the largest This raised the number of these most telescope that can, with our present remarkable little bodies to two knowledge and skill, be advantagehundred. The one hundredth was ously made. The object-glass is to found by Professor Watson, in July, be three feet in diameter. To accom1868 ; 80 it has taken just eleven plish this will be a gigantic work. years to find one hundred of these The largest at present existing is little bodies : a remarkable illustra- twenty-six inches in diameter. The tion of the vigour with which re- difficulty is to cast crown and flint search is prosecuted now; for from glass that shall be in all its parts of 1807 to 1845, only four of these the same density and without bubbles. bodies were known. But in 1845, If this can be done, the grinding is a Herr Heucke discovered Astrea, and mere question of engineering. in 1847 he discovered Hebe. Since Mr. Lewis Swift discovered a small that date no one year has passed with- comet in the constellation Perseus on out one or more being discovered. the 16th of July. It was but faint, This year has been very prolific, for and was rapidly receding. we just learn that Professor Peters
THE BAMPTON LECTURE FOR 1878 :*
BY THE EDITOR. THIS must be admitted to be the most -imagination' intermeddle with his prothorough and scholarly Commentary on cesses or his conclusions. As the title the Book of Zechariah-and therefore the indicates, this volume is, in the first place, most helpful to the critical student—which an examination and a defence, then, an has yet appeared. It evinces indomitable exposition at once grammatical, historical industry and extensive reading. The New and homiletic. These elements being Translation and the 'CriticalandGrammati- rather promiscuously blended, the work cal Commentary' are especially valuable to lacks homogeneousness and symmetry. Its those who wish, first of all, to get at the architecture is of a composite order. We exact meaning of the prophet's words. have, first, a very sensible Introduction, in The bibliography and general literature which he,as we think,successfully vindicates of the subject is richly set forth, the the integrity of the book, not only against apparatus criticus being ample, though those who, like Professor Davison and Dean we think that George Stanley Faber ought Stanley, assail it, but against those who, not to have been entirely overlooked ; in like Canon Perowne, in Smith's Dictionary, fact, on some passages he might have been regard it as doubtful. Then comes a New consulted and quoted with advantage. But Translation with Notes, often light-striking, Mr. Wright has one essential quality of a always well worth pondering. The body commentator in a very marked degree, of the book is made up of the Lectures, a namely, sobriety. He never lets what considerable part of which was not deButler calls the arrogant, intrusive faculty livered. The highly serviceable Critical and
* Zechariah and his Prophecies, Considered in Relation to Modern Criticism : with a Critical and Grammatical Commentary and New Translation. Eight Lectures delivered before the University of Oxford. By Charles H. H. Wright, B.D., of Trinity College, Dublin, etc. London : Hodder and Stoughton. 1879.