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these strata are multitudes of fossi- deposit them upon the top of the stiglized trees, having their woody tissue matic surface-placed at the bottom replaced by the infiltration of silica. of the spathe--and so they transfer They are most interesting and in- the pollen from flower to flower. At structive in their evidence. Vast the same time the hatched larvæ, numbers of the trees are erect as and entangled or otherwise destroyed when they grew and were vital. flies, are digested by a fuid which is They stand out from the face of the secreted in glands in the inside of the rock like the columns of a ruined or spathe, converting these animal prodeserted temple.

There is at least a ducts into nutriment. It is signifimile running up the mountain-side cant that the younger Linnæus called which is covered by tiers of these this plant Arum'muscivorum. silicified dwellers in the great forests of the far past, and can readily We frequently hear of serious suggest to us the conditions of growth symptoms, indicative of poisoning, in the forests that have by another arising, apparently in a most caprigeological process become our great cious way, from the consumption as coal-beds.

human food of various kinds of fish.

There are many fish which are susWe have often pointed out the pected of being poisonous, and in constantly accumulating evidence certain parts of the world, and in that scientific research presents as to

every part under certain circumthe influence which insects exert in stances, there can be no doubt they the fertilization of flowers. A curious become a source of grave danger. case has just been presented by M. There are, of course, fish constantly B. Schnetzler to the Academy of

consumed by man which are perSciences in Paris. A species of the fectly harmless, as a rule ; but they Arum tribe (crinitum) emits a carrion- are not necessarily so at all seasons of like odour, which manifestly entices the year, and a summary of our prea number of flies; and so deceived sent knowledge of the whole question are they by the scent that they in has been just presented to French large numbers deposit their eggs at men of science by M. Leon Fournol. the bottom of the spathe' or cup

He shows that even the common like envelope of the flower. of salmon, in Japan, eaten out of season, course such eggs, if hatched, are so becomes to European inhabitants a placed that there is, on the emer- serious poison. Other fish are shown gence of the larva, no nutriment such to be wholesome when young, but as the real carrion amidst whic such dangerous when mature; while such eggs are usually deposited affords ; aquatic animals as the conger, the and the larva dies. But the death pike, the barbel, the prawn, and espeof the grub' contributes to the prop- cially the mussel are poisonous in an agation and nutrition of the plant, inexplicable and apparently caprifor the end-cross-fertilization is cious manner.

In the fish proper, it accomplished thus. Many flies do not is the liver and head that is especially actually deposit their eggs in the dangerous; but in the mussel, and spathes of the plant, although they the occasionally toxic action of the visit them and walk over them : the oyster, it is ascribed to the consumpresult is that they cause the anthers tion by these animals of the eggs of to deposit their pollen upon them, the star-fish, which are at times found and the flies then Ay away to another in the digestive tracks of these spathe, where some at least are led animals; and so poisonous are they to deposit eggs; in doing so they said to be, that they produce a violent

you

look only on the loss; then shall not, every wind may help towards see how it struck at the evil that had

that blessed port.

Seek one thing begun to rivet its fetters upon you, only; then have no fear of stormy Now you shrink from the howling winds. Keep well out at sea. Let winds and muttering thunders; then our prayer be that which I heard you shall see how they beat back the once from the lips of an old Cornishwaters of destruction and opened up man: 'O Lord, send us out to seayour way to the

goodly land of promise. out in the deep water. Here we are Again, the Stormy Wind helps us in close upon

the rocks that the Heavenward. He is but an appren- first bit of a breeze with the devil tice and no master in the art who has and we are all knocked to pieces. not learnt that every wind that blows Lord, send us out to sea-out in the is fair for heaven. The only thing deep water, where we shall have that helps nobody, is a dead calm. room enough to get a glorious victory. North or South, Eastor West, it matters Amen.'

80

NOTES ON CURRENT SCIENCE :

BY THE REV. W. H. DALLINGER, F.R.M.S. It will be remembered by our supposed that these satellites would readers that on the 17th of August, be visible from October 10th to 1877, Professor Asaph Hall definitely November the 29th of the present discovered the existence of two year ; but this observation lengthens minute satellites accompanying the the period of their visibility. If it planet Mars. This planet had been be found practicable to observe them the moonless Mars' of all preceding as late as the 16th of December, there centuries ; but from that time forth will be a good chance of seeing them the existence of two minute bodies for several weeks to the end of Deestimated as having diameters of cember, 1880. If this be not the only seven and ten miles respectively case we shall not be able again to see

-was established. From the distance them until 1890, when observers in of this planet and the eccentricity of the Southern Hemisphere will be in a its orbit

, it is only at certain times position to observe them. that these minute bodies can be seen at all; but in the middle of Septem- Remarkable evidences of volcanber last Mr. Common succeeded in ic activity during what geologists reobserving Deimos, the outer of know as the Tertiary period are these two small moons, by means of presented on a very vast scale in the & newly-erected silver-on-glass re- Rocks of the Yellow Stone National flector of three feet in diameter—an Park, in the United States.

The instrument of very great power.

Volcanic series there, are now shown From the elements of the orbit of to reach a thickness of upwards of this body taken in 1877, it was ex- five thousand feet, and it consists in pected that it would be near its large measure of stratified deposits, greatest elongation' at a given such as

at a given such as Breccias' (or deposits of moment, which, however, was not broken fragments), conglomerates and absolutely the case, its period of sandstones, themselves made up of revolution being in fact rather longer fragmentary volcanic matter, which than was deduced. Professor Hall has been redeposited by water. In

these strata are multitudes of fossi- deposit them upon the top of the stiglized trees, having their woody tissue matic surface--placed at the bottom replaced by the infiltration of silica. of the spathe--and so they transfer They are most interesting and in- the pollen from flower to flower. At structive in their evidence. Vast the same time the hatched larvæ, numbers of the trees are erect as and entangled or otherwise destroyed when they grew and

were vital. flies, are digested by a fluid which is They stand out from the face of the secreted in glands in the inside of the rock like the columns of a ruined or spathe, converting these animal prodeserted temple. There is at least a ducts into nutriment. It is signifimile running up the mountain-side cant that the younger Linnæus called which is covered by tiers of these this plant Arum'muscivorum. silicified dwellers in the great forests of the far past, and can readily We frequently hear of serious suggest to us the conditions of growth symptoms, indicative of poisoning, in the forests that have by another arising, apparently in a most caprigeological process become our great cious way, from the consumption as coal-beds.

human food of various kinds of fish.

There are many fish which are susWe have often pointed out the pected of being poisonous, and in constantly accumulating evidence certain parts of the world, and in that scientific research presents as to

every part under certain circumthe influence which insects exert in stances, there can be no doubt they the fertilization of flowers. A curious become a source of grave danger. case has just been presented by M. There are, of course, fish constantly B. Schnetzler to the Academy of consumed by man which are perSciences in Paris. A species of the fectly harmless, as a rule ; but they Arum tribe (crinitum) emits a carrion- are not necessarily so at all seasons of like odour, which manifestly entices the

year, and a summary of our prea number of flies; and so deceived sént knowledge of the whole question are they by the scent that they in has been just presented to French large numbers deposit their eggs at men of science by M. Leon Fournol. the bottom of the spathe' or cup

He shows that even the common like envelope of the flower. of salmon, in Japan, eaten out of season, course such eggs, if hatched, are so becomes to European inhabitants a placed that there is, on the emer- serious poison. Other fish are shown gence of the larva, no nutriment such to be wholesome when young, but as the real carrion amidst which such dangerous when mature; while such eggs are usually deposited affords; aquatic animals as the conger, the and the larva dies. But the death pike, the barbel, the prawn, and espe of the 'grub' contributes to the prop- cially the mussel are poisonous in an agation and nutrition of the plant, inexplicable and apparently caprifor the end-cross-fertilization is cious manner.

it accomplished thus. Many flies do not is the liver and head that is especially actually deposit their eggs in the dangerous ; but in the mussel, and spathes of the plant, although they the occasionally toxic action of the visit them and walk over them : the oyster, it is ascribed to the consumpresult is that they cause the anthers tion by these animals of the eggs of to deposit their pollen upon them, the star-fish, which are at times found and the flies then fly away to another in the digestive tracks of these spathe, where some at least are led animals ; and so poisonous are they to deposit eggs; in doing so they said to be, that they produce a violent

In the fish

proper,

vessels.

cutaneous irritation on the hands of at last safely accomplished; but it those who touch them. There are, is quite clear that it will not be however, fishes that are poisonous practicable for ordinary merchant at all times; and, although they are

The voyage was made by in some cases of delicate flavour, are Professor Nordenskjold, who used never to be eaten : thus prudence the opportunity afforded by an imwould dictate the avoidance of un- prisonment of the vessel in the ice, known fishes as articles of food, while for scientific research ; and amongst the roe, the liver, etc., of all fishes, as other things took a huge marine a rule, should be avoided when they animal known as Rytina stelleri, but are out of season.' The eating of supposed hitherto to have been elany fish from which the alimentary tinct : another instance of the uncanal is not removed is at all times, wisdom of inferring age in geoloto say the least, fraught with possible gical deposits, from the length of danger.

time which an organic form has been

supposed to have ceased to be a living The North-East Passage has been inhabitant of the globe.

ETCHINGS FROM LIFE:
II.-ADELAIDE'S TREASURE, AND HOW THE THIEF CAME

UNAWARES.

BY SARSON.

CHAPTER X.

ANNIE HOLYOKE'S LAST WISH, The air is full of farewells to the dying, tell of like the change that passes ofer And mourning for the dead ;

human hearts! Temples in ruins, oaks The heart of Rachel, for her children withering to the roots, the sea feeding on crying,

the landmarks that the fathers set, are Will not be comforted.

majestic evidences of the law of change ; LONGFELLOW. but the scattering of the rose of youth, the

bower wherein it grew blasted into a waste, SEA that bearest back to the home of who shall tell that story? her childhood a sable-robed, silent woman, The lonely widow, the childless mother, whose heart is left behind, in the grave counted the days that might lie between where sleep a man and an only child, art her and her home. How she had looked thon the same that bore on thy blue bosom a forward to a visit to that home in the ful. joyous, boyish-faced girl, whose only ex- ness of her love and pride! How jealous perience of sorrow was in the vague restless- she had been lest the largess of affection ness of aspiration after she knew not what, lavished on her should not be almost and the natural tears we shed over even a monopolized by husband and child ! temporary separation from the friends of Now there was only her father to know early youth ?

what her husband had been, and a little oilSky that lookest so far, far off, so cold, painting imperfectly execated was the one so indifferent, showing the same face to memento of the little one. the soldier dying of his battle-wounds and Warm were the prayers and wishes that the lover building castles in the air, art had launched her on her voyage, grateful thou the same that these eyes, aching now was the heart that responded, bat there with tears, burning now for the want of were no human balms that could stop its them, were wont to gaze op into, with such bleeding. a soft spark of devotion trembling in their Like a young bird of broken wing, she pare irids?

longed for the parental Dest, chiefly for the Yes, these natural things do not change, softness and the stillness and the brooding but for us. O, what change can Time tenderness that in anticipation was so grate

ful. She tried to put herself beneath the that she had taken from a grave at St, wings that overlay the mercy-seat. Surely John's, that the same tree, she said, might that shelter was not forbidden to the cast its funereal shade over all. aching sense, nor to the benumbed con- Her sisters thought she wanted rousing, sciousness. She must be safe there, though and insisted on her walking out with them; she was not clad in royal garments, but but, left to herself, she sat much in her in sackcloth, and was withal too much room, or went to the Dingle, and remained bruised to free herself from the dust in there in communion with self, with her sad which she had lain.

memories and with her God. Nor was she The welcome home was very quiet. She indulging in the mere luxury of idle grief. was brought in almost as a sick member of • It is best for me to be alone sometimes,' a family, who may be nursed back to life she said to herself. My very presence or die. They found her altered even casts a restraint on the others. They are beyond expectation, but still beautiful. Her so compassionate, so tender over me, and I parents had begun to look venerable, and am so easily jarred. I want them to be their tones in speaking to her reminded glad ; yet, when they are, their gladness her of the sacredness of her widowhood, hurts me. They see the sun is in my eyes, and of her deepened experiences of life. and draw the blinds again. O little

Where there was so much feeling, there Dingle! what childish sorrows drove me could not be many words; but she knew to you in the past, and God was so near that it was a solace to them to have her that I almost imagined His angels came brougbt in contact with their sympathy. down to earth with the sunset! But now,

• My poor child !' said her mother, O now! if I sleep it is on a stone, and my 'you'll find it a rest, darling, to be with heart is a stone ; for I, who thought myus; and you don't know yet all the comfort self so strong I could bear anything my that there is in resting.'

Heavenly Father gave me to bear, am • You and father are getting to an age found weaker than a bruised reed.' to know, mother.'

Is there ever a stony pillow that God's •So we are ; and the rest old people angels do not visit ? Yet we are not make themselves, Adelaide, is just the sort always aware of them, or of the strength of thing that troubled young ones require. they give. We think more of our heavenly home now Do you not sometimes feel out of than we did in the days when we had all patience with me, Hilda ?' she asked of our bright boys and girls abont us.'

one of her sisters, laying her head on her Adelaide lay on the sofa in a pleasant lap, as she sat at her feet in the dim kind of dream. She knew that her hand twilight rested in her father's. She had felt it Out of patience with you, dear? What good to have it resting there when she was does that gentle, uncomplaining heart find in peril on the sea. To what an insignifi. to accuse itself of ?' cance was that period of her life reduced ‘Of many things ; I thought I had now! There might be many years to wait learned a lifelong lesson when the shock for her release, but she must fulfil them came to me about Herbert.

You can and be patient.

never know how bitter was my self-reAnd yet she must believe that He who proach ; and I did rouse myself and endure bad smitten her so sorely was the most to what was the end for him bere ; but pitying of all, the most tenderly watchful mine seems a long, long way off, and I am of all. It was hard to bring her faith to as helpless as ever.' grasp that fact. 'Lord, I believe ; help It is to helplessness that help is given,' Thoa mine unbelief,' she murmured; and, said Hilda, tenderly. Don't fret about it, breathing that prayer, she fell into a deep, dear, or about us. It would hurt us to refreshing sleep.

know you were making any effort for our Adelaide had been too long separated sakes. God's help will come to you when from the home of her youth to readily you perhaps are least expecting it ; meanfind it a sphere of duty. She tried to act while you are not required to sit in judga childlike part to her aged parents, that ment over yourself. Mr. Forrester did not she might never have to reproach herself reproach you, I am sure.' for the apathy of sorrow that had be- No; but then he was so compassionate, nambed her wifely solicitude. Yet her so all-excusing. He had always estimated tenderest ministrations were, in spite of me far beyond my worth, and when in his herself, mechanical.

weakness and sorrow I failed him, as I did, Her first sad walk bad been to see the O miserably! he never saw the failure, graves of those of her family who

had been but made excuses for me, and cut me to taken since she left England. She shed the quick with undeserved praise.' no tears over them: she had none left to Hilda shrank from touching a wound so shed; but sbe planted the slip of a willow exquisite in its sensitiveness. She flung

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