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Queen Elizabeth, after the Massacre of
Execution of Two Brownists
Court of Henry III. of France. Ball at
Queen Elizabeth knighting Francis Drake 305
Sir Philip Sydney:
Death of Sir Philip Sidney at the Battle
Sir Francis Walsingham
Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Sir Francis Drake
Mary Queen of Scots taking Leave of her
The Custom House in the reign of Queen
Earl of Essex
Wreck of one of the Armada Vessels on
the Irish Coast
Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury
Tilbury Fort, on the Thames
Destruction of the Spanish Armada 540
Sir Walter Raleigh
Essex House, in the Strand**
Henry of Navarre (afterwards Henry IV.
A Barber's Shop in the reign of Queen
James VI. of Scotland
'The Reconciliation between Queen Eliza-
beth and the Earl of Essex
Confession of the Countess of Notting.
An Irish Trooper. From an old Mana.
The Death of Queen Elizabeth
Autograph of Queen Elizabeth
Tomb of Queen Elizabeth in Westminster
A Trial for High Treason, in Westmin-
ster Hall, during the Tudor period 571
The Star Chamber
Branding Iron ...
Pulpit Hour-glass, time of Edward VI. . 580
Bishop of the Reformed Church
Luther Denouncing the Romish Ritual... 582
Destruction of the Cross in Cheapside 583
in the days of Queen Mary
of long continuance. The ups and downs of royalty at REIGN OF EDWARD IV.-(Continued).
this period were as rapid and strange as the shifting izerd returns to Irzland-Assisted by Burgundy-Elward's Pre
scenes of a theatre. There is no part of our history where tended renunciation of the Cro:7n-His March to London-Again we are left so much in the dar's as to the real moving proclaims himself King-Joined by Clarence-Battle of Barnet
It is difficult to see how Warwick, with his vast Margaret and the Prince of Wales land in England - Battle of Tewkesbury-Death of Eenry VI.–Political Calm – Rivalry of popularity, should, in the course of a single winter, beClarence and Gloucester-Edward contemplates an Invasion of come so unpopular as to render his fall ac] the success of Pracse-Deserted by his All:es-Interview with Louis of France Edward so easy. We can well conceive dat EdwardHe and his Courtiers become Pensioners of France - Discontent of cruel and licentious at home, not even respecte? by his hig Subjects – The King's Dissipated Life-Deaths of the Dukes of Burgundy and St. Pol–Murder of Clarence— War with Scotland- own brother-in-law of Burgundy, and sincerely hated by Death of Edward IV.
Louis of France, whom he had so deeply insulted by tho THE mock restoration of Henry VI. was not destined to be rejection of his queen's sister in marriage--should sit on
an unstable throne. But how Warwick, so warmly hailed any attempt at landing. They proceeded northward, in the autumn, and carried on the shoulders of the Lan- finding no opportunity of successfully getting on shore castrian party and the people at large to the pinnacle of till they reached the little port of Ravenspur, in Yorkpower, should in the spring be as readily abandoned, is shire-singularly enough, the very place whero Henry by no means clear. Had ho closed that great sourco of IV. landed when he doposed Richard II. From this same his popularity, his kitchen ? Did the necessity for main- port now issued the force which was to terminate his line. taining a great force, the demands of gifts, estates, and At first, however, the undertaking wore anything but a favours by his followers in his enterprise to put down promising aspect. The north was the very stronghold of Edward, and his repayment of the advances to the King the Lancastrian faction; and openly was displayed the of Franèa, compel him to contract that lavish hospitality hostility of the inhabitants towards the returned Yorkist which daily feasted 30,000 people at his palaces and monarch. But Edward, with that ready dishonesty which castles? Probably some such causes were at work, for is considered defensible in the strife for crowns, solemnly Warwick docs not seem to have exercised any great declared that he had abandoned for himself all claims on severity in iis triumph, or to have used his power the throno; that he saw and acknowledged the right of haughtily. Nevertheless, his popularity appeared to thaw Henry VI. and his line, and for himself only desired the and flow away with the snows and frosts of winter. It happy security of a private station. His real and most pamust be remembered, however, that there was a terrible triotic design, he gave out, was to put down the turbulent secret schism in his camp and party. Clarence was only and overbearing power of Warwick, and thus give perma. waiting to seize a good opportunity to overthrow his nent tranquillity to the country, which never could exist father-in-law, Warwick, and climb the throne himself. so long as Warwick lived. He exhibited a forged safeThough he was a very weak and by no means high-prin- conduct from the Earl of Northumberland; he declared cipled young man, Clarence was not so weak as to build that he sought for himself nothing but the possessions of any future hopes on Warwick's having given him the the Duke of York, his father; he mounted in his bonnet succession in case of the issue of the Prince of Wales an ostrich feather, the device of the Prince of Wales, and failing. Warwick had married another of his daughters ordered his followers to shout "Long live King Henry!" to the prince, and it was his strongest interest to maintain in every place through which they passed. that line on the throne.
These exhibitions of his untruth-called by politicians There can be little doubt that these things were kept expediency, by men of honour lies—were too barefaced to alive in Clarence's bosom by the same clever female deceive any one. The people still stood aloof, and on agency which was employed at Calais. It is fully clear, reaching the gates of York, Edward found them closed by the immediately following conduct of the Marquis of against him. But by the boldest use of the same lying Montacute, that there was an understanding between him policy, Edward managed to prevail on the mayor and and Clarence. Here was another blow to the power of aldermen to admit him. He swore the most solemn oath Warwick, while Burgundy, however little disposed to that he abjured the crown for over, and would do all in esteem Edward, naturally preferred seeing him as his his power to maintain Henry and his issue upon it. Not brother-in-law upon the throne of England, than as an satisfied with this, the clergy demanded that he should exile and a beggar, and his great rival, Louis of France, repeat this oath most emphatically before the high altar in strengthened by the alliance of Warwick and Margaret. the cathedral. Edward assented with alacrity, and would
All these causes undoubtedly co-operated to produce undoubtedly have sworn anything and any number of oaths what soon followed. Burgundy determined to assist to the same effect. He then marched in with that bold preciEdward to regain his throne, and thus destroy the pitance which was the secret of his suocess, and which, ascendancy of Warwick. While, therefore, issuing a pro- as in the case of Napoleon in our times, always threw his clamation forbidding any of his subjects to follow Edward enemies into consternation and confusion. At Pontefract in his expedition, he privately sent to him the cross of St. lay the Marquis of Montacute, Warwick's brother, with a Andrew; and an aid of 50,000 florins furnished him with force superior to that of Edward, and all the world looked four large ships, which were fitted up and stored for him to see him throw himself across the path of the invader, at Vere, in Walcheren. Besides these, he hired for him and to set battle against him. Nothing of the kind; fourteen ships from the merchants of the Hanse Towns, Montacute lay still in the fortress, and Edward, marching to transport his troops from Flushing to England. These within four miles of this commander, went on his way transactions could leave no question in the minds of the without any check from him. This must have convinced subjects of Burgundy which way lay the real feelings of every one that there was more beneath the surface of their sovereign. At the same time, the amount of troops affairs than met the eye. It was not the first time that ombarking with Edward was not such as to give to the Montacute bad played this equivocal part. Edward had onterprise a Burgundian appearance. The soldiers fur- formerly stripped him of the earldom of Northumberland, nished him were only 2,000. Edward undoubtedly relied for alleged conspiracy with Clarence, and that he was now on information sent him from England as to the forces in league with Clarence, for Edward, and against Warwick, there ready to join him,
was sufficiently clear. The fleet of Edward steered for the Suffolk coast. It As Edward approached the midland counties, and espewas in the south that the Yörkists' influence lay, and cially when he had crossed the Trent, the scene changed Clarenco was posted in that quarter at the head of a con- rapidly in his favour. He had left the Lancastrian dissiderable force. But Warwick's preparations were too tricts behind, and reached those where Yorkism prevailed. strorg in that quarter; an active body of troops, under a People now flocked to his standard. At Nottingham the broth:- of the Earl of Oxford. deterred the invaders from Lord Stanley, Sir Thomas Parr, Sir James Harrington
Sir Thomas Montgomery, and several other gentlemen, offer of mediation. No doubt his wife, who was the came in with reinforcements. Edward felt himself strong daughter of Warwick, and her sister the wife of the enough to throw off tho mask: he assumed the title of Prince of Wales, was anxicus enough to avert the danger king, and marchəd towards Coveutry, where lay Warwick of her father, and, if possible, ucite contending relations. and Clarence with a force sufficient to punish this odious But Warwick was too much enged both against Edward perju-y. Buss fresh turn of the royal kaleidoscope was and Clarence to listen to any proposa.s of reconciliation. here to asto-zh the public. Edward challenge the The leaders on both sides were now too much embittered unitc army of Warwick and Clarence on the 29th of against each other, guilty of too many changes and acts March, 1471. In the night, Richard, Duke of Glou- of perfidy, ever again to put reliance in each other, much cester, paid a visit to his brother Clarence. The two less to cement a genuine friendship. Warwick said indigbrothers flew into each other's arins with a transport nantly to Clarence's messenger, “Go, and tell
your master which, if not that of genuine affection, was at least that of that Warwick, true to his oath, is a better man than the successful conspiracy. The morninz beheld the army of false and perjured Clarence.” Nothing but blood could rence, amounting to 12,000 mən, arrayed, not on the wash out the enmity of these infuriated parties. part of Warwick, but of Edward; the soldiers wearing, It was late on Easter Eve when the two armies met on not th: red, but the white rose over their gorgets. Barnet common. Both had made long marches, Edward
Here, then, was fully disclosed the secret which had in- having left London that day. Warwick, being first on the duced Edward to march on so confidently through hostile ground, had chosen his position. Edward, who came districts, and people standing aloof from his banners. Nɔt later, had to make his arrangements in the dark, tho Montacuto only, but Clarence had been won. Clarence, consequence of which was, that he committed a great whether in weak simplicity, or under the influence of error. His right wing, instead of confronting the left others, sent to Warwick to apologise for his breach of his wing of Warwick, was opposed to his centre, and the left. most solemn oaths, and offered to become mediator betwixt wing of Edward consequently had no oppononts, but him, his father-in-law, and Edward his brother. Warwick stretched far away to the west. Daylight must have disrejected the offer with disdain, refusing all further inter- covered this error, and most probably fatally for Edward; cuurse with the perjured Clarence; but he was now too but day came accompanied by a dense fog, believed at. weak to engage him and Edward, and the Yorkist king that day to have been raised by a celebrated magician, then boldly advanced towards the capital. The gates of Friar Bungy. The left wing of each army advancing the city, like those of York, he found closed against him, through the obscurity of the fog, and finding no enemy, but he possessed sufficient means to unlock the one as he wheeled in the direction of the main body. By this had done the other. There were upwards of 2,000 persons movement the left wing of Warwick trampled down the of rank and influence, including no less than 400 knights right wing of Edward, and defeating it, pursued the and gentlemen, crowded into the various sanctuaries of flying Yorkists through Barnet on the way to London. London and Westminster, who were ready not only to Meantime, the left wing of the Yorkists, instead of declare, but to operate in bis favour. The ladies, who encountering the right of the Lancastrians, came up so were charmed with the gay and gallant disposition of as to strengthen their own centre, where Edward and Edward, were all avowed his zealous friends; and, per- Wirwick were contending with all their might against haps, still more persuasive was the fact that the jovial each other. Both chiefs were in the very front of the monarch owed large sums to the merchants, who saw in battle, which was raging with the utmost fury. Warwick, his return their only chance of payment. Edward even contrary to his custom, had been persuaded by his succeeded in securing the Archbishop of York, who was, brother Montacute to dismount, send away his horse, and in his brother Warwick's absence, the custodian of the fight on foot. Was this an act of bravery on the part of city and the person of King Henry. All regard to oaths, Montacute, or of treason ? Such was the ambiguous and all fidelity to principle or party, seemed to have dis- conduct of this nobleman, that his contemporaries and appeared at this epoch. By permission of the archbishop, the historians were again divided on the point. If it were Edward was admitted ou Thursday, April 2nd, by a treason, and he meant to take the opportunity of Warpostern into the bishop's palace, where he found the poor wick's personal engagement, in the thick of the mêlée to and helpless King Henry, and immediately sent him to draw off to the other side, he paid the penalty of it, for he the Tower.
was speedily slain. Warwick hastened after Edward and Clarence, intend The battle commenced at four o'clock in the morning, ing to risk an engagement rather than allow them to gain and lasted till ten. The rage of the combatants was the capital. What was as strange as anything which had terrible, and the slaughter was proportionate, for Edward, gone before, was that Montacute was now marching in exasperated zt the Commons, who had shown such favour conjunction with Warwick. Had Edward shown any to Warwick on all occasions, bad deterrined no longer to distrust of the traitor, or did he mean, like Clarenco, to issue orders to spare them, as was his wort, and to kill go completely over to the Yorkists, when they came face ail the leaders, if possible. It was terminated by a sinto faco ? Both suppositions were entertained by different gular mistake. The device of the Earl of Oxford, who patics. Which was trur never was determined; but was fighting for Warwick, was a star with rays, emthere was Montacute.
blazoned both on the front and back of his scldiers' coats. So confident now was Edward of victory, that he dis- The device of Edward's own soldiers on this occasion was dained to shelier himself within the walls of the city, but a sun with rays. Oxford had beaten his opponents in marched out against the enemy. The hostile armies met the field, and was returning to assist Warwick, when near Barnet. Here again the weak Clarence made another Warwick's troops, mistaking through the mist the stars
of Oxford for the sun of Edward, fell upon Oxford's fol- tempest after tempest had driven her back. Could sho lowers, supposing them to be Yorkists, and put them to have been present with the Lancastrian arties, with tho flight. Oxford fled with 800 of his soldiers, supposing Prince of Wales, thousands would have flocked to tho himself the object of some fatal treachery, while on the Lancastrian standard who were doubtful of the loyalty of other hand, Warwick, weakened by the apparent defection Warwick. But the day that she lauded ai Weymouth, of Oxford), and bis troops thrown into confusion, rushed imagining that she had now nothing to dc but to march desperately into the thickest of the enemy, trusting thus in triumph to London, and resume with her husband to revive the courage of his troops, and was thus slain, their vacant throne, Tins the very day of the fatal battle fighting
of Barnet. The first news she received was of the total No socaer vas ühe body of Warwick, stripped of its overthrow of her party and the death of Warwick. The armour and covered with wounds, discovered on the field, life of the great king-maker might have created her than his forces gave way, and filed amain. Thus fell the future troubles; his fall was her total ruin. Confounded great king-maker, who so long had kept alive the spirit by the tidings, her once lofty spirit abandoned her; she of contention, placing the crown first on one head and sank on the ground in a death-like swoon. then on another. With luim perished the power of his On recovering her consciousness, Margaret bitterly faction and the prosperity of his family. On tho field bewailed her fortunes. She cursed the miserable times with him lay all the great lords who fought on his side, in which she lived, and declared that she had rather die except the Earl of Oxford and the Duke of Somerset, than live in so much and so perpetual trouble. She was who escaped into Wales, and joined Jasper Tudor, the then in the abbey of Cerne, and with her were her son, Earl of Pembroke, who was in arms for Henry. The now about eighteen years of age; his new bride, the Duke of Exeter was taken up for dead, but being found daughter of Warwick; Sir John Fortescue, who had to be alive, he was conveyed by his servants secretly to adhered to her through all her exile; Sir Henry Rous, the sanctuary at Westminster; but the holiness of the and some others. With these and the rest of her followers sanctuary does not appear to have proved any defence she fled to the famous sanctuary of Beaulieu, in the New against the lawless vengeance of Edward, for, some months Forest, where she registered herself and all her attendants after, his dead body was found floating in the sea near as privileged persons. Probably the presence of the Dover. On the side of Edward fell the Lords Say and Countess of Warwick might make her resort to Beaulieu. Cromwell, Sir John Lisle, the son of Lord Borners, and The now widowed countess embarked at Harfleur at the many other squires and gentlemen. The soldiers who fell same time with the queen, had landed at Portsmouth, on both sides have been variously stated at from 1,000 to and proceeded to Southampton. Here she was met by the 10,000; the number more commonly credited is about news of her husband's death at Barnet, and she fed 1,500. The dead were buried on the field, and a chapel instantly to Beaulieu. orected near the spot for the repose of their souls. The The moment it was known that Margaret and the spot is supposed to be at the present time actually marked prince were at Beaulieu, the Duke of Somerset, the Earls by a stone column. The bodies of Warwick and Monta- of Devonshire and Oxford, the Lords Wenlock and Beaucute were exposed for three days, naked, on the floor of fort, with many knights and gentlemen, flocked thither, St. Paul's Church, as a striking warning against subjects and bade her not despair, for that the Earl of Pembroke interfering with kings and crowns. They were then con- was at the head of a strong force in Wales, and her veyed to the burial-place of their family in the abbey followers were still of good heart. Margaret roplied that, of Bilsam, in Berkshire.
for herself, she would remain and do everything possible In the fall of Warwick Edward might justly suppose to turn the tide of victory; but she begged that her son that he saw the only real obstacle to the permanency of might be allowed to return to France and there await the his own power; but Margaret was still alive. She was issue in safety. To this the prince refused to listen, and no longer, however, the elastic and indomitable Margaret was unanimously supported in that resolution by the who had led her forces up to the battles of St. Alban's, leaders. The forebodings of Margaret were borne down Northampton, Wakefield, Towton, and Hexham. Her by his zealous opposition, and she said, “Well, be it so." astonishing exertions, her severe hardships, and awful It was the plan of her generals to hasten to Pembroke; reverses had told on her spirit and constitution. Years and, having effected a junction with him, to proceed to of reflection in the midst of obscurity and poverty had Cheshire, to render the army offective by a good body of led her to perceive more clearly the formidable difficulties archers. But Edward, always rapid in his movements, in the way to a peaceable possession of the throne-the allowed them no time for so formidable a combination. mental condition cî her husband, thə youth of her son, He left London on the 19th of April, and reached Tewkesthe power of Warwick – formerly her great enemy, bury on the 3rd of May. Margaret and her company set and now her doubtful friend, for he had secured his hold out from Bath, and prepared to cross the Severn at on the throne by the carriage of two of his daughters. Gloucester, to join Pembroke and Jasper Tudor. But There was thɔ ominous clause in the treaty with her and the people of Gloucester had fortified the bridge, and Franz3, thai if the issue of her son failed, the throne neither threats nor bribes could induce them to let her went to Clarence, the brother of Edward. Heaven and pass. She then marched on to Tewkesbury, near which the elemenís, over since this unnatural contract, had op- they found Edward already awaiting them.. peared to oppose her. As “the stars in their courses Tho troops being worn down by the fatigue of a long fought against Sisera,” they appeared now to fight and fearful march, Margaret was in the utmost anxiety to against her. All the winter she had been struggling to avoid an engagement, and to press on to their friends in cross the Channel with her son and her followers, and Wales. But Somerset represented that such a thing was