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those which should flow from earnestness and elevation of mind. The young catch, by involuntary imitation, the intonation of adults; and hence the prevalence of false and hollow utterance, in the declamation at schools and colleges,-a style of voice which often seems on a sudden to convert the youthful speakers into grave and formal personages, somewhat advanced in life.

The false pitch now alluded to, is attended with many injurious consequences: it leads to a faint, inaudible, or indistinct utterance, an exhausting mode of emitting the voice, which impairs the action of the lungs and the vigour of health; add to which a formal and tedious monotony of speech, preventing the natural tones of the voice, and their appropriate influence.

The true pitch of the voice, for every individual, is that to which he inclines in animated conversation. The prevailing seriousness of feeling which naturally belongs to the expression of the voice, in the utterance of the sentiments commonly introduced in public discourses, may appropriately incline the tone to a lower strain than is usually heard in conversation on ordinary subjects. But the common error is to exaggerate this tendency of voice, and to create a different mode of speech from what is natural and habitual to the speaker; so that the professional man and the individual are not the same being,—if we judge by the tone and expression of the voice.

The opposite fault of a high and feeble note, has a very unfavourable effect on the ear, owing to the associations with which it is accompanied. It divests a speaker's whole manner of manliness and dignity, and renders his utterance much less impressive and distinct than it would otherwise be.

The various kinds and degrees of emotion, require different notes of voice, for their appropriate expression. Deep feeling produces low tones; joyful and elevated feeling inclines to a high strain; and pity, though so widely differing in force, is also expressed by the higher notes of the scale. Moderate emotion inclines to a middle pitch.

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The exercises on pitch are intended to produce the effect of contrast, and to guard the ear against the undue prevalence of any note unauthorized by meaning or emotion, or tending to create indistinctness of utterance. The appropriate note of each class of exercises, will be most correctly given in practice, by allowing full scope to the particular emotion which, in each instance, affects the pitch of the voice, and otherwise determines or modifies the prevailing tone. In this, as well as in other departments of elocution, it is the degree of mental attention and interest in what is read or spoken, that favours felicity and truth of mechanical execution. The exercises on pitch should be attentively practised, till the power of easy transition from one class to another, in inverted, as well as regular, order, is fully acquired, and the appropriate keynote of any emotion can be struck with certainty and precision; while the natural compass of the student's voice is strictly regarded, and a strong and clear articulation carefully preserved.

Time.* The utterance of successive sounds requires, in every form of speech, a certain rate, or proportion of time, occupied in the formation of each element of sound, and in the intervals which elapse between the elements, in their natural and proper succession. A given time is necessary to distinct and intelligible utterance. Deep and solemn emotion requires a slow movement; and a deliberate manner is indispensable to a serious and impressive delivery; while animation and earnestness naturally incline to a degree of quickness in útterance, without which speech is apt to become languid and dull.

The extremes of drawling and rapidity are the common faults in time; the former unavoidably associated with laziness of habit and inefficiency of voice, and the latter, with carelessness and a want of selfcommand, if not of a strong and clear conception of what is uttered.

* The word time is sometimes used in elocution, as equivalent to movement, in music.

The intention of the exercises under the head of time', is, to enable the student to acquire a perfect 'command of his rate of utterance, with a view to the distinct communication of thought, and the appropriate expression of feeling. To effect this purpose, the various classes of exercise, from the slowest to the quickest in rate, should be frequently and carefully practised, in inverted order, as well as that in which they are arranged in the book.

EXERCISES ON FORCE OF UTTERANCE.

Whispering: " All silent they went, for the time was approaching, The moon the blue zenith already was touching; No foot was abroad on the forest or hill, No sound but the lullaby sung by the rill.”

Subdued Force.
" There is no breeze upon the fern,

No ripple on the lake;
Upon her eyrie nods the erne,

The deer hath sought the brake;
The small birds will not sing aloud,

The springing trout lies still;
So darkly glooms yon thunder cloud,
That swathes, as with a purple shroud,

Benledi's distant hill."
There breathed no wind their crests to shake,

Or wave their flags abroad;
Scarce the frail aspen seemed to quake,

That shadowed o'er their road:
No cymbal clashed, no clarion rang,

Still were the pipe and drum;
Save heavy tread and armour's clang,

Their sullen march was dumb.”

Moderate and Conversational Force. “ The Supreme Author of our being has made every thing that is beautiful in all other objects pleasant, or rather, has made so many objects appear beautiful, that he might render the whole creation more gay and delightful. He has given almost every thing about us the power of raising an agreeable idea in the imagination; so that it is impossible for us to behold his works with coldness or indifference, and to survey so many beauties without a secret satisfaction and complacency. We are everywhere entertained with pleasing shows and apparitions; we discover imaginary glories in the heavens, and in the earth, and see some of this visionary beauty poured out upon the whole creation; but what a rough unsightly sketch of nature should we be entertained with, did all her colouring disappear, and the several distinctions of light and shade vanish! In short, our souls are at present delightfully lost and bewildered in a pleasing delusion; and we walk about like the enchanted hero in a romance, who sees beautiful castles, woods, and meadows; and at the same time hears the warbling of birds, and the purling of streams: but, upon the finishing of some secret spell, the fantastic scene breaks up; and the disconsolate knight finds himself on a barren heath, or in a solitary desert."

Declamatory Force. 1. “These abominable principles, and this more abominable avowal of them, demand the most decisive indignation. I call upon that right reverend and this most learned bench, to vindicate the religion of their God, to defend and support the justice of their country. I call upon the bishops to interpose the unsullied sanctity of their lawn, upon the judges to interpose the purity of their ermine, to save us from this pollution. I call upon the honour of your lordships, to reverence the dignity of your ancestors, and to maintain your

I call upon the spirit and humanity of my country, to vindicate the national character."

own.

2. “What's hallowed ground ? 't is that gives birth

To sacred thoughts in souls of worth.
Peace, Independence, Truth! go forth

Earth's compass round, -
And your high priesthood shall make earth

All hallowed ground.” 3.

"One great clime, Whose vigorous offspring by dividing ocean Are kept apart, and nursed in the devotion Of Freedom, which their fathers fought for, and Bequeathed,-a heritage of heart and hand, And proud distinction from each other land, Whose sons must bow them at a monarch's motion, As if his senseless sceptre were a wand Full of the magic of exploded science, Still one great clime, in full and free defiance, Yet rears her crest, unconquered and sublime, Above the far Atlantic !"

Force of Emotion. 1.

"On, ye brave,
Who rush to glory or the grave !
Wave, Munich, all thy banners wave,

And charge with all thy chivalry !” 2. "Strike till the last armed foe expires,

Strike for your altars and your fires,
Strike for the green graves of your sires,
God, and your native land !"'

Shouting and Calling. 1st Example. “Liberty ! freedom! Tyranny is dead : Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets !"

2. “Rejoice, you men of Angiers, ring your bells ! King John, your king and England's, doth approach: Open your gates, and give the victors way!"

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