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descends to one very low. The space traversed by the voice, in such cases, is sometimes a 'third,' sometimes a fifth,' and sometimes an "octave,' according to the intensity of emotion.

Example 1. [The tone of indignant surprise, heightened by question and contrast] “Shall we in your person crown the author of the public calamities, or shall we destroy him ?” 2. “Hark!-a deep sound strikes like a rising

knell.' {Earnest, agitated inquiry]:-"Did you not hear it?" [Careless and contemptuous answer] :—"Nò! 'twas

but the wind, Or the car rattling o'er the stony street." 3. [Excessive impatience]:-"Must I endure all

this?" [Derisive and scornful repetition] :-"All this?Emphatic assertion) “Ay, more..

Note 2. In unempassioned language, on the contrary, the tone being comparatively moderate, the inflections rise and fall but slightly.

The following examples, in which this diminution of inflection takes place, are so arranged that the inflections are to be reduced by successive stages, till they lose entirely the point and acuteness of the tone of question, from which they are supposed to commence, and are, at last, brought down nearly to the comparative level which they acquire in conversational expression,—the form in which they are oftenest employed in a chaste and natural style of reading.

Example 1. Interrogation, when not emphatic, thus, - Shall I speak to him ?

2. Contrast, when not accompanied by emotion: They fought not for fáme but freedom."

3. The expression of a condition or a supposition: "If we would be truly háppy, we must be actively useful.” “Your enemies may be formidable by their number and their power. But He who is with you is mightier than they."

4. Comparison and correspondence: "As the beauty

of the body always accompanies the health of it, so is decency of behaviour a concomitant to virtue.” 5. Connexion : “He shook the fragment of his blade,

And shouted, Victory!” 6. Continuance of thought, or incomplete expression, generally: “Destitute of resources, he fied in disguise." "Formed to excel in peace, as well as in war, Cæsar possessed many great and noble qualities. “While dangers are at a distance, and do not immediately approach us; let us not conclude that we are secure, unless we use the necessary precautions against them.” “To us who dwell upon its surface, the earth is by far the most extensive orb that our eyes can anywhere behold.”

CIRCUMFLEX. DEFINITION. Circumflex, or wave.

The two simple inflections, the rising and the falling, are superseded, in the tones of keen and ironical emotion, or peculiar significance in expression, by a double turn, or slide of voice, which unites both in one continuous sound, called the circumflex, or wave.

When the double inflection thus produced, terminates with the upward slide, it is called the rising circumflex, which is marked thus (v); when it terminates with the downward slide, it is called the falling circumflex, -marked thus (^).

These inflections occur in the following passage of ironical expression,—deriding the idea that Cæsar was entitled to the credit of humane feeling, because he could not pass the Rubicon without a pause of misgiving: Oh! but he păused upon the brink !”

MONOTONE.

DEFINITION. When no inflection is used, a monotone, or perfect level of voice, is produced, which is usually

marked thus (-). This tone belongs to emotions arising from sublimity and grandeur. It characterizes, also, the extremes of amazement and horror.

“ High on a throne of royal state, that far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind,
Or where the gorgeous Eāst, with richest hānd,
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,
Satan exalted sat." *

RULES ON THE FALLING INFLECTION. Rule I. Forcible expression requires the falling inflection, as in the following instances of energetic emotion : earnest calling or shouting, abrupt and vehement exclamation, imperious or energetic command, indignant or reproachful address, challenge and defiance, swearing and adjuration, imprecation, accusation,-assertion, affirmation, or declaration,-assurance, threatening, warning, denial, contradiction, refusal,-appeal, remonstrance, and expostulation, earnest intreaty, exhortation, earnest or animated invitation, temperate command, admiration, adoration.

Examples. Calling and shouting: “Awake! arise! or be for

ever fallen!” Abrupt exclamation: “To drms! they come !—the

Grèek, the Greek !" Imperious command: “Hènce! hòme, you idle

-creatures, get you hòme!Indignant address: "You blocks, you stones, you

worse than senseless things"Challenge and defiance: “I dàre him to his proofs," Swearing and adjuration: “By all the blood that

fury ever breathed, The youth says well.”

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* Farther examples of this inflection occur under the Rules on Monotone.

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"I do beseech you,
By all the battles wherein we have fought,
By the blood we have shed together, by the vows
We have made to endure friends, that you directly

Set me against Aufidius and his Antiates." Imprecation: Accùrs'd may his memory blacken,

If a coward there be that would slacken" Accusation: “With a foul trditor's name stuff I thy

throat." Assertion, affirmation, declaration: “We must fight,-I repeat it, sir,--we must fìght.”

Assurance: “But whatever may be our fate, be assùred, be assured that this Declaration will stand.” Threatening: "Have mind upon your health, tempt

me no further.Warning: “Lochiel, Lochiel, beware of the day." Denial : _For Gloucester's death,

I slew him not, but, to my own disgrace,

Neglected my sworn duty in that case.” Contradiction : .Brutus. I did send to you

For certain sums of gold, which you denied me
Cassius. I denied you not.
Bru. You did.

Cas. I did not”-
Refusal :

grace shall pàrdon me, I will not back."

Appeal: “I appeal to all who hear me, for the truth of my assertion." Remonstrance and expostulation:

“Good reverend father, make my person yours,
And tell me how you would bestów yourself.
This royal hand and mine are newly knit;
The latest breath that gave the sound of words,
Was deep-sworn faìth, peace amity, true love,
Between our kingdoms, and our royal sèlves;
And shall these hands, so lately purged of blood,
So newly joined in love, so strong in both,

Unyoke this seizure and this kind regret ?” Earnest intreaty: “Let me, upon my knee, prevail

in this !

is Your

Exhortation: “Come on, then; be mèn.”
Earnest invitation: “Come fòrth, Oye children of

gladness, còme!” Temperate command: “Now launch the boat upon

the waves." Admiration : "How beautiful is night!'

Adoration : "Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty!”

Rule II. The falling inflection is required in the expression of relative force of thought, as in the emphasis of contrast, when one part of an antithesis is made preponderant, whether by affirmation opposed to negation, or merely by comparative force or prominence.

Examples. "They fought not for fáme but freedom.”

Are you an actor in this busy scene, or are you but an idle spectator ?

“True politeness is not a mere compliance with arbitrary cústom. It is the expression of a refined benèvolence."*

“You were paid to fight against Alexander,-not to ráil at him."

A countenance more in sòrrow than in anger.”

* Teachers must have felt the difficulty of imparting a clear conception of the effect of the falling slide, in examples like the above, in which its character is wholly dependent on a preceding or a subsequent rising inflection. To the ear of the pupil, the rising note at the end of the negative or less forcible sentence, seems unnatural, from his habit of complying with the direction to let the voice uniformly fall at a period,'-—a direction which, from not being duly qualified, is one of the chief causes of monotonous and unmeaning tones in reading.

It is not till the learner's attention has been attracted to the circumstance of relative force, or preponderance, in the members of a comparison or a contrast, that his ear catches the true tone of meaning in such cases, and recognizes the falling inflection as its appropriate characteristic, and the rising as a necessary contrast, in whatever part of a sentence they occur.

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