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sus denotes the same thing, “*He is called Jesus because he saves his people from their sins.”
Though the word redemption is sometimes used in scrip ture to denote a mere deliverance, which is procured with out the payment of any price, as Moses is called Aufgarn, a deliverer;t and as God is said to have “redeemed Israel out of the house of bondage;" yet it does not follow that in this argument, it is to be taken in that sense. Many things prove that in the business of man's salvation, the word is to be understood as signifying redemption by the payment of a price. 1. This is the primary import of the words Autgor, «TO? durger, and we may in no case give them any other, unless for a very solid reason. This is not denied by Socinus himselff. “ To redeem any one, properly signifies nothing else but to free a captive, by paying a price to him who detains him.” 2. Because the conditions of freeing man require this; as man is a prisoner to death, Satan and sin; to the law and to justice; and that both in relation to guilt and pollution. He is condemned of God and a child of wrath; from which evils he cannot be freed, but by making a satis. factory payment. 3. Such is the redemption procured by the price mentioned, 1 Cor. vi. 20. Why should the apostle use dut gor and topen, price of redemption and punishment, if no price was paid. The reply usually made to this, is that the term iş used in a figurative sense, and denotes that we are freed from the power of sin. This is an assumption, which, as we do not grant it, qur opponent is bound to prove. Nay, the contrary is evident. The price is compared to very precious earthly things, such as gold, silver and jewels, which have always a relation to price, strictly so called, 1 Pet. i. 18. 4. We have not only the word nuggor, a price of redemption, but also the word artiautgor, applied to the suffering and death of Christ. The word aureou might admit of quibbling, but nothing can be more express than the word artsavrgor. It denotes not merely a price, but such a price as is perfectly
t Acts, vii. 35. Deut. vii. 8.
Matt. i. 21.
equal to the debt, which it pays; this is the force of the preposition arti, which expresses substitution. Aristotle, who surely understood the Greek language, uses the word artiduo tpor, in the 9th book of his Ethics, and 2d chapter, to denote the redemption or purchasing of a life, by substituting another life in its room.
Hence it appears that this redemption is not a mere manumission, such as that in which a master, without any price, sets free his slaves; nor is it simply an act of power, by which prisoners are rescued from the hand of an enemy; nor a bare exchange such as that of prisoners of war. No, this redemption is much more. It is made by a perfect satisfaction, a full payment, such as a surety makes for the debtor. Our deliverance, indeed, is procured without any price paid on our part, and purely through the free grace and mercy of God.* The divine power too is displayed gloriously, as exercised in emancipating us from the tyrannical dominion of Satan, over whom Christ obtains a victory and triumph.t There is also an exchange in respect of Christ, who was substituted in our place, and suffered the punishment due to us; yet in relation to the justice of God a perfect satisfaction must be made.
The truth of the atonement is also proved from those passages of scripture, in which Christ is said to have died, not only for the promotion of our interests, but also in our stead, as a substitute. “For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly-in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us”. “SFor Christ also hath suffered for our sins, the just for the unjust.” Our reasons for understanding these phrases in this sense and none other, are:-1. This is the common import of the preposition urip (for) which is used in these texts, and which when applied to persons, denotes among the Greeks substitution: as in Romans, v. 7. “Scarcely for a just man will one die,” i. e. in his place, and in Romans, xi. 3. “ Hvabeus vtip adia
* Rom. iii. 24. Eph. ii. 3.
+ Col. i. 15.
p@," “ for or in the room of his brethren.” 2. It is elsewhere expressed by arti, in the room of, as in Matt. xx. 28, and by artidurgor, a price of redemption, as in 1 Tim. ji. 6. “Who gave him a ransom (artilvigor) for all.” Both of these import substitution-life for life, lex talionis. *“ Eye for (avto) eye”.* 3. Christ is said to have died for us in a manner peculiar to himself, a manner in which neither Paul nor Peter can be said to die, or be crucified for us.f Both Paul and Peter might die for our edification and confirmation in the faith. Hence the sufferings and death of Christ were vicarious; and in their design entirely different from that of the apostles or martyrs. Though the apostles may be said to have suffered for the church, yet it does not folow from this, that the object of their death was the same with that of Christ's. They suffered as martyrs for truth, to edify, confirm, and comfort the church, by bearing an hoDest, and severely tried testimony to the truth of the Chris. tian system; as it is expressed by the apostle. “Whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation,” &c. but Christ alone laid down his life to redeem the church. And if we are commanded to lay down our lives for our brethren, as Christ laid down his life for us, we are thereby taught not to refuse to undergo the danger of death, nay to suffer with firmness even death itself, whenever the glory of God, the good of our neighbour, or the edification of the church requires it, as the martyrs have done. Hence, indeed, we may also infer that we should in this imitate the example of Christ, in bearing witness to the Christian system; but it does not hence follow, that our death for our brethren, is for the same purposes as Christ's death for us. We are unable to pay a ransom for our brother, that we may free him from death, as the inspired psalmist expresses it in Psalm xlix. 8. nor by our death can we procure their reconciliation with God, nor can we by it purge them from sin all which Christ does for his people, by his death. Thus our
• Matt. v. 38.
1 Cor, i. 13.
death may in some respects be compared to that of Christ, but not in all. In relation to an example of love, a comparison may be instituted, but not in relation to the merit of satisfaction. The particle xalws, as, denotes similitude, hot equality. Its power may be learned from its use, in Matta y. 48. “Be ye perfect, even as (rabos) your Father in heaven is perfect,” No one will presume to say that we are here commanded to be equally as holy as God.
Another source of proof, in favour of Christ's having made such a satisfaction as that for which we contend, is derived from those portions of holy writ in which Christ is said to have borne our sins, and on account of them to have been afflicted, to have been wounded, to have died, * " He bore our sins in his own body on the tree.” The Chaldee Paraphrase, and the ancient Jews, consider the prophet Isaiah as treating of Messiah, in this chapter of his pro, phecy. “ He hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities--the chastisement of our peace was upon him— the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity” (i. e. the punishment) “ of us all-he shall make his soul an offering for sin.” In proving the atonement from these texts, we reason as follows. 1. From bearing our sins:--though to bear and to carry sometimes, by a figurative mode of speaking, are put for taking away and pardoningit yet there is no good reason why we should understand them in these
passages in this figurative sense. Nay, there are most weighty reasons, which forbid us to depart from this primary and most common signification, as Socinus himself acknowledges. To bear sin, is the same thing as to bear the punishment of sin.
The word XV which sometimes relates to a simple taking away of sin, is indeed used; but the word bad which signifies the bearing of a burden laid upon one, is also used, and clearly intimates the suffering of punishment. 2. The
+ Exod. xxxiv. 7. and Numb. xiv. 18.
* 1 Pet. ï. 24.
manner in which the sins are borne, confirms us in this view of the passage. The sins are borne by being bruised and wounded. Sin is also said to be laid upon him. None of these could be said, unless Christ took upon himself and suffered the punishment of sin. 3. Christ made his soul an offering, and laid down his life an offering for sin, bore sin in the manner of a victim; nay, he made himself in reality a victim by suffering death, and shedding his blood in the room of sinners. 4. All things which indicate a real satisfaction occur in this portion of scripture our sins as the moving, the meritorious cause, “he was bruised for our iniquities,” v. 4, 5, 6—the suffering of punishment due to sin; " he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows,” v. 4.the impů. tation of our sins to Christ, by God as a judge; “the Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all,” v. 6.--the voluntary under: taking of Christ as our surety; "he was oppressed and afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth,” in complaining of his sufferings, or in refusing to bear them, v. 8an expiation for sin and a full payment of the debt; " yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin,” v. 8. 10. Now, with what degree of propriety, could all these things be affirmed; if Christ laid down his life merely to exhibit an example of patience, and love; and not to make satisfaction for sin? It would be an idle pomp of language.
In Matt. viii. 17. we are, indeed, informed thatthis prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled, when Christ healed bodily diseases, which, properly speaking, he did not bear, but take away; yet we cannot infer from this, that the same thing may be affirmed of sins which are the diseases of the mind; for the diseases of the body are to be viewed in a different light from those of the mind. In healing the former, it was not necessary that Christ should himself become sick; it was only necessary that he should exercise his power. Not, so the latter. He must first take them upon himself before he could take them away from us. Hence he is held forth by the prophet as wounded and bruised, which were pot necessary to the healing of bodily maladies, but to bearing those