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Congressman Tuck stressed that only 2 to 5 percent of the Negro population had taken part in the riots, and these figures represented a small minority of the total Negro population in America. He added that even this small minority was comprised, in significant part, by youths, teenage gangs, and persons with criminal records. In his opening statement, Mr. Tuck also noted that other inquiries have been undertaken for the purpose of judging the factors contributing to the riots, but that the jurisdiction of the hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities was limited to subversive activities (in the perspective of the riots) and would “not embrace social problems as such.” Commenting on the historical aspects of riots, the Virginia Congressman said: Throughout history riots have been used for political purposes. They can be, and have been, deliberately instigated to weaken and undermine existing governments and pave the way for the establishment of a new and different type of governmental system. In 1960 the Annual Report of the House Committee on Un-American Activities stated: There is considerable evidence that, in the United States, as well as on a world scale, the Communists feel that the present tactical situation calls for increased utilization of rioting and mob violence. * * * Mr. Tuck regretted that the committee analysis had proved to be accurate. TESTIMONY OF ARCHIE MOORE
Former professional light heavyweight boxing champion, Archie Moore, now a resident of San Diego, was the lead-off witness, in the committee’s hearings. -
Mr. Moore, recipient of the 1968 outstanding citizen of San Diego award, stated that he did not see any sense in rioting and submitted a statement he had earlier delivered to the San Diego Union. The article by the boxing champion, published as a page-one feature, was reprinted by many other newspapers. It stated in part:
Granted, the Negro still has a long way to go to gain a fair shake with the white man in this country. But believe this: If we resort to lawlessness, the only thing we can hope for is civil war, untold bloodshed, and the end of our dreams.
We have to have a meeting of qualified men of both races. Mind you, I said qualified men, not some punk kid, ranting the catch phrases put in his mouth by some paid hate-monger. There are forces in the world today, forces bent upon the destruction of America, your America and mine. And while we’re on the subject, do you doubt for a minute that communism, world communism, isn't waiting with bated breath for the black and white Americans to turn on each other full force? Do you want a chance for life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness in the land of your birth, or do you want no chance at all under the Red heel?
Mr. Moore stated that he had devised a program—called ABC, Any Boy Can—based on “truth, honesty, respect for self and for other pedple, their rights and property.” The ABC program teaches young Negroes and whites in the ghettos the basics of moral, physical, and spiritual self-defense.
A good student in the ABC class does not lie, steal, cheat, smoke, gamble, refuse to go to church, play hooky from school, get into trouble, participate in riots, throw bombs, smoke dope, smoke weeds, use narcotics of any kind, use LSD " **. We do teach them this is wrong.
TESTIMONY OF CLARENCE MITCHELL
Clarence Mitchell, director of the Washington Bureau of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was sworn in and stated that he had been director of the Washington Bureau since 1950 and began his work with the well-known civil rights organization in 1945. Mr. Mitchell read a prepared statement into the record in which he praised committee chairman Edwin E. Willis for his courageous challenge of the Ku Klux Klan. In his statement, Mr. Mitchell said: “It is my opinion that it is an insult to the millions of law-abiding colored people to align them with the terrible destruction and violence that we have witnessed in some of our cities.” He added: “It is my opinion that the vast majority of colored people in this country seek to settle their grievances and to achieve their objectives just as all other Americans, through the lawful channels of the land.” Mr. Mitchell noted that his impression was that “Communists have never made any great headway in recruiting colored followers and they do not have any substantial following at this point.” The NAACP bureau director noted that long before many other groups were conscious of Communist infiltration his organization had avoided contacts with Communists. The NAACP had “an ironclad rule that we didn’t want anybody who was Communist affiliated or an out-an-out Communist.” Further, Mr. Mitchell stated that the NAACP had initiated a concerted campaign at the local level during the summer of 1967 in hopes of heading off violence in communities. Demonstrating just one facet of this campaign, Mr. Mitchell offered for exhibit several printed cards and bumper stickers which had been printed and distributed by the NAACP. The cards and bumper stickers read:
KEEP COOL, Let the Other Guy BLOW HIS TOP
The NAACP director said that it was his opinion that a “great deal of the turmoil in this country is fomented by the playing up of those who are willing to say anything that is irresponsible for the purpose of getting on television or getting into the papers.” He ...' getting a call from a lady who represented a very reputable lady's magazine. She asked Mr. Mitchell to “help her find a Negro who was a college graduate, who was disillusioned by the war in Vietnam, disillusioned about our domestic policy, and therefore had decided to become a sniper.” The woman had been assigned to “keep looking for that particular kind of Negro” for a “Christmas story.”
TESTIMONY OF ASA. T. SPAULDING
Mr. Asa T. Spaulding, resident of Durham, N.C., and president of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, was the next witness. Mr. Spaulding had started with the insurance company in 1932 and worked his way up from assistant secretary to comptroller to vice president in 1948 and finally to president in 1959. The witness is a member of the board of directors of a number of large financial institutions and a trustee of Howard University and Shaw University. Mr. Spaulding is a receipient of a Presidential citation in 1946 for his work in helping to stabilize the economy of the United States Government during World War II. The witness had recently returned from a trip to Africa as a member of a trade mission for the U.S. Department of Commerce and had recently completed a tour of military installations in this country under the auspices of the Department of Defense. After reading his personal statement to the committee, Mr. Spaulding read a statement on his company’s position in the current civil rights struggle. In conclusion, Asa T. Spaulding, himself a Negro, stated: I am of the opinion that Communists never miss an opportunity to capitalize on dissatisfaction, strife, and turmoil no matter what the cause. * * * their alliances are more or less “marriages of convenience,” subject to being dissolved when it will serve their interest to do so. I, therefore, doubt that Communists “sincerely have the interests of the Negro
at heart,” or that they will work with the Negro in his efforts to achieve full equality • * *.
TESTIMONY OF whitNEY M. YoUNG, JR., ON BEHALF OF THE NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE, INC.
Mr. Young was unable to appear before the committee on October 25, 1967. However, he submitted a statement which the chairman authorized to be inserted in the record. The statement read in part: In the light of the deaths, injuries, arrests, and destruction of Negro-owned property this past summer, it is obvious that the interests of Negro citizens are not advanced by riots. * * *
In answer to the question concerning whether or not Communists sincerely have the interests of the Negro at heart, the statement pointed out that the “Communist Party has spent much time and effort in wooing the Negro population, all to no avail” and that there “is little evidence that Communists have any significant influence on the civil rights movement. * * *”
TESTIMONY OF EVELLE. J. YOUNGER
At the start of the afternoon session of the committee hearings on Wednesday, October 25, 1967, the first witness to be called and sworn in was Evelle J. Younger, district attorney for Los Angeles County, Calif. Mr. Younger told the committee that he grew up in Nebraska and received his A.B. and LL.B. degrees from the University of Nebraska. He then went on to graduate studies in criminology at Northwestern University.
After Northwestern, Mr. Younger joined the FBI as a special agent. He served with the Army Counterintelligence Corps.
He has been deputy city attorney in Los Angeles, in the Criminal Division; prosecuting attorney in the city of Pasadena; and on the municipal and superior court in Los Angeles for 11 years before becoming district attorney in 1964.
Mr. Younger stated that his first major involvement with rioters and rioting was in 1965 during the Watts riot, where approximately 2,500 felony cases were prosecuted. The district attorney defined a riot as “thousands of people engaged in burning, looting, assault, and mur; der.” A riot, he said, “involves a complete breakdown of law and order. * * * it most certainly is one tremendous crime spree.”
Commenting on his own experiences with rioters, he said:
We have been experiencing a number of actions by persons who resort to physically coercive methods to effect change which, in effect, amount to a repudiation of the orderly governmental process—professors and clergymen urging young men to resist military service; the editor of the UCLA student newspaper urging students to violate the laws against the use of marijuana; public figures advocating a refusal to pay taxes because the Government finances programs with which they disagree.
- * * * 4. * *
When police are called upon to perform their duty to preserve order and protect life and property, they are often jeered, insulted, and spat upon by the very people they are paid to protect.
Screams of “police brutality” drown out those who urge higher standards of training and better pay and a higher degree of professionalization to produce better law enforcement. * * *
Concerning technical developments in our society which affect a riot situation, Mr. Younger said: Unquestionably, the television medium can be a major factor in contributing
to or sustaining a riot. A newspaper can also do much to mold and influence public opinion over a period of time.
However, he noted:
Only TV can inspire immediate action—good or bad. TV can be the monster or the Jolly Green Giant, depending on how its power is used.
Mr. Younger said that the TV stations in the United States are licensed to be operated “in the public interest, necessity, and convenience.” He added that—
if Rap Brown is making an inflammatory speech before 20 people * * * should TV come along and give him an audience of several million * * * is it in the public interest?
+ * * * so * *
When does TV stop reporting news and start creating news? At a recent Ku
Klux Klan convention in southern California, there were literally more TV cameras present than delegates.
+ * * * * * *
Should rioters be able to use TV as a means of publishing battle orders?
He stated that the “riot-prone group” comprises only about 5 to 10 percent, and most of this extremist fragment of the Negro race are “young and they are psychotic. Each is a potential killer.”
Mr. Younger opined that:
These racists, haters, political extremists, and agitators and the confirmed
criminals are the real villains [in any riotous situation]. * * * They comprise at most 20 percent of the participants in any modern American riot. * * *
The Los Angeles district attorney continued:
Certainly, after a riot starts, this group moves in fast and pours fuel on the flames and tries to make the riot as bloody, as damaging, and as extensive as possible. The fact is, though, that while this 20 percent could probably start a riot, they cannot sustain it. Only the remaining 80 percent of the 5 to 10 percent can sustain a riot, make it last anywhere from 24 hours to a week.
Mr. Younger was asked if he had any suggestions toward eliminating or reducing the possibility of riots in the future. He replied:
First, we must insist that all Americans obey all our laws at all times, period. Not just the laws they like, but all laws, period. ***
Step II : Free the slaves. * * * And we must be honest with the Vegro and say we are not talking about equal cars or equal homes or equal salary, but equal opportunity.
In concluding his testimony, the Los Angeles district attorney said: While we are working out our problems, let us get rid of our national inferiority complex. Government should cease its preoccupation with introspection and feelings of guilt and should stop espousing the idea that society is at fault for riots. This self-pity syndrome is extremely dangerous. * * *
Mr. Younger was thanked for his contribution by Mr. Tuck and was questioned on certain points of his testimony by various members of the subcommittee.
The district attorney noted that his statement was not a criticism of television, but rather “a concern that television is so powerful that the potential for doing great damage during the riot is there."
The district attorney restated an earlier point made in his testimony-that the Communists and other extremist elements are quick to move in once the riot starts in order to exploit the disruption to their own ends.
TESTIMONY OF ADRIAN H. JONES
The next witness, Adrian H. Jones, was sworn in and gave his address as 8365 East Beach Drive NW., Washington, D.C. The witness attended public schools in Roslyn and Spokane, Wash. He received a master of arts degree in psychology from the University of Kansas in 1963. The witness had been studying for the past 412 years in the sociology department of the American University. At the time of the hearings he had completed all the course work and qualifying examinations for a Ph. D. and was writing his dissertation on civil disturbances.
The witness served two tours of duty in Europe and participated in the occupation of Japan from 1946 to 1949. He is former commanding officer of the Harlem Military Police detachment and former provost marshal of Fort Leavenworth, Kans.
For 412 years prior to the hearings, he had been engaged in research and study in the area of internal security. He is employed by the Center for Research in Social Systems of the American University.
Mr. Jones is the coauthor of a study entitled "Combating Subversively Manipulated Civil Disturbances" and is guest lecturer at the International Police Academy. He is also a guest lecturer for the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
The witness noted that "law enforcement has not been extensively researched.” Due to the controversial nature of investigations into riots, his studies were systematically approached from three separate areas: (1) political subversion, (2) community conflict, and (3) the control of mobs and crowds. His study encompassed historical, social science, police operational, and news media references.
Addressing the question of salient basic elements necessary for any riot, the witness noted that group hostility or antagonism, latent or