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“Last year there were insurrections in Negro ghettos of thirty-eight cities across the United States. *


“By cutting funds for the ghettos, they made slum insurrections inevitable, and they were prepared to use force at home just as they were using it abroad * *

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"As the world knows, there were major ghetto insurrections in Detroit, Michigan, and in Newark, New Jersey. * * * The guardians of American law and order' were ruthless in suppressing the ghetto insurrections in these two cities.


"the entire struggle of the embittered black slum dwellers across the land has assumed a new character. * * * It bears the heat of dynamite. *** the rulers of the United States find themselves engaging in a thus far 'limited war' to suppress black people at home * * *. The battlefields and potential battle fields at home may be less numerous than in Vietnam, but surely sufficient to cause concern to Washington strategists as they try to calculate in what cities and in what numbers army troops may be required to supplement reservists and police.

"No one can gauge precisely the power of the social dynamite stored in the country's ghettos: no one can surely predict how far the 'limited war on the home front will escalate. What is clear is that the country is in the midst of an internal crisis of major proportions.

“young and new leaders in the struggle, such as Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown of the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee, clearly welcome the insurrections


On August 12, 1963, there was held in Peking, China, “The Rally of People From All Walks of Life in Peking Opposing U.S. Imperialism and Supporting the American Negroes' Struggle Against Racial Discrimination."

Four days earlier, on August 8, while receiving a group of visitors from Africa, Mao Tse-tung, at the request of Robert Williams (who was then visiting Peking with his wife), made a statement on the theme of the above-mentioned rally. EXCERPTS FROM MAO TSE-TUNG'S STATEMENT WHICH WAS READ AT THE RALLY

FOLLOW: An American Negro leader now taking refuge in Cuba, Mr. Robert Wil. liams, * * * has twice this year asked me for a statement in support of the American Negroes' struggle against racial discrimination. On behalf of the Chinese people, I wish to take this opportunity to express our resolute support for the American Negroes in their struggle against racial discrimination and for freedom and equal rights.


"The American Negroes are awakening and their resistance is growing stronger and stronger. * *

“A gigantic and vigorous nationwide struggle is going on in nearly every city and state, and the struggle is mounting. * * * the struggle of the American Negroes is a manifestation of sharpening class struggle and sharpening national struggle within the United States * * *

"I call on the workers, peasants, revolutionary intellectuals, enlightened elements of the bourgeoisie and other enlightened persons of all colours in the world, whether white, black, yellow or brown, to unite * * * and support the American Negroes in their struggle against racial discrimination. In the final analysis, national struggle is a matter of class struggle. *** I am firmly convinced that, with the support of more than 90 per cent of the people of the world, the American Negroes will be victorious in their just struggle.


Liu Ning-I, representative of the People's Organizations of China and president of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions:

“The current struggle of the American Negroes which started in Birmingham is a great revolutionary struggle * * * for the liberation of the Negroes. * * * it shows that the American Negroes have discovered a correct path in their struggle, that is, the path of unity and resolute struggle against the reactionary ruling class. * * * Just as Robert Williams, a leader of the American Negroes in exile in Cuba, has said, “The stranglehold of oppression cannot be loosened by a plea to the oppressors' conscience. Social change in something as fundamental as racist oppression involves violence. You cannot have progress here without violence and upheaval.” Casting away their illusions about the reactionary ruling class, the broad masses of Negroes have moved from the courts to the streets and carried on resolute struggles. Here lies the real hope of the liberation of the American Negroes. Robert Williams said, “The future belongs to today's oppressed and I shall be witness to that future in the liberation of the Afro-American.' * * * - 4. * * * & *

“The struggle of the American Negroes against racial oppression and for freedom and equal rights is a component part of the revolutionary struggle of the oppressed peoples and nations the world over. This revolutionary struggle springing up in the heartland of U.S. imperialism is of very great significance to the common struggle of the people of the world against imperialism headed by U.S. imperialism, and gives a powerful support to the fighting peoples of different countries. * * *

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“In our common struggle we shall for ever give each other encouragement and support. * * * By relying on their firm unity and resolute struggle * * * and on the sympathy and support of the world's people, our American Negro brothers will certainly win great victory in their just struggle * * *

“People of the whole world, unite! Stop the U.S. imperialists' fascist crime of persecuting and suppressing the American Negroes!

“Long live the victory of the American Negroes' struggle against racial oppression '"

Frank Coe,” “An American Friend Living in Peking":

“All the American people will be happy over this great meeting * * * to support the struggle of the American Negroes.

“All our people will likewise be grateful for Chairman Mao Tse-tung's historic statement on this struggle. This is the first time a world leader * * * has called on the people of all countries to unite against " * * U.S. imperialism and to support the American Negroes in their struggle against it. * * * it is also the first time that Chairman Mao Tse-tung has personally issued a statement of this kind. * * *

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1 A former official of the U.S. Treasury Department and of the United Nations who was identified as a member of a Soviet espionage ring composed of Government employees in the sworn testimony of Elizabeth Bentley before this committee on July 31, 1948. On Aug. 13, 1948, Frank Coe o!. as a witness before this committee and denied that he had ever been a member of the Communist Party or that he belonged to a Soviet espionage group. Coe subsequently, however, appeared as a witness during four ** conducted by Senate investigating committees. At all four hearings he invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer #.". pertaining to Communist Party membership. At three of the o s he also refused, on the same grounds, to answer questions regarding espionage activities. On Dec. 3, 1952, 2 days after the first of these appearances, he was dismissed as secretary of the United Nations International Monetary Fund. On June 5, 1953, in testimony before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Coe denied that he was then engaged in espionage activities and that he had been engaged in espionage on Dec. 2, 1952. When questioned about espionage on Dec. 1, 1952, and a period of time preceding that date. Coe invoked the fifth amendment. He also invoked the fifth amendment when the committee asked if he was under orders of the Communist Party. Qn May 15, 1956, he testified before a Senate committee that Elizabeth Bentley's charges had been false, but invoked the fifth amendment when questioned about past or present membership in the Communist Party. After the Supreme Court decision in the Kent-Briehl case, Coe was issued a passport on July 31, 1958 (the State Department had denied him one in 1951). He went to Red China later that year and has resided there since that time.

“The movement of the U.S. Negroes against racial discrimination is necessarily a part of the world-wide united front against U.S. imperialism * * *. The vigor and power of this movement in the United States is yet another proof that this international united front is inevitable. This united front is bound to achieve victory. * * • & - * o

“People of the whole world, unite to support the American Negro people in their struggle against racial discrimination “People of the whole world, unite to overthrow the common enemy, U.S. imperialism "

Anna Louise Strong," recorded speech on behalf of herself and the following three Americans and one Canadian living and working in China:

Talitha Gerlach, China Welfare Institute, Shanghai;
Dr. George Hatem (Ma Hai-teh), for 30 years in China's Public Health Service;
Bertha Hinton, Peking Institute of Foreign Languages;
Doris Nielsen, “wartime progressive member” of the Canadian Parliament:

“We want to bear witness that we, Americans, living, working and traveling extensively in China, have seen for ourselves how widely the Chinese people * * * are interested in the American Negroes' struggle for Freedom and give it their full support. * * *

* * * - * - o

“Second, we wish to inform the American Negroes that China herself is an

example that shows that racial discrimination and inequality can be abolished * * *

* * * - * so

“the experience of the Chinese people suggests that the American Negroes will not gain the full benefits under the present social system in America. * * * So, * * * we think and hope you also realize that final victory cannot be won until you overthrow the monopoly capitalism of America, your final enemy, and also the enemy of the American people and of the people of the world.

* * + * * * e

“This Negro struggle is not yet the American Revolution but may spark it. As more and more of the American working class and progressives join to support the Negro movement for “Freedom Now', this may win a new birth of freedom for all exploited Americans and reinforce the anti-imperialist struggles of the world.”

MESSAGE ADopted At the AUGUST 12, 1963, RALLY:

“The struggle waged by the more than 19 million American Negroes is an entirely just one. It enjoys the sympathy and support of the Chinese people * * * The Chinese people deeply admire their American Negro brothers for their dauntless and indomitable spirit and most resolutely support their just demands.

* * * * * * o

1 Anna Louise Strong has been identified as a member of the Communist Party by several witnesses in testimony before this committee. She was also identified as the representative from the CPUSA to the Soviet News Agency Tass in the early 1930's. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, after extensive hearings, issued a report on the Institute of Pacific Relations in 1952. It stated that Miss Strong had also been a collaborator with agents of the Soviet intelligence apparatus. Miss Strong went to Russia in 1921 for the American Friends Relief Mission. She became a correspondent for Hearst magazines and the North American Newspaper Alliance, traveling widely in Russia, China, and Central Europe. In 1930 she founded the Moscow Daily News, the first English language newspaper in Moscow. In 1949 she was arrested by the Soviets on spy charges and deported from the U.S.S.R. In 1955 the Soviet Government cleared her of these charges and said that she had been framed by former Russian police chief Lavrenti Beria. In June 1955 Miss Strong, then a resident of California, applied for a passport. The State Department refused her application. In 1958 she was granted a passport after the Supreme Court ruled that the Secretary of State could not withhold passports because of “beliefs or associations.” Congress, it said, “has made no such provision in explicit terms; and absent one, the Secretary may not employ that standard to restrict the citizens' right of free movement." - Miss Strong has been a resident of Communist China since 1958. Although she is now over 80 years old, she was reported to have joined the Red Guards, China's revolutionary outh movement, in 1966. Chinese leaders honor her as a veteran revolutionary. Mao se-tung himself was host at a special banquet on her 80th birthday. As for years in the past, she is presently serving as foreign correspondent in Peking for potional Guardian and publishing “Letter from China,” which is mailed to the United a tes.

“The struggle of the American Negroes is not an isolated one. Their struggle is closely linked with the struggle of * * * the whole world against imperialism headed by the United States and these struggles are inspiring and supporting each other. We are firmly convinced that, as long as they close their ranks and persewere in the struggle, our Negro brothers and sisters in the United States will triumph no matter how arduous the struggle and how tortuous the path may be. * * ***


“Today, the people from all walks of life in the Chinese capital will hold a grand rally in support of the American Negroes' just struggle against racial discrimination. * * *

- * - * * * *

“The U.S. Negroes' struggle * * * cannot but be a severe struggle against the U.S. monopoly groups' brutal exploitation and reactionary rule. so * - * o: so

“The American Negro people's struggle for equal rights is an inseparable part of the revolutionary struggle of the oppressed peoples and nations throughout the world. Every success in the American Negroes' movement provides vigorous support and inspiration for the revolutionary movement of the people in other parts of the world. The revolutionary people everywhere firmly stand on the side of the American Negroes and evaluate highly their just struggle. The struggle of our American Negro brothers will be extremely arduous and they still may meet various kinds of setbacks. But as Chairman Mao Tse-tung points out in his statement: ". . . with the support of more than 90 per cent of the people of the world, the American Negroes will be victorious in their just struggle. The evil system of colonialism and imperialism grew up along with the enslavement of Negroes and the trade in Negroes, and it will surely come to its end with the thorough emancipation of the black people.’”

second pering “rally OF PEOPLE”:

A second “Rally of People from All Walks of Life in Peking Opposing U.S. Imperialism and Supporting the American Negroes' Struggle Against Racial Discrimination” was held in Peking on October 10, 1963. Excerpts from speeches at this rally follow :

Robert Williams, “An American Negro Leader”:

“The government of the U.S.A. is the world's greatest hypocrite. * * * It has forfeited its right to even exist on the face of the earth * * *

- so * * :- * * “Patriots and friends, it fills my heart with joy for so many of us to join together in a common cause against a common enemy. * * * - o * so * * *

“U.S. racism is a cancerous sore that threatens the well-being of humanity. It can only be removed and a cure effected by a surgical operation performed by the great masses of the world. * * * The government of the U.S.A. is an enemy to all the world. Freedom in the U.S.A. is a farce. * * * “In the name of the African captives of racist America, I thank you for your support of a common struggle against a common enemy. Again, I thank Chairman Mao for his appeal for universal support of our struggle. Patriots, in unity and solidarity with our oppressed brothers, let our battle cry be heard around the World: Freedom | Freedom | Freedom now or Death !”

Kuo Mo-Jo, chairman of the China Peace Committee:

“As Mr. [Robert] Williams points out, it is high time for the American Negroes to take action. * * * “We are glad to see that the struggle of the American Negroes is developing with full speed. * * * The struggle of the American Negroes is a component part of the American people's revolutionary struggle, and of the world-wide struggle of the oppressed peoples and nations against imperialism and for emancipation. The struggle of our American Negro brothers strikes at U.S. imperialism from the heartland of this common enemy of the people of the world. Every victory they win supports and inspires the revolutionary movements of the people of all countries. Similarly, the struggles of the people of the world against imperialism headed by the United States, gives powerful support to the struggle of the American Negroes. * * * We are deeply concerned for the revolutionary struggle of the American Negroes and the American people, and we regard their struggle as our own, their victory our victory. We solemnly reiterate here that the 650 million Chinese people will always support the struggle of the American Negroes and the American people as a whole, until they win the final victory.”


“People from all walks of life in Peking are gathered " " " to pledge resolute support to American Negro brothers and sisters in their struggle against U.S. imperialist racial discrimination and for freedom and equal rights. * * * The Freedom March on Washington on August 28 ° * * marks a new upsurge in the American Negroes' struggle. * * * * - - * - * *

“The American Negroes' struggle is an integral part of the revolutionary struggle of the American people and of the liberation struggle of all oppressed nations and peoples. * * * The Chinese people will always stand by their American Negro brothers and sisters as well as the American people as a whole in the fight against U.S. imperialism * * *.”

On August 8, 1964, a rally was held in Peking to celebrate the first anniversary ef Mao Tse-tung's statement in support of American Negroes.

Frank Coe:

“Comrade chairman, comrades, and friends: One year ago today Comrade Mao Tse-tung issued his historic statement calling upon the people of the world to unit and * * * support the American Negroes in their struggle * * *. The statement was " * * widely circulated among the American Negroes, despite the efforts of the U.S. capitalist press to suppress it. * * * By now almost every national liberation struggle in the world has declared that the struggle of the Afro-Americans is part of its own cause. So have all the Marxist-Leninist parties and groups in the world. * * * Negro leaders are reaching out to form links with the national liberation struggles throughout the world. * * *

* * * * * * *

“Afro-Americans are beginning to talk more and more about armed selfdefense, * * * about guerrilla warfare, and civil war. Why not armed selfdefense? • * *

“The U.S. Marxist-Leninists advocate armed self-defense; black nationalist organizations advocate it and are gaining ground. Some of the leaders liken the stand of nonviolence to that of Khrushchev, and the stand of the more militant leaders to that of Mao Tse-tung. Negro intellectuals are saying that the tactics of nonviolence are not sufficient * * *. These local leaders are tending to the view that violence must be met with violence (applause).

* * * * * * +

“These 20 million people, battering down the walls of U.S. imperalism from within, are a great support for every people's struggle in the world. * * *

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“Speaking for the people of the United States of America, whether white, black, red, brown, or yellow, I wish to say to this rally in Peking : We the American people oppose and condemn the aggression of the U.S. Government against the DRV. * * * support the North Vietnamese people * * *. We want the Vietnamese people to win and we are sure they will " * *

“Soon there will be no (Negro people?) willing to serve as cannonfodder * * *

“We, the American people of all colors, are grateful for the support the Chinese people have given to the struggle of our Afro-American people. * * *

“We thank the people of Peking for organizing this splendid rally of support and for your confidence in our victory (applause). Long live the heroic American Negro people ! Victory for their struggle (applause) .

* o * * * * *

“Finally, on behalf of all the American people, I wish to thank Chairman Mao Tse-tung for the statement he issued one year ago declaring the support of the

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