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Chinese people for the struggle of the American Negro people and calling on all of the people of the world to do likewise. * * *"

Kuo Chien, secretary of the China Women's Federation :

"We people of all circles in the nation's capital are holding a rally to support the American Negroes' just struggle against racial discrimination and commemorate the first anniversary of the publication of Chairman Mao's statement, in the name of 650 million Chinese people, I solemnly declare that we shall always—unswervingly and resolutely-support and thoroughly carry out this great call of Chairman Mao's (applause). ** We pay high tribute and pledge resolute support to the American Negro brothers who persist in their heroic struggle PEKING RADIO COMMENT ON WATTS RIOT, AUGUST 15, 1965:

"Leaflets distributed by the demonstrating Negroes * * * linked up their struggle * * * with the battle fought by the other oppressed peoples of the world against U.S. aggression. One leaflet reads in part: 'After years of frameups, brutalities, and intimidations, the black people are throwing off control of the same rulers who are making war on people throughout the world-in Vietnam, the Dominican Republic, and the Congo.' PEKING RADIO COMMENT (ENGLISH LANGUAGE) ON WATTS RIOT, AUGUST 16, 1965:

"The struggle of the Negro people in Los Angeles and other places in the United States is a veritable revolutionary movement, and, like the revolutionary movement of other peoples, the struggle of the American Negroes will be crowned with victory, says the PEOPLE'S DAILY commentator today.

“The Chinese people firmly support the just struggle of their American Negro brothers and strongly protest against the atrocities of the U.S. ruling circles against them. *** On the surface the Negro question is a national question. But as Chairman Mao Tse-tung said: 'In the final analysis, a national struggle is a question of class struggle.' * * * Class contradictions between the Negroes and the monopolist groups are irreconciliable (sic).

"One new characteristic of the Los Angeles struggle is that the Negro masses link their struggle against the domestic reactionary policies of the Johnson Administration with their struggle against its policy of aggression abroad. *

“The American Negroes know full well that they are not alone in their struggle. The anti-U.S. forces throughout the world are on their side and fight shoulder to shoulder with them. * * ** PEKING RADIO COMMENT ON THE WATTS RIOT, AUGUST 17, 1965: "The dauntless Negroes ** * in Los Angeles are continuing their heroic

* * against large numbers of police and national guard who had been brought in to carry out cruel suppression

fight

"The struggle ‘has given some Negroes a feeling of importance and power they never had before,' he said.

"In the Negro district, 15,000 national guardsmen and police kept up the bloody suppression against the Negroes. * * *

“These national guardsmen and police are now slaughtering innocent inhabitants. *

"One of the salient features of the present Negro fight is that from the very beginning of their fight, they took up arms in resistance. They seized guns from the racist arms dealers, * * * hit back at the racists and killed racists and killed racists armymen and police. Thousands of Negroes have stood in the van on this tumultuous fight. This shows that the Negroes hate to the bone the class oppression and the social system of discrimination."

88-083--68-pt. 1-11

PEOPLE's DAILY, EDITORIAL ON THE WATTS RIOT, AUGUST 19, 1965:

“‘more and more American Negroes are coming to realize * * * that they must meet counterrevolutionary violence with revolutionary violence' * * *

“The editorial points out that the American Negroes' struggle against racial discrimination is an inseparable part of the worldwide revolutionary struggle of the oppressed nations and people. * * *

“The editorial says that “the 20 million American Negroes * * * have become an important revolutionary force in the United States that cannot be overlooked. * * **

* * * * * * *

“It notes that the American Negroes have, since the beginning of this year, taken an active part in the widespread struggle in the United States against the U.S. Government aggression in Vietnam. This important development in the Negro movement in the United States marks a great advance in the revolutionary level of the American Negroes' struggle for emancipation.'

“Two years ago Chairman Mao Tse-tung said in his statement in support of the just struggle of the American Negroes: “The fascist atrocities committed by the U. S. imperialists against the Negro people have laid bare the true nature of the so-called democracy and freedom in the United States and revealed the inner link between the reactionary policies pursued by the U.S. government at home and its policies of aggression abroad.'

* * * * * * *

“* * * The African people and the other peace- and justice-loving people of the world must join the Negroes * * * in resolutely carrying through to the end the struggle against the U.S. imperialist policies * * * The bond which links the American Negroes with the revolutionary people in other countries in their common struggle will be strengthened as the Negro movement grows in the United States.’”

On March 3, 1966, all Peking newspapers featured the statement which William Epton, vice president of the Progressive Labor Party, had made before the New York State Supreme Court on January 27 before being sentenced to 1 year in prison following his conviction of conspiracy to riot, advocacy of criminal anarchy, and conspiracy to advocate criminal anarchy. Epton's quoted statement read in part as follows:

“It is imperative that the student, intellectual, and worker unite to stay the hand of the government before it is too late ; and in the same light—the black people must organize themselves to struggle for their right to self-determination and for their liberation. I say here, openly and publicly, that the black people will not walk into the concentration camps, the furnaces, and the gas chambers. We would sooner die fighting first before we allow this to happen to us. * * sk + * * *

“When the future equivalent of the Nuremberg trials take place, it will not be Bill Epton who will be standing in the docket. It will be the Johnsons, the McNainaras, the Bundys, the Rusks, the war-mad industrialists who make war for profit and their agents who will be tried for crimes against humanity.”

PEOPLE'S DAILY EDITORIAL, MARCH 4, 1966, ON THE ABOVE-QUOTED EPTON SPEECH :

“The speech of William Epton, vice president of the U.S. Progressive Labor Party, before the U.S. court * * *. He ruthlessly exposed and condemned the U.S. ruling group * * *. In his uprightness one sees the heroic mettle and militant spirit of a revolutionary.

“The U.S. * * * want to strangle the revolutionary struggle of the people with their police, courts, and prisons. * * *

“Comrade Mao Tse-tung has said: “To start a war, the U.S. reactionaries must first attack the American people. They are already attacking the American people * * *. The people of the United States should stand up and resist the attacks of the U.S. reactionaries. * * * The persecution of William Epton • * * will bring about more violent resistance struggle among the American people.

* * * so * * *

“The persecution of Epton is * * * a mark of the stepped up fascistization by the American rulers. * * * the enemy of the American people * * * is none other than the Johnson administration. More and more American people have come to

know this. They are rising up to resist the attacks of the American reactionaries * * *. Epton has put it well: we would sooner die fighting than walking into the concentration camps, the furnaces, and the gas chambers. *** * Keep up the fight, courageous Americans! The people the world over

* will be on your side and will fight to the end against the common enemy-U.S. imperialism.

"Just as Epton has pointed out, the day will come when the U.S. ruling group will be tried by the American people and brought to the gallows by them." “BREAKING THE FETTERS OF NON-VIOLENCE,'” ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN AUGUST

5, 1966, ISSUE OF PEKING REVIEW: "the American Negro struggle * * * is breaking away from the doctrine of ‘nonviolence' * * * and is embarking upon the path of opposing counter-revolutionary violence with revolutionary violence. ***

“The slogan 'black power which reflects the growing militancy of the Negro people was raised for the first time *** when a Negro 'freedom march' was staged ***

“The high militancy of the American Negroes has also found expression in the recent changes of leadership and policies of a number of important Negro organizations. The Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee, which had been active in organizing Negro struggles in the south, changed its leadership in May to a more militant one which openly calls for armed self-defence. * * * the Congress of Racial Equality * adopted a resolution announcing an end to 'non-violence' *. 'The philosophy of non-violence is dying.'

"It is reported that the ranks of the Negro armed self-defence organizations are rapidly swelling. The Deacons for Defence and Justice formed last year has now established 50 to 60 branches in five southern states. The Revolutionary Action Movement which has its headquarters in Philadelphia is now also active in New York, Chicago, Detroit and other industrial centres in the north. * * * However, the history of the American Negro struggle shows that violent suppression by the ruling circles can only hasten the new awakening of the Negro masses and make more people realize that their sole hope is to meet violence with violence."

On August 8, 1966, a rally was held in Peking to mark the third anniversary of Mao Tse-tung's 1963 message in support of American Negroes. The rally was reportedly attended by Premier Chou En-lai and Vice-Premier Chen Yi and 10,000 Chinese people. A message to Robert Williams from William Epton, vice president of the Progressive Labor Party, was read at the rally. Williams was one of the rally speakers, as was another American, Sidney Rittenberg. EXCERPTS AND SUMMARIES FROM RALLY SPEECHES AND STATEMENTS, AS PUB

LISHED IN THE PEKING REVIEW, AUGUST 12, 1966, FOLLOW: William Epton's message: " "The black people in the U.S.A. are in the midst of their struggle to achieve their self-determination and liberation. We, at the same time, offer our resolute support to the heroic Vietnamese people who are waging a militant armed struggle against U.S. imperialism to win their self-determination. We salute the Chinese people for giving leadership to the world revolutionary movement against U.S. imperialism, and revisionism led by the Soviet Union. We join hands with you on this occasion with the knowledge that the world revolutionary movement will be victorious over U.S. imperialism and its revisionist collaborators.'"

Sidney Rittenberg, summary of speech :

1 Foreign correspondent in Peking for The Worker in the late 1950's and early 1960's. Although Rittenberg was dropped from The Worker's list of foreign correspondents after 1962, he continues to reside in Communist China.

Chinese Communist publications and broadcasts describe him as "an American journalist" and "an American friend" living in China when commenting on his frequent speeches to various rallies in Peking.

Several of his speeches have been broadcast in English by Radio Peking; Peking Revieto has reported and summarized others.

Rittenberg has openly, proclaimed his admiration for communism-Chinese style and has expressed the hope that “imperialism will be smashed all over the world and the cause of socialism and communism will be victorious,"

In a speech to a rally on Apr. 10, 1967, Rittenberg "wished Chairman Mao a long life, because, he said, 'only his teachings can guide the revolutionaries of all countries to rebel against the old world and to carry the world revolution through to the end ***'"

“Chairman Mao's brilliant analysis of the national struggle * * * has opened the way for the rise of the black freedom struggle to a new stage * * *. He noted that the American Negro people are abandoning the false doctrine of ‘non-violence' for slogans of ‘meet counter-revolutionary violence with revolutionary violence.’ He also said that they are increasingly identifying their fight with the Champion of Liberation, Mao Tse-tung, and the Gospel of Freedom, Mao Tse-tung's thought.”

“* **, [a Red Chinese newspaper] said, the American Negro masses have not only come to realize the need to win power but also to understand that power has to be seized by means of violence. * * *”

Kuo Mo-jo speech: “The Chinese people hail the heroic struggle of their American Negro brothers: & * * - - * *

“The facts have proved that the exploited and oppressed American Negro people are the most staunch and most reliable revolutionary force in the United States.

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“Chairman Mao has said that the fascist atrocities of the U.S. imperialists against the Negro people have exposed the true nature of the so-called American democracy * * *. Like all reactionary ruling classes in history, the reactionary U.S. ruling clique has all along relied on violence to maintain its rule. Therefore, it is inevitable that the American Negro people should use violence to resist the reactionary U.S. ruling clique. * * * * * o * - * * “By striking hard at U.S. imperialism in the battlefield, the Vietnamese people have rendered powerful support to the struggle of the American Negro people. Similarly, by fighting against U.S. imperialist racial discrimination, the American Negro people have in turn given important support to the Vietnamese people's struggle against U.S. aggression * * *. In the past three years, our American Negro brothers have firmly opposed U.S. imperialism's expansion of its war of aggression against Vietnam by refusing to enlist and burning draft cards " * *. They have done a good thing, and the right thing too ! We are deeply convinced that * * * our American Negro brothers * * * will surely rise in still more vigorous action and push their struggle against tyranny to a new high in order to support the Vietnamese people in their struggle against U.S. aggression * * * In the struggle * * * against U.S. imperialism, the Soviet revisionist leading clique is playing the role of number one accomplice to U.S. imperialism * * *. It has never supported our American Negro brothers * * * it absurdly describes the correct stand of supporting the national-liberation movement as ‘substituting a racial point of view for the point of view of class struggle.' * * * and consequently gives support to U.S. imperialism's reactionary internal policy. Not only does it serve as an accomplice of U.S. imperialism in the latter's expansion of the war of aggression, but it has at the same time placed itself in the shameful position of helping U.S. imperialism attack the American people and the American Negroes. * * * * so * * “In the excellent revolutionary situation * * * it is our primary task at present to form the broadest and most genuine international united front against U.S. imperialism. This front includes the broad masses of the American Negroes and the American people * * * * * * * * * * “The Chinese people are friendly to the American people. * * * the most reliable friend of the American Negro people. In your struggle, you will always receive infinite sympathy and active support from the Chinese people. * * *”

STATEMENT SUPPORTING AMERICAN NEGRO PEOPLE'S STRUGGLE ADOPTED AT THE RALLY:

“The American Negroes' struggle has begun to take the road of using revolutionary violence against counter-revolutionary violence. * * * The American Negroes' struggle has been ever more closely linked up with the American people's movement against the U.S. imperialist war of aggression against Vietnam. This constitutes a powerful support to the Vietnamese people's struggle against U.S.

aggression * . world.

as well as to the anti-U.S. struggle of the people of the whole

“The American Negroes' struggle is by no means isolated. They will for ever receive boundless sympathy and resolute support from the 700 million Chinese people • . *" PEKING RADIO BROADCAST, JULY 28, 1967 :

"By its ferocity and its ruthless methods in suppressing the Negro movement, the Johnson administration has given a profound lesson to more and more AfroAmericans by negative example. This has greatly hastened their awakening. On the day Johnson made his speech, H. Rap Brown, a young Negro leader who has stood out prominently in the current struggle, forcefully and pointedly replied to Johnson's threats when he gave a press conference and attended a mass meeting in Washington. Brown said that 'the black man has the immutable will to be free and has no recourse but to rebel.' He stressed that 'violence is necessary' and that the black people must get their guns because the white rulers ‘don't respect nothing but guns. . . . His militant speech reflects the determination of the awakening Afro-American masses to rebel." PEKING RADIO EDITORIAL COMMENT IN ENGLISH ON DETROIT RIOT, JULY 30, 1967: “The swift and vigorous spread of the Afro-American people's armed struggle against racial oppression has thrown the White House into complete confusion. This proves to the hilt that the US ruling circles who appear to be formidable are no more than a paper tiger. • * *”

“The roaring flames in Detroit have scared the US ruling circles. • . *" "It is not the fighting Afro-Americans who are afraid of the US ruling circles; it is the US ruling circles who are afraid of the Afro-American masses

"More and more Afro-Americans have embarked on the road of combatting counterrevolutionary violence with revolutionary violence. This is what the US gangsters fear most. * * * If the people in the United States unite, the revolutionary people of the world unite, and together wage a common struggle, the handful of reactionaries in the United States will be completely isolated and besieged ring upon ring by the masses of the people thus accelerating the doom of US imperialism." PEKING RADIO BROADCAST, AUGUST 1, 1967: "stooges like Martin Luther King issued statements publicly supporting the Johnson administration's violence against the Afro-Americans. This at once unmasked these champions of 'nonviolence' for what they really are opponents of the revolutionary violence of the oppressed and supporters of the counterrevolutionary violence of the oppressors.

"However, the level of political awareness of the Afro-American masses is daily rising and they have come to realize more clearly than ever the need to resist violence with violence. * * * Neither the US ruling circle's violent suppression nor the humbug of 'nonviolence' preached by Martin Luther King and his ilk can prevent the Afro-American masses from taking the road of struggle by violence and promoting the Afro-American movement." PEKING RADIO BROADCAST, AUGUST 2, 1967:

"Lyndon Johnson * * * made a speech on 27 July calling for the intensified suppression of the armed struggle of Afro-Americans * * * and asked the AfroAmericans to be 'law-abiding' and 'responsible and to share in America's prosperity.'

"But what kind of stuff is American law? Friendrich [sic] Engels pointed out long ago that bourgeois law is a 'whip’ against the proletariat. *** To the Afro-Americans, such laws mean that they must put up with the privation of monopoly capitalism * * *. The broad sections of Afro-Americans and working people in the United States must destroy such laws and smash the state apparatus

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