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of monopoly capital if they are to free themselves and win liberation. The AfroAmericans have torn up Johnson's '(farce)' and bravely taken up arms to struggle against racial oppression. Their rebellion is justified and they have done well, very well.

"Johnson clamored to stop the 'violence' * * *. His bluster about stopping the 'violence' means that they are allowed to wantonly massacre the Afro-American masses while the latter should not resist. *

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"The broad masses of Afro-Americans will * * * be fully aware that in order to achieve complete liberation, the monstrous imperialist system must be wholly and thoroughly overthrown." PEKING REVIEW, AUGUST 4, 1967, COMMENT ON DETROIT RIOT:

"Beginning early July 23, several thousand Afro-Americans in Detroit, the fifth largest city in the United States, mounted a stirring armed struggle against fascist police violence. * * *

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"Inspired by the militant heroism of Detroit's Afro-Americans Americans in other cities and states also rose in armed rebellion. *

“The powerful, surging Afro-American armed struggle against racial oppres. sion is of great significance * * * to the struggle of the people of the world against U.S. imperialism. The raging flames of the Afro-American struggle were ignited at a time when U.S. imperialism faces an impasse in its war of aggression against Vietnam and when the struggle of the people the world over against U.S. imperialism and its running dogs is pressing ahead powerfully. Fighting Afro-Americans are dealing telling blows at U.S. imperialism from within the United States, smashing down the reactionary power structure's so-called 'law and order and paralysing and causing confusion in more than a dozen cities. Because this rising armed struggle against oppression is battering fiercely at U.S. imperialism's rule at home, it will inevitably weaken U.S. imperialist aggression abroad and aggravate its already insurmountable difficulties. The struggle of the Afro-American masses will not only give tremendous impetus to the revolutionary struggle of the entire American people; it will provide powerful surport for the struggles of the people of the world against U.S. imperialism, especially for the Vietnamese people in their war of resistance against U.S. aggression and for national salvation." PEKING RADIO COMMENT ON SUMMER 1967 RIOTS, AUGUST 5, 1967:

"A vigorous Afro-American struggle against racial oppression has swept the length and breadth of the United States this summer. * * *

“The massive armed resistance that broke out in Newark and Detroit * * has added a brilliant new page to the annals of the Afro-American people's struggle for liberation.

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"Tlie Afro-Americans have begun to realize * that they simply cannot get anywhere by adopting the 'nonviolent' means

"Meanwhile, the Afro-Americans have broken the shackles of bourgeois legality and morals. * * *

"their struggle will certainly grow ever stronger and win final victory. Just as Chairman Mao Tse-tung has pointed out, ‘With the support of more than 90 percent of the people of the world, the Afro-Americans will be victorious in their just struggle. The evil system of colonialism and imperialism *** will surely come to its end with the complete emancipation of the black people.'” PEKING RADIO, AUGUST 9, 1967, BROADCAST OF EXCERPTS FROM ARTICLE WRITTEN

BY THE RED GUARDS AT THE INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMACY: "The heroic Afro-Americans have taken up arms and rebelled. The raging flames of their struggle * * * were warmly hailed by revolutionary people the world over.

“Four years ago, Chairman Mao Tse-tung, the great leader of the people of the world, made the 'statement supporting the American Negroes * * *.' Chairman

Mao scientifically analyzed the development of the Afro-Americans' struggle and pointed out the road of their struggle. This brilliant work of historic significance bas dealt a fatal blow to the US * * *. Chairman Mao pointed out: 'In the final analysis, national struggle is a matter of class struggle.'

"This brilliant truth has been incontestably borne out **

"The struggle of the Afro-Americans is powerfully supported by the anti-U.S. imperialist struggle of the peoples of the world. Victory will belong to the AfroAmericans. Let the imperialists and their apologists of all shades and hues lament in the midst of the song of triumph of the Afro-Americans."



“Los Angeles continues to be the pivotal center of the rebellion of the Negro masses

When * the police used the most brutal repressive measures, the insurrectional wave, like an uncontrollable fire, extended to other cities and districts ***. The police terror employed by both local and federal authorities recalls the worse periods of the pogroms and anti-Negro slaughters in the so-called U.S. Dixieland.

“Despite the threats by President Johnson and the murderous actions of the military and police riflemen, the movement of Negro rebellion has gone on the march * * *." SPEECH BY FIDEL CASTRO TO THE FIRST CONFERENCE OF THE LATIN AMERICAN


11, 1967: “However, it is untrue that they [U.S. Negro movement] have no program. *** the Negro sector * * * has devoted its energies to defend itself, to resist, and to struggle. * * * From this Negro segment *** will merge [sic] the revolutionary movement in the United States. * * * from the Negro segment will surge the revolutionary vanguard within the United States. Around this revolutionary movement—which does not emerge as a result of race problems, but from social problems— * * in US society, from this oppressed segment, the revolutionary movement will emerge. *** a vanguard of a struggle called someday to liberate all of US society. * * * we must reject * * * this attempt of presenting the Negro movement in the United States as a racist problem. * * * we believe that the revolutionary movement throughout the world should give Stokely utmost support * *. Our solidarity can * * aid to protect Stokely's life.


"This internationalism is not proclaimed. It is practiced. The US Negroes are

resisting with weapons! * * * taking up arms to defend their

rights. * * *»


AT THE LASO CONFERENCE. THE RESOLUTION READ IN PART: "in the new phase of the struggle of the Negro people symbolized in the rebellions in the ghettos by the citizens of Watts, Selma, Chicago, Harlem, and more recently Newark and Detroit, leaders have arisen who know how to interpret correctly the anxieties, inclinations, and aspirations of the Afro-American people; * ** the relations of the U.S. Negro movement with the national liberation struggles in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have been raised to a higher level * * * during the events * * * in Newark and Detroit, the Negro masses have responded * * * practically converting these cities into battlefields * * * the struggle of the U.S. Negro is part of the struggle of all the U.S. people against the U.S. imperialist government and is tied * * * to the struggle of all the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America against Yankee imperialism, which, in fact, establishes the necessity and the advisability of forming a militant solidarity movement between the Afro-American people and the peoples of the three continents :

"The peoples of * * * the First LASO Conference, fully support the struggle of the U.S. Negro * * and urge them to answer the racist violence of the U.S. *** with stepped-up direct revolutionary action ***


“They resolve, further, to proclaim 10 August a day of solidarity with the Negro people of the United States, in memory of the rebellious events begun by the U.S. Negro population in the streets of Watts on 18 August 1965, which marked a change in the strategy of the struggle of the U.S. Negro, abandoning peaceful forms of protest in favor of violent, armed demonstrations against imperialist oppression and discrimination.”


NORTH VIETNAM, ARTICLE ENTITLED “SECOND FRONT AGAINST U.S. IMPERIALISM,” ISSUE OF AUGUST 29, 1966: “The first front against U.S. imperialism is Vietnam. "The second front lies in the United States.

“There live in the U.S. 20 million Afro-Americans. They are oppressed, esploited and treated with contempt like slaves. ***


"The Vietnamese people's fight against the U.S. aggressors, for national salvation, has brought a great influence to bear upon the Afro-Americans who have realized that they have the same enemy as the Vienamese people-U.S. imperialism-and that to achieve freedom and equality they must oppose revolutionary violence to counter-revolutionary violence, just as the Vietnamese are doing. No wonder they sympathize with the Vietnamese people and from nonviolence they have begun using violence for self-defense. ***

Another important thing is that the Afro-Americans combine their struggle against racial discrimination with that against the U.S. war in Vietnam.

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"These two combined movements of the Afro-Americans and white Americans are a tremendous force which is the second front against U.S. imperialism.

“Attacked on both fronts, the U.S. imperialists will certainly be defeated and victory will surely belong to the American and Vietnamese peoples."


6, 1961: “Communist propaganda has always been quick to seize on problems of minority groups. Instances involving the Negro race have been prime targets in this barrage.

“The sit-in demonstrations in the South were a made-to-order issue which the Party fully exploited to further its own ends. The Communists first showed an interest in the demonstrations in late February 1960 when James E. Jackson and Joseph North, national Communist Party functionaries, traveled to Richmond, Va., and wrote articles for The Worker, an east coast Communist weekly newspaper, concerning demonstrations then in progress in Richmond.

“Also during early March 1960, Daniel Rubin, national youth director of the Communist Party, U.S.A., visited college campuses in Richmond to obtain statements from students in connection with the demonstrations.

“The Communist Party strategy was not to openly advocate picketing, inasmuch as this would tend to expose its members, but rather to get behind the movement by urging college students to take the initiative.

“The importance which the Communist Party, U.S.A., has placed on these demonstrations was sharply brought into focus when Benjamin Davis, the Party's national secretary, told the Party in March 1960 that these demonstrations were considerd the next best thing to 'proletarian revolution.'” J. EDGAR HOOVER-HOUSE APPROPRIATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE TESTIMONY, JANUARY 24, 1962:

"Since its inception the Communist Party, U.S.A., has been alert to capitalize on every possible issue or event which could be used to exploit the American

Negro in furtherance of party aims. In its efforts to influence the American Negro, the party attempts to infiltrate the legitimate Negro organizations for the purpose of stirring up racial prejudice and hatred. In this way, the party strikes a blow at our democratic form of government by attempting to influence public opinion throughout the world against the United States.”


“Throughout the 1963 fiscal year the Communist Party, USA, circulated tons of propaganda on the race issue. This pictured the Party as the great champion of Negroes and other minority groups. Actually, the Party is not in the least bit concerned with helping the Negro or any other minority—it merely hopes to ensnare those persons who are naive enough to accept the communists for their claims instead of their deeds.”


“Turning to the subject of Communist interest in Negro activities, the approximate 20 million Negroes in the United States today constitute the largest and most important racial target of the Communist Party, U.S.A. The infiltration, exploitation, and control of the Negro population has long been a party goal and is one of its principal goals today. “In this drive, Negroes have, over the years, been subjected to intensive and extensive Communist agitation and propaganda. The Communist Party has always depicted itself to Negroes as the champion of social protest and the leader in the struggle for racial equality. But the truth of the matter is that the Communist Party is not motivated by any honest desire to better the status or condition of the Negro in this country, but strives only to exploit what are often legitiInate Negro complaints and grievances for the advancement of Communist objectives. Controversial or potentially controversial racial issues are deliberately and avidly seized upon by Communists for the fullest possible exploitation. Racial incidents are magnified and dramatized by Communists in an effort to generate racial tensions. As a result, such campaigns are actually utilized as a steppingstone to extend Communist influence among the Negroes. “Communists, through their worldwide Communist propaganda apparatus, transmit propaganda regarding selected instances of racial inequity and injustice to every part of the world. They do not confine themselves to facts but resort to distortion, exaggeration, and the big lie. “Communists thus capitalize on the adverse propaganda effect that reports of discrimination and oppression in the United States can produce in the eyes of the rest of the world, particularly among the African and Asian peoples; that is, the idea that this country is against equal rights for all races. “The Communist Party is attempting to use the Negro movement, as it does everything else, to promote its own interest rather than the welfare of those to whom it directs its agitation and propaganda. It may collect funds ostensibly in behalf of Negro activities, hold discussions on civil rights at all levels, and increase its coverage of Negro affairs in its publications, but behind all of this effort is its clear-cut primary interest in promoting communism. “The party is continually searching for new avenues in order to expand its influence among the Negroes. In particular, it has sought ways and means to exploit the militant forces of the Negro civil rights movement. “The number of Communist Party recruits which may be attracted from the large Negro racial group in this Nation is not the important thing. The old Communist principle still holds: “Communism must be built with non-Commumist hands.’ “We do know that Communist influence does exist in the Negro movement and it is this influence which is vitally important. It can be the means through which 1arge masses are caused to lose perspective on the issues involved and, without realizing it, succumb to the party's propaganda lures. * * * * * * so

“The Communists look upon students as potential sympathizers, supporters, and contributors to the party's cause. Nor are they unmindful of the rich opportunity for infiltration presented by unwary racial and nationality groups.

“This is especially true of the intense civil rights movement within the United States—for America's 20 million Negroes and the countless other citizens who share their objectives in the current struggle are a priority target for Commu

nist propaganda and exploitation. Every organization engaged in this struggle must constantly remain alert to this vital fact, for, once under Communist domination, all freedoms and rights are lost." FBI ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1964;

"The Party waged a constant effort in the fiscal year 1964 to exploit the civil <ights issue. During the August 28, 1963, March on Washington, communists and Party sympathizers sought to involve themselves in every aspect of this demonstration. Although attempting to conceal their communist connections, approximately 200 Party members actually participated in the March.

“Other recent racial demonstrations have attracted communists, usually in a hidden role, and the legitimate leaders of these activities have been hard pressed to keep them out and minimize their influence.

"The FBI does not investigate the legitimate activities of civil rights groups, but from an intelligence standpoint it is concerned with determining the extent of possible communist infiltration of these organizations." J. EDGAR HOOVER-HOUSE APPROPRIATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE TESTIMONY, MARCH

4, 1965: “The ever-increasing evidences of racial unrest in the country during the past year have witnessed a parallel in the increased emphasis being placed by the Communist Party, U.S.A. on the Negro question and the racial movement generally. There are clear-cut evidences that the party has not only been 'talking, but also has been directing and urging the increased participation by its adherents in the racial movement. As in any similar party effort at infiltration, where there is participation there is influence in varying degrees.

“These party efforts, though embellished with high-sounding expressions by party leaders, claiming a sincere interest in the Negro and his problems, are, in reality, just another of the great deceptions practiced by the party through the years. Theirs is only a single aim; namely, the gaining of Communist objectives looking toward the ultimate goal of the spread of communism throughout the United States. The racial unrest, then, offers the party a ready-made springboard from which it is able to project its strategy and tactics.

"The past year found the party devoting maximum attention to its efforts to influence civil rights developments. Always alert to exploit discontent and promote disorder, the party continued to regard the civil rights issue as one facet of the class struggle within the capitalist system. With this Marxist-Leninist analysis as a guide, the party has as an objective the use of the civil rights issue to create a Negro-labor coalition which it would dominate to advance the cause of communism in the United States. As in the words of the party's general secretary, Gus Hall, Jim Crow can be dealt with only by dealing with capitalism.'

“The party's involvement in the racial situation is intended to also serve in the all-important task of recruitment. In early June 1964, the party's national headquarters proposed that headquarters be opened in major cities for the purpose of holding forums. The objective, as explained by a party functionary, is to organize special study groups to teach socialism' and thus make it possible for the party to recruit members from among civil rights fighters." FBI ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1965:

“The communists have been much encouraged by the current ware of social unrest in the United States. They view this situation as the development of a climate favorable to their operations and are constantly probing to exploit areas of discord. It is a rare civil rights activity, whether it be a voter's registration drive, a demonstration, march or picket, that does not attract communists to some degree.

“In general, legitimate civil rights organizations have been successful in excluding communists, although a few have received covert counseling from them and have even accepted them as members. The Communist Party is not satisfied with this situation and is continually striving to infiltrate the civil rights movement at every level." J. EDGAR HOOVER-HOUSE APPROPRIATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE TESTIMONY, FEB

RUARY 10, 1966: "The party's national office in early 1965 informed all of its districts that the party planned to spend, during 1965, $10,000 for wages, travel, and literature

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