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Fronts:

Afro-American Youth Council
Afro-American Student Movement
Jamaica (N.Y.) Rifle and Pistol Club

Black Guard ?
RAM is affiliated with the United Black Brotherhood in Cleveland.
KEY LEADERS:
Robert F. Williams-chairman-in-exile (also self-proclaimed “Premier of the

African-American-Government-in-Exile”) Haruell Curtis Stanford, Jr.-field chairman PUBLICATION:

BLACK AMERICA “Black America is the theoretical journal of RAM-Revolutionary Action Movement, Black Liberation Front of the U.S.A..

“It's (sic) purpose is to bring clarity and give direction in revolutionary struggle. To help build revolutionary nationalist leadership.

"To present a revolutionary program of national liberation and self-determination for the African captives enslaved in the racist United States of America.

"To forge a revolutionary unity among peoples of African decent and to give a new international spirit to Pan-Africanism.

"To unite Black America with the Bandung world (Asia, Africa and Latin America).

"To fight for the liberation of oppressed peoples everywhere.

“Our message ot (sic) the Black peoples of the world : UNITE or PERISHWE WILL WIN.' '(BLACK AMERICA, Summer-Fall 1965, p. 2) ACTIVITIES:

Revolutionary Action Movement members have (1) been charged with the planned cyanide poisoning of up to 1,500 policemen

and top city officials in Philadelphia ; (2) been indicted for conspiracy to murder moderate Negro leaders in

the United States, conspiracy to advocate anarchy and “overthrow of organized government by the assassination of executive officers of the

government"; (3) stored arms and ammunition in anticipation of the violent U.S. revolution

which is to be accomplished according to a well-organized plan of urban

guerrilla warfare; (4) sent "greeting” to the NLF of South Vietnam and have called for a united

front against “racist U.S. imperialism." STATEMENTS: RAM MANIFESTO QUOTED IN MONTHLY REVIEW, MAY 1964, P. 6, 7: "we are at war with white America. * * *

“RAM's philosophy is one of the world black revolution or world revolution of oppressed peoples rising up against their former slavemasters. ROBERT F. WILLIAMS, THE CRUSADER, MARCH 1965, P. 5:

“As a representative if [sic] the Revolutionary Action Movement, I am here (Hanoi, North Vietnam] to give support to the Vietnamese people in their struggle against U.S. imperialist aggression. * * *” ROBERT F. WILLIAMS, HAVANA RADIO FREE DIXIE BROADCAST, DECEMBER 18, 1965: "The U.S. Government is a racist government. * * * The only protection our oppressed people can expect in racist America is that which we render ourselves. The only justice we can expect is on-the-spot justice: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

1 One of the more recent fronts of the Revolutionary Action Movement is the Black Guard which is self-described in its “Black Guard Organizers Manual" as "a black youth group dedicated to black power, black unity and self-defense • (and) is the forerunner of a black liberation army."

“My brothers and sisters, the coming summer is going to be violent and bloody. * * * Let our people organize, arm, unite, and prepare for a war of survival and liberation : * * * Put the torch to the racist strongholds of the cities and remember the forests. * * *”

ROBERT F. WILLIAMS, THE CRUSADER, JULY 1967, PP. 2, 3:

“The racist power structure [in America] hoped to head off the long hot summer of Afro-American rebellion * * * The battle of Newark should be a lesson to the oppressor that his tactic of vicious repression is not an answer to the black man's thrust for human dignity. * * * Our response * * * is a clarion call to * * * Black America to UNITE OR PERISH ! MOBILIZE FOR PEOPLE'S WAR BECAUSE AMERICA IS THE BLACK MAN'S BATTLEGROUND !”

“BLACK GUARD ORGANIZERS MANUAL.” DATED OCTOBER 23, 1967:

“THE BLACK GUARD IS A BLACK YOUTH GROUP DEDICATED TO BLACK POWER, BLACK UNITY AND SELF-DEFENSE. THE BLACK GUARD RESOLVES ANY CONTRADICTION WHICH MAY ARISE IN CARRYING OUT WANGUARD DIRECTION, AND TO MOBILIZE AND LEAD THE MASSES. * * * THE BLACK GUARD IS THE FORERUNNER OF A BLACKLIBERATION ARMY.”

“When a Black Guard has achieved his third degree RAM star (usually two years) he will be qualified to govern any society, be in any guerrilla movement in the world, and will be prepared to lead the NEW WORLD.”

STUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE
(also known as SNCC and SNICK)

360 Nelson Street, SW, Atlanta, Ga. 30303 ORIGIN:

April 1960 in Raleigh, N.C.

Originally known as the Temporary Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, SNCC, in the fall of 1960, met in Atlanta, Ga., elected its first slate of officers, and dropped the “temporary” from its name. Primary initiators in the founding of SNCC were Mrs. Ella J. Baker of Atlanta and Mrs. Anne Braden of Louisville, Ky.

PURPOSE:

SNCC's original claimed purpose was to bring about the integration of southern “lunch counters and movie theaters.” However, in the recent years, SNCC has deviated grossly from this primary purpose and has been in the forefront of a number of the more recent violent racial disturbances in the country.

ORGANIZATION:

SNCC's national organization is headed by a chairman and a triumvirate composed of an executive secretary, communications director, and program director. While the chairman is the chief spokesman for the organization, the executive secretary handles all organizational matters and directs the internal operation. The position of chairman and his triumvirate are elective and are chosen annually to preside over an 80-man central committee (all of whom have voting privilege) and a 10-man “observer group” (without voting privilege.) The national organization employs a number of staff personnel and field organizers.

NoTE: Friends of SNCC—an adjunct organization whose present director is Elizabeth Sutherland. “Friends” was formed as a campus-oriented fundraising organization.

KEY LEADERs:

Hubert Geriod (H. Rap) Brown—chairman (1967—to date)
Stanley Wise—executive secretary
Ethel Minor—communications director
Ralph Featherstone—program director
Stokely Carmichael—chairman (1966–67)
John Lewis—chairman (1963–66)
Charles McLaurin—chairman (1962–63)
Charles McDew—chairman (1961–62)
Marion Barry, Jr.—chairman (1960–61)

PUBLICATIONS:
The Student Voice (published by The Student Voice, Inc.)

AcTIFITIES :

SNCC has

(1) aligned itself with the Havana-based Latin American Solidarity Organization (LASO), a Castro-led network of guerrilla fighters whose primary aim is to export revolution in Latin America and among the Negro population in America;

(2) openly assailed Zionism and accused the Israelis of committing atrocities against the Arabs;

(3) openly exhorted Negroes to refuse to be drafted into armed services of the U.S.;

(4) through its immediate past chairman, Stokely Carmichael, aligned itself organizationally with the so-called Black Liberation Movement of the U.S. and has called for the “overthrow” of the present government and the start of “the real Revolution” in the U.S.;

(5) through its present chairman, H. Rap Brown, been indicted for inciting a riot in Cambridge, Maryland.

STATEMENTS:

H. RAP BROWN, SNCC CHAIRMAN, “WHO ARE THE REAL OUTLAWS” (SNCC PAMPHLET JULY 1967), PP. 3, 5:

“That government which makes laws that you and I are supposed to obey, without letting us be a part of that government . . . is an illegal government. The men who pass those laws are outlaws; the police who enforce those laws are outlaws and murderers.

“It should be understandable that we, as black people, should adopt the attitude that we are neither morally nor legally bound to obey laws which were not made with our consent and which seek to keep us down and keep us in our place. * * *

s * * * * * *

“We stand on the eve of a black revolution. These rebellions are but a dress

rehersal [sic] for real revolution. * * *”

“ATLANTA'S BLACK PAPER,” COMPILED BY ATLANTA PROJECT OF SNCC, AUGUST 25, 1966:

“Saturday, August 20, 1966 - * 4: * * * “At the street corner rally held right after the press conference, two squad cars with two black cops in each along with the paddy wagons pulled into the area. At the rally, Bill Ware [SNCC], told the people that the black cops represent the white power structure in the neighborhood and that the white power structure had sent them * * *. He told the people of Wine City [Atlanta] about how Black cops had beat him in the City Jail and how they are white men with black skins; how they are as much our enemy as any white Klu-Klux Klansmen [sic].”

STOKELY CARMICHAEL, GRANMA, AUGUST 13, 1967:

“To my fellow comrade Che,

“The African-Americans inside the United States have a great deal of admiration for you. We eagerly await your writings in order to read them, digest them and plan our tactics based on them.

“We want you to know, wherever you are, that you are an inspiration not only to the Blacks inside the U.S. but to the Liberation Struggle around the world. Please keep on fighting because by your fighting you are inspiring us. Do not despair, my comrade.

“We Will Win
Stokely Carmichael”

“‘We are moving toward urban guerrilla warfare within the United States * * *.’”

SOUTHERN STUDENT ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (SSOC)

1703 Portland Avenue, Nashville, Tenn. ** P.O. Box 6403, Nashville, Tenn. 31212 Tel. (615) 291—3537

OrigiN.

April 3–5, 1964

Founded by former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) “white community” organizers as a counterpart to SNCC. It was designed to work especially among white southern college students.

PURPOSE: The proclaimed purpose of the Southern Students Organizing Committee is to maintain a liaison between widely scattered activists in the “peace” and “civil rights” movements throughout the South through key representatives located on various southern college campuses.

ORGANIZATION: In the fall of 1966, SSOC became a membership organization and embarked on a campaign to form local chapters on various college campuses throughout the South. It now has an estimated 175 members with representatives on about 34 campuses throughout the South. SSOC is loosely coordinated though its central office in Nashville and branch office in Atlanta, Ga.

KEY LEADERs:

Tom Gardner—chairman Alan Levin—vice chairman There are about 15 staff personnel employed by the Nashville headquarters of SSOC.

PUBLICATION:

THE NEW SOUTH STUDENT (circulation, claimed 4,000); published monthly October through May by SSOC of Nashville; $1 for southern students, $3 for northern students and adults.

ACTIVITIES :

On its own and in cooperation with other organizations has(1) staged or taken part in various civil rights picket lines and demonstrations; (2) supported the activities and demonstrations of various U.S. anti-Vietnam war organizations: (3) SSOC chairman Tom Gardner, together with 41 other Americans, met with representatives of the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong at a conference in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, September 5–12, 1967; (4) supported the activities and demonstrations of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; (5) supported the activities and demonstrations of, and is a fraternal organization to, the Students for a Democratic Society.

SOUTHERN CONFERENCE EDUCATIONAL FUND, INC.

3210 West Broadway, Louisville, Ky.

ORIGIN:

September 6, 1938

The Southern Conference Educational Fund, Inc. (SCEF), initially functioned as the “educational wing” of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare (SCHW). The SCHW was cited by the Committee on Un-American Activities 1n 1947 as a Communist-front organization “which seeks to attract southern liberals on the basis of its seeming interest in the problems of the South” although its “professed interest in southern welfare is simply an expedient for larger aims serving the Soviet Union and its subservient Communist Party in the United States.” Public exposure as a Communist-front group caused the SCHW to suspend its operations in 1949; however, the SCEF continued as an independent organization and absorbed the remaining functions of the SCHW. Operating as the successor of the SCHW, the SCEF maintained the same office, telephone number, and principal officers of the SCHW. The SCEF also continued publishing SCHW's official organ, The Southern Patriot.

PURPOSE:

The SCEF purports to be an “interracial group” dedicated to ending “racial discrimination, poverty, and other injustices in the South.” Its main effort at the present time is to “reach white Southerners and bring them into struggles for social justice, helping them to unite with black Southerners in meaningful joint action.”

ORGANIZATION: Directed by a 60-member board of directors (SCEF is not a membership organization with the exception of those individuals who are members of the board.) The SCEF has 22 staff members, a 60-member advisory committee and a 6-member medical advisory committee. Reported annual budget: $100,000 Offices: (national headquarters listed above) 150 Tenth Avenue North, Nashville, Tenn. 799 Broadway, Suite 412, New York, N.Y. (Eastern office)

SCEF Projects: (1) Southern Mountain Project & Mountain Education Program (2) Operation Open Debate (3) Grass-Roots Organizing Work (GROW) Project (4) Southern Peace Education Project (5) Anti-HUAC Project (SCEF operates as the southern regional office of the National Committee to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee, a Communist-front organization.)

Affiliate: Friends of SCEF

KEY LEADERS:

Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth—president

Carl Braden—executive director (Imember of SCEF staff since 1957)—identified member of the Communist Party, U.S.A.

Anne Bradem—associate executive director and editor of The Southern Patriot (member of SCEF staff since 1957)—identified member of the Communist Party, U.S.A.

James A. Dombrowski—special consultant (recently retired as SCEF executive director; served as administrator for SCHW)—identified member of the Communist Party, U.S.A.; denied identification under oath.

Rev. William Howard Melish—assistant director—identified member of the Communist Party, U.S.A.

PUBLICATION: The Southern Patriot (monthly tabloid newspaper published since 1942—circulation [October 1966] : 9, 936) ACTIVITIES : The SCEF has(1) prepared and published propaganda aimed at undermining the capitalist system of the United States and has continually agitated against it by exploiting such issues as poverty, racial discrimination, and unemployment; (2) attempted to develop Negro and white unrest through organized agitation in small southern towns and rural areas: (3) waged a deceitful campaign against congressional investigation of Communist activities in the United States; (4) engaged in a program of agitation against United States military involvement in Vietnam ; and (5) maintained influence over certain militant Negro civil rights and “black power” organizations and has rendered financial support to at least one of them.

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