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“Past movements for peaceful social change have failed partly because people in power have not wanted change and have used every device and every form of terror to crush such movements. * * *

“But movements have also failed * * * because they have not been radical enough—radical in the sense of going to the root of what is wrong in our society and dealing with people's vital needs. They have failed too because sometimes people in these movements have lost their nerve at crucial moments. * * *”


Published by: Afro-American Research Institute, Inc.
224 East 46th Street, New York City, N.Y. 10017


January 1960

Daniel H. Watts began publishing the LIBERATOR in 1960 in the name of a largely paper organization which he called the Liberation Committee for Africa. In 1963, Watts and Richard Gibson, one of the initiators of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, incorporated the Afro-American Research Institute as the successor of Watts’ “Liberation Committee.” The institute has since served as the publisher of LIBERATOR magazine.

LIBERATOR magazine is self-described as the “intellectual voice for black

nationalism and socialism” and the “voice of the Afro-American protest movement in the United States and the liberation movement of Africa.”


Other than the staff of the LIBERATOR, no organization exists in the sense of the word.

Daniel H. Watts—editor in chief
Len Holt—Washington, D.C.
Bill Mahoney—editor, Southern
Richard Price—editor, West Coast
Richard Gibson—editor, Africa, Asia, and Europe
Clayton Riley—arts editor


Evelyn B. Kalibala—secretary

Tom Feelings and James Malone—illustrators

James Connor—photographer PUBLICATION:

Monthly. Subscription: $3 per year.

LIBERATOR magazine has featured articles supporting “black arts” which show domination of blacks over whites and has endorsed the so-called Negro Liberation Movement in America. It supports an anti-U.S. capitalist movement among Negroes to alter the present form of government and supports Negro extremist groups such as the Black Muslims, RAM, SNCC, and the all-Negro Freedom Now Party.

LIBERATOR magazine opposes civil rights groups such as the NAACP and the Urban League and openly supports African-Marxist leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah, Sekou Toure, and Patrice Lumumba.

LIBERATOR magazine, in addition to publishing and distributing its monthly publication, operates the Liberator Book Service which offers historical, separatist, and other Negro-oriented books and pamphlets written by a wide range of authors including Communists and black nationalists.


“Mrs. [Gloria H.] Richardson has shown the direction which must be followed, if the Movement is to be saved from destruction by its so-called friends. * * * She, and others like her, however, who are providing courageous and effective leadership will continue to be under growing pressure from the na

tional established civil rights groups * * *." (Editorial, “Mrs. Richardson's Revolt," vol. III, No. 11, November 1963, p. 1)

"What is needed at this juncture is a truly national Liberation Front with a program aimed squarely at basic changes in our economic and social structuree.g. a planned economy based on public ownership subject to the needs and will of the masses who will hold power—which will make for rapid social advance, freedom and equality.

“the prospects of victory for our Second Revolution are more than promising; and through it, perhaps, America can at last rejoin the human family.” (James A. Kennedy, "Toward a National Liberation Front,” vol. III, No. 11, November 1963, pp. 19, 20)

* Afro-America lacks adequate leaders. "The acknowledged so-called "Negro leadership" serves as the white man's neutralizer of Black America's struggle. Therefore it will be removed by dedicated younger Black militants who are more responsive to the fundamental needs of the Black Masses.' (Donald Freeman, “The Cleveland Story," vol. III, No. 6, June 1963, p. 18)

"The white racist policeman in the Black ghetto does not represent law and order for Afro-Americans, he is merely the extension of the repressive economic, political and social system that is imposed on the ghetto by the white power structure. * * *" (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, “Genocide or Murder?" vol. V, No. 8, August 1965, p. 3) "The white power structure which had supported these negro anglo-saxons was calling in the chits. The house niggers responded by saying 'we can't control the natives, they are not one of us. You (whites) must put down the rebellion. We will back you up, as far behind you, as we can get.' * * *” (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, *Watts, L. A., -The Nation's Shame," vol. V, No. 9, September 1965, p. 3)

"The cry is Black Power. Very curiously, of all the slogans that the so-called civil rights revolution has generated, to date, only the cry of Black power has instill [sic] fear in the hearts of big and little charlie. Why Why suddenly, the most freedom' loving of whites, have been driven from the civil rights circles by the cry of Black power? Is it because after 350 years of struggle we have finally got to where the action is? Power? Black Power?

"Black power! Power to punish, Power to destroy, and above all Power to survive the most brutal system of oppression ever devised by man. ***

"Brothers and Sisters, charlie's finger is on the panic button, let our Black Power help him push it, to hell. T.C.B.” (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, “'Audacious' Black Power," vol. VI, No. 7, July 1966, p. 3)


March 1964 at a conference in Chester, Pa. PURPOSE:

To support local "action groups” in civil rights activity "when their antidiscrimination projects are attacked and 'undercut by the standard civil rights organizations such as the NAACP * * * and the Urban League.'” ORGANIZATION:

ACT leader Julius Hobson has stated that the group is "not a civil rights organization in the classical sense but a revolutionary one in the American tradition.”

Chapters were formed in Chicago, Ill. ; New York City; Chester, Pa.; and
Washington, D.C.

Laurence Landrychairman
Stanley Branche
Gloria Richardson
Julius Hobson
John Wilson
Jesse Gray
Vahaz Rogers


ACT has(1) planned nationwide school boycott in 1964 to protest de facto school

segregation throughout the country; (2) planned a nationwide boycott of California wines and fruits to protest a

voter referendum on housing law. ACT took the position that the right to

open occupancy should not be decided by popular vote; (3) sponsored a 7-day rights offensive, May 24–30, 1965; (4) participated in the attempted “stall-in" at the 1964 New York World's

Fair; (5) organized civil rights school boycotts, buying boycotts, etc. STATEMENTS: JULIUS HOBSON, THE EVENING STAR (WASHINGTON, D.C.), AS QUOTED IN THE

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, MAY 22, 1967, P. H5866: “ 'You can't make Socialist promises within the Capitalist system. It won't work. I'm a Marxist Socialist, not a Communist, but I don't have any illusions that I can change the system, although I think I can improve it.'" TAE EVENING STAR (WASHINGTON, D.C.), JULY 21, 1967, P. B-1:

Hobson saw the Newark riot of 1967 as “the beginning of the new "Civil War" in the United States.'" JULIUS HOBSON, THE WASHINGTON POST, NOVEMBER 6, 1966, P. A-27:

“'We know what colonialism is right here at home," he said. “We don't have to go to Vietnam to impose the kind of freedom I've enjoyed here. * * *?" NAHAZ ROGERS, THE MILITANT, APRIL 27, 1964, P. 1:

" "The old line of making the Negro revolution acceptable by the guidelines of deportment and graciousness that are acceptable to the white community is gone. ACT will not function in a manner that is acceptable to white people. It will do things that are accaptable [sic] to Negroes.''

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May 1965 at a conference in Washington, D.C. PURPOSE:

To serve as a political action arm for ACT leaders. "Its aim is to gain political control of major U.S. cities through mobilization and control of the Negro residents.” According to its literature, it “ 'is part of the revolutionary struggle of people all over the world to liberate themselves from the determination of the United States to impose its way of life on the whole world and to build a new world free from exploitation.'" ORGANIZATION:

"Individuals connected with its founding represent various facets of the militant Negro extremist community. The chairman of the organization is Jesse Gray. He is a former Harlem organizer for the Communist Party, USA." " Membership in the Organization for Black Power shall be of organizations and individuals who accept the perspective of Black Power and the discipline of the organization in the struggle for this power.'” (J. Edgar Hoover, Testimony be. fore Appropriations Subcommittee, February 10, 1966, pp. 256, 257.) KEY LEADERS:

Jesse Gray-chairman
Lawrence Landry-Chicago chairman

Julius Hobson-member of steering committee

At a meeting in Chicago in July 1965 a program was adopted which included the following points : (1) Dissemination of information on "fraudulent nature" of the poverty


(2) Institute a drive in every ghetto to stop all cooperation by the poor with

poverty programs; (3) Campaign to drive the "social work lobby" and their “Negro lackeys"

from the ghettos; (4) Refuse to continue discussions about poverty, civil rights, etc., with

Government social workers; (5) Create immediate programs to deal with Negro "Uncle Toms"; (6) "Train the poor for a nationwide campaign designed struct the

status quo and to force the hand of those seeking to exploit black

people" ; (7) "Resolve that militant organizations will cooperate and work with any

and all persons to achieve these goals and objectives."

81 E. 125th Street, Suite 207, New York, N.Y. 10035

Tel. MO 2-0681

August 28, 1963 (Call for a Freedom Now Party distributed in Washington, D.C.) PURPOSE:

Formed by former Communist Party member Conrad Lynn and Red China travel-ban violator William Worthy for the purpose of running an all-Negro slate of electors in the 1964 elections. ORGANIZATION:

Believed very small.

('onrad Lynn-national chairman
Jrs. Pernella V. Wattleycorresponding secretary
Rer. Albert Cleage--Michigan State chairman

Peter Pierre-chairman, Brooklyn Freedom Now Party


The Freedom Now Party(1) ran a small slate of candidates for State and local offices in 1964 in Michi

gan and New York, including Paul Boutelle, vice-presidential candidate of the Trotskyist Communists, as candidate for State Senator from

Harlem; (2) ran a total of 39 Negro candidates in 1964 for offices ranging from U.S.

Senator to Wayne County drain commissioner. Single candidates were offered in New York, Connecticut, and California. Greatest strength was in Michigan. However, all Freedom Now Party candidates were soundly defeated.

CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY (CORE) National Office, 135th Street and Seventh Avenue (Harlem), New York City, N.Y. ORIGIN:

Spring 1942

Originally formed as the Committee of Racial Equality by James Farmer and Jim Robinson after they were reluctantly served in a white restaurant in Chicago. Farmer and Robinson, then working for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), drew support from FOR members and picketed the restaurant until full integration was achieved. PURPOSE:

Originally considered one of the more "moderate" civil rights organizations, CORE, since the early 1960's, has gradually increased in militancy and has

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become increasingly separatist, black supremacist, and ideologically aligned with the so-called new left.

ORGANIZATION: CORE claims 80,000 members in 200 chapters. The organizational structure of CORE consists of a large advisory board and a slate of five officers under which an administrative staff, field staff, field Secretaries, and task force workers function. In addition a national action committee oversees the regional operations of the chapters and individual members.

Wilfred Ussery—national chairman
Floyd B. McKissick—national director (1966—to date)
Lincoln O. Lynch—assoc. national director (1966—to date)
James L. Farmer—national director (1960–1966)*

ACTIVITIES : In addition to organizing and sponsoring numerous civil rights rallies, demonstrations, and picket lines, CORE, its national leaders and its chapters, have— (1) exhorted Negroes to be ready to “kill for freedom;” (Lincoln O. Lynch) (2) taken a “Get out of Vietnam” war protest stand nationally and has participated at the chapter level in nearly every major anti-Vietnam war demonstration; (3) attempted to unlawfully block traffic leading to the World's Fair in New York City in 1964; (4) attempted to make a “citizen's arrest” of N.Y. Mayor Robert Wagner immediately before the Harlem riot of 1964.


“‘As long as the white man has all the power and money, nothing will happen because we have nothing. The only way to achieve meaningful change is to take power.’” [Emphasis added.]


“‘We will work on our land by day and plan at night for that day when the Negroes and the black people will call us from our forced exile to lead the vanguard, to structure the change which must come about, if we members of the black race are to survive in this country.’”


“‘The police will be barred completely from the ghetto or else suffer the ultimate penalty.”

“‘The vigilantes will become the legitimate law enforcement agency in the black community' " " *.”

(also known as Muslim Mosque, Inc., and Black Muslims)

National headquarters of the Nation of Islam is located at the Central Mosque in Chicago, Ill. (5335 Greenwood Avenue, Chicago, Ill.), and is the home of Elijah Muhammad (Poole), the “Messenger of Allah.”


1931 in Detroit, Michigan

An ex-convict, W. D. Fard (also known as Ford) actually organized the sect with the help of Elijah Poole, a Georgia farm worker. Fard had been released from San Quentin Federal Prison after serving out the term of a narcotics conviction. Fard left Detroit after his followers offered a human sacrifice in 1933. His whereabouts have been unknown since that time. Poole then began teaching that he was the messenger of Allah and that Fard was Allah who had come and gone. Poole served a prison term as a WWII draft evader.

1 Farmer is currently chairman of CORE's advisory board.

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