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are approximately 350,000 Negro residents of Harlem, less than 4,000 of them participated in the riot. This is a little over 1 percent. The overwhelming majority did not participate in any of the violence occurring during those 6 days.

Give us your full name, please.

Mr. HART. Adolph W. #.

Mr. SMITH. Where are you employed?

Mr. HART. New York &. Police Department.

Mr. SMITH. What is your rank :

Mr. HART. I am a detective.

Mr. SMITH. Were you ever a member of the Progressive Labor Movement?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I was.

Mr. SMITH. Did you join the Progressive Labor Movement with the knowledge and consent of your superiors?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I did.

Mr. SMITH. When did you make your first contact in the Progressive Labor Movement?

Mr. HART. On October 12, 1963, I attempted to make contact. However, contact was not made until November 12, 1963.

I made contact at the office of the Progressive Labor Movement at 336 Lenox Avenue, New York City, where I then first met with Mr. William Epton.

Mr. SMITH. Who is William Epton :

Mr. HART. He is chairman of the Harlem Progressive labor Movement. He was later elected vice chairman to the national Progressive Labor—

Mr. SMITH. Did Epton describe the Progressive Labor Movement to you at that time?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, he did. He said that the Progressive Labor Movement was the only organization of its kind that the white police didn't attack, because its members carried arms and they did not believe in turning the other cheek when attacked.

He also stated that only those whites that were willing to die for Negro freedom were allowed to join the ranks of the Progressive Labor Movement.

Mr. SMITH. Did you attend classes in Marxism?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I did. He invited me to attend the first class in Marxism on November 14, 1963, which I attended at the Harlem Progressive Labor office on Lenox Avenue.

Mr. SMITH. Who was the teacher?

Mr. HART. The teacher was a man by the name of Mr. Isadore Begun.

The CHAIRMAN. The general subject was Marxism, did you say?

Mr. HART. Pardon me, sir?

The CHAIRMAN. The general subject of the lecture was Marxism 2

Mr. HART. Marxism; yes, sir.

Mr. SMITH. Mr. Chairman, for the record, Isadore Begun in 1936 was appointed New York State educational director of the Communist Party. From 1945 to 1950 he was chairman of the Bronx County Communist Party.

Was Epton present during this class?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, he was.

Mr. SMITH. What were the classes about?

Mr. HART. They generally dealt along the lines of the bourgeois and proletariat elements and of the revolution according to Marxist theory.

Oftentimes they would relate the Marxist revolution to that of the Cuban revolution crisis.

It was also at these meetings that they talked about guerrilla fighting and how to mobilize the people in the rural or country areas to come with them and, in the event of a confrontation or attempted takeover of the Government, to move in large cities, to strike in guerrilla tactics, and pull back to the countryside, where they made friends—and to the hillside. ro, sumn. Was there any reference to the Chinese Communist

arty

Mr. HART. Yes, sir. Both Begun and Epton stated that the Progressive Labor Movement followed the international position adhered to by the Chinese Communist Party, that of the violent overthrow of the Government as opposed to the more coexistence line of the Russians.

Mr. SMITH. Did you meet with Epton on November 22?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir. I met with Epton at the Progressive Labor headquarters. It was there he spoke about combatting and beating the police in various events—like the picket line, ways of throwing marbles under the hoofs of horses, sticking them with sharp instruments.

Mr. SMITH. Did you meet Epton again on November 27?

Mr. HART. Yes, I did. I met him at the Progressive Labor Movement.

We both then went to the office of the Tri-Line Offset Printing Company, 146 West 67th Street in New York City, to arrange for Some printing of various materials.

Mr. SMITH. What is Tri-Line?

Mr. HART. It is a printing company that produces the Progressive Labor magazine and puts out various leftist literature.

Mr. SMITH. I offer you a certificate of incorporation of the Tri-Line Offset Company, incorporated in the State of New York, and listing o incorporators therefor. I ask you if you can identify these individuals.

Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I can.

All are members of the Progressive Labor Movement.

Mr. SMITH. The first one is Michael Crenovich, Fred Jerome, and Nathaniel Barnett. You have identified all of these as members of the Progressive Labor Movement?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir.

Mr. SMITH. Mr. Chairman, I enter this certificate of incorporation of the Tri-Line Offset Co. as Hart Exhibit No. 1.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you want to offer it?

The document will be received. fil (Document marked “Hart Exhibit No. 1” and retained in committee

es.) Fo SMITH. Did you discuss joining Progressive Labor with

ton?
Mr. HART. Yes, I did.

*Correct name: “Tri-Line Offset Co. Inc.”

While attending Marxist classes on December 26, 1963, and January 2, 1964, I was then encouraged by Mr. Epton to join the Progressive Labor Party, and I then did so. Mr. SMITH. en did you attend your first official meeting of the Progressive Labor Movement? . HART. On January 17, 1964, I attended my first official meetin of the Harlem Club of the Progressive Labor o It was hel at 336 Lenox Avenue, New York City. Mr. SMITH. Who were the active members of this club? Mr. HART. At this time it was William Epton; his wife, Beryl Epton; Vivian Anderson; and David Douglas. ouglas was the second in command under Epton in this group. Mr. SMITH. Can you give us any description of Vivian Anderson that would help in i Co. her? Mr. HART. She is a member. She was then a school teacher in the New York City school system. She was quite active in most leftist organizations during that time. Mr. SMITH. By what name were you known within the Progressive Labor Movement? Mr. HART. By my own name, Adolph Hart. I was often called Abe as a nickname. Mr. SMITH. Did you write some articles for the Progressive Labor newspaper, Challenge? Mr. HART. Yes, I did. Mr. SMITH. Who instructed you to write these articles? Mr. HART. Fred Jerome and William Epton. Mr. SMITH. Were any of them printed? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. I had an article printed in the Progressive Labor magazine. I had another article printed in the Challenge newspaper. r. SMITH. Did they instruct you how to write for Challenge? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. I was given instructions by Mr. Fred Jerome on how to slant the news toward the leftist line. The lessons went on for 6 or 7 months. Mr. SMITH. Did you attend meetings of the newspaper committee of the Progressive Labor? Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I did. Mr. SMITH. Can you name some of the persons who were in attendance at the meetings of the newspaper committee' Mr. HART. There was William Epton, Fred Jerome, Vivian Anderson, Otis Chestnut, David Douglas, and Judy Warden. Mr. SMITH. Can you describe Otis Chestnut? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. He is a male Negro in his early 20's. He is quite active in the neighborhood. He published a small tabloid called the 1/8th Street Block Association Weekly. He would visit at the headquarters often. He and Epton would go over the newspaper to decide what to go into it. Mr. SMITH. Mr. Chairman, with respect to Judy Warden just named—can you describe Judy Warden? Mr. HART. White female in her 20's. I saw her at many Progressive Labor functions. Mr. SMITH. Did you attend a forum of the Progressive Labor Movement on February 24, 1964? Mr. HART. Yes, sir, I did.

Mr. SMITH. Who was the speaker, and what was the subject? Mr. HART. The speaker was Sue Warren. The subject revolved around the Sino-Soviet dispute. During this discussion W. Warren supported the Chinese Communist position and said she had recently been to Red China. She also advocated the violent methods of changing the Government, as opposed to the peaceful methods. Mr. SMITH. Mr. Chairman, for the record at this point, with regard to Susan Warren The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Hart, you are doing splendidly. Would you talk directly into the mike just a little louder? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. Mr. Sorris. Mr. Chairman, for the record, Susan Warren testified before the committee, part 1 of “Communist Training Operations” hearings, held July 21 and 22, 1959. Susan Warren's membership in the Communist Party is a matter of public record. In addition to the publicity given by the Daily Worker to her work for the party, the 1948 catalogue for the Jefferson School of Social Science records that Miss Warren, one of the teachers at the school, was a former educational director, New York County Committee of the Communist Party. Appearing as a witness before the Committee on Un-American Aćtivities on July 26, 1957, Miss Warren invoked the first and fifth amendments, refusing to answer questions pertaining to her membership in, or her efforts on behalf of, the Communist Party. As an instructor at the Jefferson School in the late 1940's and early 1950's, Miss Warren taught such subjects as “Capitalism and the Class Struggle.” In 1955 and in 1956 her subjects included “China, India, and Africa—New Role in World Politics.” At the Marxist forum held in Aoi. Hall in early 1958, “China” was again the subject of her ecture. In December of that year Miss Warren was scheduled to teach on the correct handling of contradictions among the people at The Faculty of Social Science. As a member of the teaching staff of The Faculty in 1959, The Worker noted that Sue Warren would teach the “Chinese Communes.” She lived in China over a year and a half in the early 1960's. Formerly editor and contributor to the Far East Spotlight and Far East Reporter. In the summer of 1967 Sue Warren was a member of the staff of the Free School of New York. Can you name some of those who were in attendance at the meeting you mentioned just a few moments ago? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. It was William Epton and his wife. The CHAIRMAN. Will you spell the name of Epton : Mr. HART. E-p-t-o-n. The CHAIRMAN. Epton? Mr. HART. Yes, sir. David Douglas, Isadore Begun, Vivian Anderson, and Otis Chestnut. Mr. SMITH. Did you attend a class in Marxism on March 9, 1964? Mr. HART. Yes, I did.

Mr. SMITH. Will you describe it to the committee?
Mr. Hart. I would prefer to do that in executive session.
Mr. SMITH. Who was present?

Mr. HART. Among those present were, again, Isadore Begun, who taught the course, William Epton, Vivian Anderson, and David Douglas.

Mr. Smith. Did Epton participate in the class discussion? Mr. Hart. Yes, sir, he did. Epton suggested that it would be worthwhile for members of the Progressive Labor Movement to get in on the ground floor of Malcolm X's new organization, which later became known as the Organization for Afro-American Unity.

He also advised it would be necessary to learn how to handle firearms and to become quite proficient with them.

He told me that I and another person named Harold Young, who had been attending some of the classes and meetings at Progressive Labor, would have to find a place somewhere in upstate New York to practice shooting firearms.

He stated that myself and Young had firearms, that Progressive Labor would supply additional guns and ammunition for additional persons who wished to participate in shooting. Mr. SMITH.

Can you identify Harold Young? Mr. Hart. Yes, sir. He is a male Negro in his late 20's who came up from either North or South Carolina during the summer months of 1963.

Mr. Smith. Did you have a meeting or discussion with Epton on March 21, 1964 ?

Mr. Hart. Yes, I did. I had a discussion at the Progressive Labor Movement with Mr. Epton, at which time he stated that the members of the Progressive Labor Movement wanted them to learn the art of self-defense and that of karate and that he had hired a teacher that he hoped would come down and teach us karate and judo.

Mr. Smith. Did you attend a citywide meeting of Progressive Labor on March 28, 1964?

Mr. Hart. Yes, sir. The meeting was held at 853 Broadway in New York City.

Mr. Smith. How many delegates were present at this meeting?
Mr. Hart. There were approximately 50.

Mr. SMITH. Were persons elected to the leadership of the Progressive Labor Movement in New York City at that meeting?

Mr. HART. Yes, sir.
Mr. SMITH. Who was elected?

Mr. Hart. Milton Rosen was elected as chairman. William Epton was elected as vice chairman. Fred Jerome was elected as propaganda director, but later they decided to change the name to publicity director.

Mr. Smith. Can you name some others that were present at the meeting?

Mr. Hart. There was Mrs. Epton, Vivian Anderson, David Douglas, Harold Young, Alice Jerome-who was the mother of Fred JeromeMilton Rosen, Steve Martinot, Michael Crenovich, Nat Barnett, and Levi Laub.

Mr. Smith. Detective Hart, you earlier referred to a plan by Epton to have Progressive Labor members join Malcolm X's Organization for Afro-American Unity.

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