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class, creed against creed, thereby contributing to the climate which caused the riots in Newark in July 1967, which he views as a means to an end.” In his book, Rebellion in Newark, Hayden wrote a chapter entitled “From Riot to Revolution,” in which he said: The role of organized violence is now being carefully considered. During a riot, for instance, a conscious guerrilla can participate in pulling police away from the path of people engaged in attacking stores. He can create disorder in new areas the police think are secure. He can carry the torch, if not all the people, to white neighborhoods and downtown business districts. If necessary, he can successfully shoot to kill. Willie Wright's postriot activities, said Captain Kinney, as described by Louis Lomax during August 1967 in the Newark StarLedger, included an admission by Wright that he was proud to be an out-and-out revolutionary. After the July riot, when addressing a group of 200 persons attend: ing a meeting of the board of trustees, Area 2, of UCC, Wright said that:
I say we should arm ourselves with cannons, machine guns, bazookas, anything we can get our hands on ; and if you don't know how to get some heavy weapons, call my office and I will tell you where to go and how to get them.
Following this speech, which was cheered by the audience, the board voted unanimously to keep Wright as a member. Also on September 5, 1967, Wright applied for a passport to go to Paris ostensibly for a visit. Instead, he went to Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, to attend a conference of North Vietnamese and Viet Cong representatives. This week-long session was arranged by David Dellinger, editor of Liberation magazine. Wright, who had appeared “quite broke” before his trip, began to spend money more freely upon his return to America. Alvin Oliver, a coordinator for eight antipoverty programs at UCC headquarters, was also active following the riot. He was in contact with Maxwell Curtis Stanford, Jr., alias Allah Mahammad, one of the leaders of the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM). RAM, a pro-Peking guerrilla warfare organization which has been linked to Castro's regime, is “dedicated to the overthrow of the capitalist system in the United States,” by force if necessary, according to J. Edgar Hoover. Captain Kinney concluded his testimony by stating that the day after Dr. Martin Luther IKing's assassination about 175 fires were set off in Newark, the worst day of fires that the city had ever had. Captain Kinney, in reference to the publicity that there had been no local conspiracies involved in the riot, testified that: In Newark, certain individuals conspired, and are conspiring, to replace the leadership of the Newark Police Department. Other individuals conspired, and are
conspiring, to turn out of office the present city administration before its lawful term expires.
Still other individuals conspired, and are conspiring, as part of the movement to replace the system of government under which we live in the United States of America, using any means to do so, including the use of force and violence.
To these conspirators, the insurrection that occurred in Newark in 1967 was a means to an end which they welcomed and exploited to serve their plot.
To these conspirators, the accomplishment of any or all of the aforementioned goals was paramount * * *.
Many Newark and New Jersey residents, said Captain Kinney, had asked the question, Why weren't these conspirators prosecuted?
Mr. Tuck, the subcommittee chairman, thanked Captain Kinney for his detailed presentation and added the following remarks:
We all know that police departments and policemen have come in for an awful lot of abuse in the last few years. As these hearings have revealed, Communists have played a very large role in provoking much of this criticism which has been overwhelmingly unjustified.
Numerous unfounded and inflammatory charges have been made against police everywhere, and everywhere we hear the cry "police brutality”—which, incidentally, I believe is a Communist expression-when the brutality and violence involved have actually been used not by the police but against the police and by violators of the law they were taking into custody.
During these hearings we have received the testimony of a number of police officers, both Negro and white, from other cities. All of them have shown themselves to be a credit to the profession to which they belong.
These riots must be stopped. They will destroy everything that is fine and good in America unless they are stopped and stopped now.
SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, L00TING,
TUESDAY, APRIL 23, 1968
UNITED STATES House of REPRESENTATIVEs,
The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, at 10:10 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, chairman, presiding. sommittee members: Representatives Fólwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Albert W. Watson, of #. Carolina; also John C. Culver, of Iowa, in absence of Mr. illis.) Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, Ichord, Ashbrook, and Watson. Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Chester D. Smith, general counsel; and Herbert Romerstein, investigator. The CHAIRMAN. The subcommittee will come to order. Today, we are continuing our investigations, which have extended almost for the past year, to try to find out to what extent subversive activities have been involved in the looting, rioting, and burning which have plagued our metropolitan centers in the last year, and today we have as our first witness Detective Captain Charles Kinney of the Newark Police Department in New Jersey, and we are looking into the Newark riots. Captain, it is a pleasure to have you here this morning. Will you please stand? Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Mr. KINNEY. I do.
TESTIMONY OF CHARLES KINNEY
M. SMITH. Give the committee your name and date and place of birth. Mr. KINNEY. I was born January 13, 1918, in Newark, New Jersey. Mr. SMITH. What is your employment, Captain? Mr. KINNEY. I am employed by the city of Newark in the police department as a captain of police assigned to the detective division. Mr. SMITH. Will you give the committee a sketch of your background, including your regular education and special education? Mr. KINNEY. Yes. I went to Newark schools and I graduated from St. Benedict's Preparatory School in Newark. I went to John Marshall College in Jersey to My studies were interrupted by World War II. Upon my return, I attended the Newark College of Rutgers Uni. versity. I picked up my education once again and at the present time I am attending University College of Rutgers University, majoring in political science. came on the Newark Police Department on March 3, 1947. I was pool to sergeant in 1956, to lieutenant in 1961, and to captain in 1967. I have served in the patrol and the traffic division, but 19 of my 21 years have been served in the detective division as a detective, a detective sergeant, a detective lieutenant, and now as a detective captain. For . past 8 months, I have been given a special assignment, to determine whether there was a criminal conspiracy connected with the riots in Newark in July 1967. I would like to add, also, that my father was a Newark police officer from 1910 until his death in 1941 and, from 1915 to 1941, he was a nationally known detective who specialized in the apprehension of pickpockets. The CHAIRMAN. You said 1915? Mr. KINNEY. 1915, sir. My military service, I entered the Army October 27, 1942. I graduated from infantry OCS at Fort Benning, Georgia, and I served in Europe as a platoon leader and company commander with the 102d Infantry Division. I was separated in 1946 with the rank of captain. I stayed active in the Army Reserve and I was promoted to major in the Reserve in 1952 and to ho colonel in 1960. I am proud and happy to say that I also have a son, Charles Richard, who is 22, who is serving in the Armed Forces in Vietnam. Mr. SMITH. Do you have any awards resulting from your military service? Mr. KINNEY. Yes, in the military service, I received the Combat Infantryman's Badge, the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, and the Purple Heart. Mr. SMITH. During the summer of 1967, a riot took place in the city of Newark. Were the dates established by the police department for the time during which the riot took place? Mr. KINNEY. July 12, 1967, to July 17, 1967. - Ms. SMITH. How many persons were killed during the course of this riot, Mr. KINNEY. There were 23 homicides and 3 related deaths during the riot. This included Detective Fred Toto and Fire Captain Michael Moran, both killed in the line of duty, both shot during the riot.