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is adopted to the capacities of students in general, and calculated for the use of schools, it will be found a short and easy Guide to the attainment of a correct style, as well as a useful Compendium for the Practice of Elocution.
GRAMMAR is the art of speaking or writing any language with propriety.
In the English Alphabet there are twenty-six letters; which are divided into vowels and consonants.
The Vowels are seven, namely, a, e, i, o, u, w, y, but w and y are consonants when they begin a word, or syllable.
Consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels.
The Mutes cannot be sounded at all without a vowel, and they all begin their sound with a consonant; as b, d, g, k, p, q, t, &c. hard, which are expressed be, de, te, &c.
The Semi-vowels have an imperfect sound of themselves, and all begin with a vowel; as l, m, n, r, f, s, &c. which are sounded ef, el, em, &c.
Four of the Semi-vowels, namely, l, m, n, r, are also called liquids, from their readily uniting with other consonants, and flowing as it were into their sounds.
A Diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in the same syllable; as ea in season.
A Tripthong is the meeting of three vowels in the same syllable; as cau in beauty.
A Syllable is any letter, or number of letters which make a perfect sound.
A Word of one Syllable is termed a Monosyllable; a word of two syllables, a Dissyllable; a word of thrée syllables, a Trisyllable; and a word of four or more syllables, a Polysyllable.
All Words are either primitive or derivative.
Primitive Words are those which cannot be reduced to any simpler words in the language; as, man, good, content.
Derivative Words are those which may be reduced to other words of greater simplicity; as manful, goodness, contentment.
PARTS OF SPEECH. .
In the English Language there are these ten parts of Speech; Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun,
Verb, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection.
AN ARTICLE is a word which is placed before common names, to point out, or limit their signification.
There are two Articles a and the ; a becomes an before a vowel, or a silent h; as, an acorn, un hour. But if the h be sounded, the a only is used; as, a hand, a heart.
A or an is called the indefinite article, because it points out a thing indeterminately; as “Give me a book ;" that is, any book.
The is called the definite article, because it determines what particular thing is meant; as, “Give me the book ;" meaning some particular book.
NOUNS OR SUBSTANTIVES.
A NOUN or SUBSTANTIVE, is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, John, London, Honor, Goodness.
Substantives are either proper or common. А proper name, is the name of any individual; as Mary, London, Tweed.
A Common Name, is the name of a whole kind; as, Man, Tree, &c.
Nouns are of two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural. The Singular Number speaks but of one, object; as, a boy, a book; or a number of them collectively, as, a troop, an army. The Plural Number speaks of more objects than one; as, boys, books.
Some Nouns have no singular number, as, ashes, bellows, bowels, &c. Others have no plural; as, wheat, barley, learning, &c. Some are alike in both numbers; as, deer, sheep, &c.
The Cases of Nouns signify their different terminations.
In English, Nouns have but two Cases, the Nominative and the Genitive. The Nominative Case simply expresses the name of a thing, as, man. The Genitive is formed by adding s with an Apostrophe (') to the nominative; as, man's, and denotes property or possession; hence it is frequently called the Possessive Case.
To Nouns ending in s, and sometimes to Singular Nouns ending in ss, the Apostrophe is added without the other s; as, on Eagles' wings; for righteousness sake.
English Substantives are declined thus : Singular. Nominative, man. Genitive, man's. Plural. Nominative, men. Genitive, men's.