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Adonijah, son of Haggith,
usurps the kingdom.
A. M. 2989.
CHAPTER I. David declines in health, 1-4. Adonijah aspires to the kingdom, 5–10. Nathan and Bathsheba procure an order from
David for the succession of Solomon, 11-31. The anointing of Solomon, and the people's joy, 32-40. The dispersion of Adonijah's party, 41-49. Solomon dismisses Adonijah, 50–53.
NOW King David was old and || 5 1 Then “Adonijah the son of B: M: 2008 B. C. 1015.
1 stricken in years; and they co-Haggith exalted himself, saying, I vered him with clothes, but he gat no heat. will 6 be king: and he prepared him cha
2 Wherefore his servant said unto him, Let || riots and horsemen, and fifty men to run bethere be sought for my lord the king 3 a young fore him. virgin: and let her stand before the king, and let 6 And his father had not displeased him 6 at her - cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, || any time in saying, Why hast thou done so ? that my lord the king may get heat.
and he also was a very goodly man; d and 3 So they sought for a fair damsel through his mother bare him after Absalom. out all the coasts of Israel, and found Abishag || 7 And ?he conferred with Joab the son of a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. | Zeruiah, and with • Abiathar the priest: and
4 And the damsel was very fair, and cherish- | they, 8 following Adonijah, helped him. ed the king, and ministered to him: but the 8 But Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son king knew her not.
of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, and Shi
* Heb. entered into days.- Heb. Let them seek - Heb. a damsel, or virgin.
4 Heb. be a cherisher unto him.- Josh. xix. 18.-02 Sam. iii. 4.—Heb. reign.- 2 Sam. xv. 1.
6 Heb. from his days.- _d 2 Sam. iii. 3; i Chr. iii. 2.- -7 Heb. his words were with Joab,- _ 2 Sam. xx. 25. dCh. ii. 22, 28. • Heb. helped after Adonijah.- - Chap. iv. 18.
NOTES ON CHAPTER I.
her as his wife, but she remained still a virgin: Verse 1. Now King David was old-Being in which is mentioned to signify the continuance and the end of his seventieth year. They covered him progress of the king's malady. with clothes, but he gat no heat-Which is not Verse 5. Then-Upon notice of the desperatestrange, considering he was a person who had been ness of the king's disease, and the approach of his exercised with so many hardships in war, and with death ; Adonijah exalted himself-Entertained high such tormenting cares, and fears, and sorrows for thoughts and designs; saying, I will be king—As his own sins, (as divers of his psalms witness,) and the right of the kingdom is mine, (verse 6,) so I will for the sins and miseries of his children and people. now take possession of it. And he prepared him Besides, this might be from the nature of his bodily || chariots, &c.—As Absalom had done upon the like distemper, which Dr. Lightfoot thinks was a dead | occasion, 1 Sam. xv. 1. palsy. (David now began to feel the effects of old Verses 6, 7. His father had not displeased him age, and probably remembered with lively interest the at any time—This is mentioned as David's great words of his faithful friend Barzillai, spoken some error, and the occasion of Adonijah's presumption. time before: “Can I discern between good and evil? || In saying, Why hast thou done so ?—He had neither can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink ?"] || restrained him from, nor reproved him for his mis
Verse 2. Wherefore his servants-His physi- || carriages, which David knew was a great sin. He cians; said, Let there be sought for the king a | also was a very goodly man—This was a second young virgin-Whose natural heat is fresh and grourd of his confidence, because his great comewholesome, and not impaired with bearing or breed- | liness made him amiable in the people's eyes. His ing children. The same counsel is given by Galen mother bare him after Absalom—This is mentioned for the cure of some cold and dry distempers. Let | as a third reason why he expected the crown. Abher stand before the king—That is, minister unto salom being dead, he was next to him in order of him, or wait upon him in his sickness, as occasion birth. See 2 Sam. iii. 3, 4. He conferred with Joab requires. And let her lie in his bosom-As his wife; | and with Abiathar-Whom it is likely he knew to for that she was so, may appear by divers arguments. be two discontented persons; the former on account 1st, Otherwise this had been a wicked course; which, |of David's putting Amasa in his place, and the other therefore, neither his servants would have dared to because he saw Zadok in greater favour than himprescribe, nor would David have used, especially be self. They helped him-Probably, not so much being now in a dying condition. 2d, It appears from cause they thought the right of the crown was his, this phrase of lying in his bosom, which is every- | as with a view to oppose Solomon, and to secure where in Scripture mentioned as the privilege of a | and advance their own interest. It seems that God wife. 3d, This made Adonijah's crime, in desiring | left them to themselves, to correct them for former her to wife, so heinous in Solomon's account, because miscarriages, with a rod of their own making. he saw, that by marrying the king's wife, he design- Verses 8-10. The mighty men were not with Adoed to revive his pretence to the kingdom.
nijah-That is, those named 2 Sam. xxiii., and the Verse 4. The king knew her not-Did not enjoy Il guards, who had served under David so long, and Nathan and Bathsheba
convey the tidings to the king.
B. C. 1015.
B. C. 1015
A M.299 mei, and Rei, and "the mighty men and Abisbag the Shunammite minis- A. M. 2999
which belonged to David, were not tered unto the king. with Adonijah.
16 And Bath-sheba bowed, and did obeisance 9 And Adonijah slew sheep, and oxen, and unto the king. And the king said, " What fat cattle, by the stone of Zoheleth, which is by wouldest thou ? * En-rogel, and called all his brethren the king's 17 And she said unto him, My lord, 'thou sons, and all the men of Judah the king's ser- | swarest by the LORD thy God unto thy handFants :
maid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son 10 But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, throne. he called not.
18 And now, behold, Adonijah reigneth ; and 11 ? Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bath- now, my lord the king, thou knowest it not: sheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast || 19 m And he hath slain oxen, and fat cattle, thou not heard that Adonijah the son of i Hag- and sheep in abundance, and hath called all gith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth the sons of the king, and Abiathar the priest, it not?
and Joab the captain of the host ; but Solomon 12 Now therefore come, let me, I pray thee, thy servant hath he not called. give thee counsel, that thou mayest save thine 20 And thou, my lord, o king, the eyes own life, and the life of thy son Solomon. all Israel are upon thee, that thou shouldest
13 Go, and get thee in unto King David, and tell them who shall sit on the throne of my say unto him, Didst not thou, my lord, O king, || lord the king after him. swear unto thy handmaid, saying, * Assuredly | 21 Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he lord the king shall n sleep with his fathers, that shall sit upon my throne? why then doth Ado || I and my son Solomon shall be counted 12 ofnijah reign ?
fenders. 14 Behold, while thou yet talkest there with 22 And lo, while she yet talked with the the king, I also will come in after thee, and king, Nathan the prophet also came in. o confirm thy words.
23 And they told the king, saying, Behold 15 And Bath-sheba went in unto the king Nathan the prophet. And when he was come into the chamber: and the king was very old ; || in before the king, he bowed himself before
2 Sam. xxiii. 8.
i 2 Sam. ili. 4.
- Or, the well Rogel, 2 Sam. xvii. 17.
10 Heb. fill up.
11 Heb. What to thee?- Verses 13, 30.- _m Verses 7-9, 25.
Deut. xxxi. 16; Chap. ii. 10. _13 Heb. sinners.
had done such mighty acts in his reign and under ing that Adonijah hated him for being the principal his conduct. Adonijah had no hope of drawing instrument of Solomon's advancement. That Adothem to his party, and therefore did not confer with nijah doth reign-It seems they were so bold as to them as he did with Joab and Abiathar. And called proclaim him king. all his brethren and all the men of Judah-Except Verses 13–15. Didst thou not, o king, swear unto those mentioned verse 8, and again excepted, verse thy handmaid ?_We do not read anywhere else 10. But all the rest of the family of David, and the of this oath: but, no doubt, David had solemnly principal persons of the tribe of Judah, with the sworn to her that he would make her son his suchigh-priest and captain of the host, being present, || cessor, knowing that God himself had designed him there seemed to be nothing wanting to the making to that honour. And it is probable that Adonijah of him king, but only his anointing. For this ap- was not an entire stranger to what God had declared pears to have been a federal feast, in which they || to Nathan and David on this subject: and if so, his swore allegiance to Adonijah. But Nathan the crime was the greater in setting himself to oppose prophet, and Benaiah, fc., he called not-Because the decree of heaven. Indeed he acknowledges as he knew they favoured Solomon.
much, chap. ii. 15. The king was very old-And Verse 11. Nathan spake unto Bath-sheba—Who, therefore, probably, could not see so as to discern being private and retired in her apartment, was ig- who had entered the chamber till Abishag, who norant of what was done abroad; and who was like-ministered unto him, informed him. ly to be most zealous in the cause, and most preva- Verses 19, 20. Solomon thy servant-She speaks lent with David. To her Nathan was induced to very submissively, and calls herself his handmaid, speak, both by his piety, that he might fulfil the will and her son his servant. T'he eyes of all Israel of God declared to him concerning Solomon's suc- are upon thee-This she said that she might free cession, 2 Sam. vii. 13; and by his prudence, know-! him from all fear of such a rebellion as Absalom David appoints
Solomon to be king.
B. C. 1015.
A. M. 2989. the king with his face to the the king's presence, and stood before A. M. 2989, ground.
the king. 24 And Nathan said, My lord, O king, hast 29 And the king sware, and said, ? As the thou said, Adonijah shall reign after me, and LORD liveth, that hath redeemed my soul out he shall sit upon my throne ?
of all distress. 25 °For he is gone down this day, and hath 30 *Even as I sware unto thee by the Lord slain oxen, and fat cattle, and sheep in abund- | God of Israel, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy ance, and hath called all the king's sons, and son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon the captains of the host, and Abiathar the my throne in my stead; even so will I certainly priest ; and behold, they eat and drink before do this day. him, and say, 'God 13 save King Adonijah. 31 Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face to
26 But me, even me thy servant, and Zadok the earth, and did reverence to the king, and the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, said, "Let my lord King David live for ever. and thy servant Solomon, hath he not called. 32 4 And King David said, Call me Zadok
27 Is this thing done by my lord the king, | the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Beand thou hast not showed it unto thy servant, | naiah the son of Jehoiada. And they came who should sit on the throne of my lord the before the king. king after him?
33 The king also said unto them, Take 28 [ Then King David answered and said, with you the servants of your lord, and cause Call me Bath-sheba. And she came 14 into | Solomon my son to ride upon
15 mine own
o Verse 19.pl Sam. x. 24. _13 Heb. let King Adonijah live. 14 Heb. before the king:
-92 Sam. iv. 9.- Verse 17.
• Neh. ii. 3; Dan. ii. 4.- Lt 2 Sam. xx. 6. 15 Heb. which be
longeth to me, Esth. vi. 8.
raised; the people not being yet joined to Adonijah, || far from thirsting after thy death, and should rather but continuing in suspense till the king had declared rejoice, if it were possible, for thee to live and enjoy his mind about his successor.
thy crown for ever. There could be no higher exVerses 26, 27. But me hath he not called—Whom pression of love and thankfulness, than to desire he knew to be acquainted with thy mind, and with never to see Solomon on the throne, if it were posthe mind of God in this matter; and therefore his sible for David always to enjoy it. neglect of me herein gives me cause to suspect that Verse 33. Take with you the servants of your this is done without thy knowledge. Thou hast lord-His constant guards, the Cherethites and Penot showed it to thy servant—Who, having been an | lethites, verse 38. Cause Solomon to ride upon instrument in delivering God's message to thee con- | mine own mule-As a token that the royal dignity cerning thy successor, might reasonably expect that is transferred upon him, and that by my consent. if thou hadst changed thy mind, thou wouldest have The rest of David's sons were wont to ride upon acquainted me with it, as being both a prophet of mules when they went abroad, 2 Sam. xiii. 29. And the Lord, and one whom thou hast found faithful to Absalom rode on a mule when he was hanged in the thee. He insinuates that, in a matter of such im- | oak. But David had a mule peculiarly reserved for portance, he could not believe the king would act himself alone; on which Solomon's being set, was without his advice, whom he was wont to consult consid ed as the beginning of his kingly power, no on other occasions, and who had acquainted him | private person whatsoever being permitted to ride with the mind of God concerning Solomon. Nathan upon the king's mule. “It was capital,” says Maiknew that David had given no orders about this monides,“ to ride on the king's ass or mule, to sit thing, but thought it prudent to introduce in this upon his throne, or to handle his sceptre without his manner a relation of what Adonijah had done. order.” On the contrary, it appears from the story
Verses 28, 29. King David said, Call Bath-she- || of Mordecai, (Esther vi.,) that to have the honour to ba—Who, upon Nathan's approach to the king, had ride on the king's beast by his appointment, was acmodestly withdrawn. That hath redeemed my soul counted the highest dignity among the Persians. out of all distress—The words contain a grateful | Bring him down to Gihon-A little river or brook acknowledgment of the goodness of God to him, in near Jerusalem, on the west side, which discharged bringing him safe through the many difficulties that itself into the brook Kidron, and in the Chaldee is had lain in his way, and which he now mentions to called by its modern name, Siloa. If we may credit the glory of God, (as Jacob when he lay a dying,) || Maimonides, and other rabbis, the kings of the house thus setting to his seal, from his own experience, of David were all obliged to be anointed by the side that the Lord redeemeth the souls of his servants. of a fountain or river; which, they say, was the rea
Verse 31. Let my lord King David live for ever son why David commanded his servants to bring his -Though I desire thy oath may be kept, and the son down to Gihon, and anoint him there. Such a right of succession confirmed to my son, yet I am || situation for anointing their kings, the Jews say, was Adonijah is informed that
Solomon is anointed king.
B. C. 1015.
B. C. 1055.
A. 1. 2999. mule, and bring him down to Gi- || And they blew the trumpet ; •and all A. M. 2989.
the people said, God save King Solo34 And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the mon. prophet 'anoint him there king over Israel : 40 And all the people came up after him, and and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, God the people piped with 16 pipes, and rejoiced with save King Solomon.
great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound 35 Then ye shall come up after him, that he of them. may come and sit upon my throne; for he 41 1 And Adonijah and all the guests that shall be king in my stead: and I have ap- were with him heard it as they had made an pointed him to be ruler over Israel and over end of eating. And when Joab heard the Judah.
sound of the trumpet, he said, Wherefore is 36 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answer- || this noise of the city being in an uproar ? ed the king, and said, Amen: the LORD God 42 And while he yet spake, behold, Jonathan of my lord the king say so too.
the son of Abiathar the priest came: and 37 ? As the Lord hath been with my lord the Adonijah said unto him, Come in; for 'thou king, even so be he with Solomon, and make art a valiant man, and bringest good tidings. his throne greater than the throne of my lord 43 And Jonathan answered and said to King David.
Adonijah, Verily our lord King David hath 38 [ So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the made Solomon king. prophet, band Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, 44 And the king hath sent with him Zadok and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Bedown, and caused Solomon to ride upon King naiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, David's mule, and brought him to Gihon. and the Pelethites, and they have caused him
39 And Zadok the priest took a horn of oil to ride upon the king's mule: out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. 45 And Zadok the priest and Nathan the
* 2 Chron. xxxii. 30. Sam. 2. 1; xvi. 3, 12; 2 Sam. ii. 4; 7.3; Chap. xix. 16; 2 Kings ix. 3 ; xi. 12. -* 2 Sam. xy. 10; 2 Kings ix. 13; xi. 14.- - Josh. i. 5, 17; 1 Sam. xx. 13.
a Verse 47. -D 2 Sam. viii. 18; xxiii. 20–23.—Exod. XXX. 23, 25, 32; Psalm lxxxix. 20. 1 Chronicles xxix. 22. el Sam. x.--16 Or, flutes.2 Sam. xviii. 27.
ehosen to show the perpetuity of their kingdom, be- || Christ signifies anointed, and he is the king whom cause rivers run always, though the cities which God hath set upon his holy hill of Zion, according they wash are continually decaying, and liable to to the decree, Psa. ii. 6, 7. Christians, also, are destruction. But it is much more probable that this | made to our God, and by him, kings, and they have place was fixed on, because it was near Jerusalem, an unction from the Holy One, 1 John ii. 20.” and a place of great resort, and capable of contain: Verses 35, 36. Then ye shall come up after him, ing and displaying that numerous company, which that he may sit on my throne-Ye shall attend upon David knew would follow Solomon thither. And him to Jerusalem, and give him actual possession of being on the west side of the city, it was remote the throne. For he shall be king in my
stead—My from Adonijah, who was inaugurated on the east deputy and vice-king while I live, and absolutely side, and from his company, and therefore the peo- | king when I die. Over Israel and over Judahple could assemble here without fear of tumults or The latter clause is added, lest the men of Judah, bloodshed.
who were in a special manner invited by Adonijah, Verse 34. Let Zadok the priest and Nathan the || (verse 9,) should think themselves exempted from prophet anoint him-That is, say the Jews, one of his jurisdiction. And Benaiah said, Amen—They them poured out the oil, and the other anointed his all said the same, (verse 47,) not doubting but God head, drawing a circle round about it with oil, ac- || would establish his authority. cording to their maxim that their kings were anoint- Verses 39, 40. Zadok took a horn of oil—A vesed in the form of a crown, to denote their delega-sel of oil, as the Arabic translates it; which vessel tion to the royal dignity. It is of more importance was made of an ox's horn, as Bochart observes; to observe, that this unction signified not only the out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon-It designation of the person anointed to his office, but rendered his unction more solemn, and his person the gifts and graces which were necessary to qualify | more sacred, that he was anointed with holy oil him for it, and which, seeking them sincerely of taken out of the tabernacle: though the Jews are God, he might expect to receive. “We do not find,” | generally of opinion, that it was not necessary to sys Henry, “ that Abiathar pretended to anoint || anoint their kings with this holy oil made by Moses. Adonijah: he was made king by a feast, not by unc- So that the earth rent-An hyperbolical exprestion. Whom God calls, he will qualify, which was | sion, to signify the very loud noise which the people signified by the anointing : usurpers had it not. Il made with their shouts and their pipes.
Adonijah is afraid, and
flees to the tabernacle.
A. M. 2989 prophet have anointed him king || jah were afraid, and rose up, and 4. M. 2989
C. . in Gihon : and they are come up || went every man his way. from thence rejoicing, so that the city rang 50 9 And Adonijah feared because of Soloagain. This is the noise that ye have mon, and arose, and went, and 'caught hold heard.
on the horns of the altar. 46 And also Solomon & sitteth on the throne 51 And it was told Solomon, saying, Behold, of the kingdom.
Adonijah feareth King Solomon : for lo he hath 47 And moreover the king's servants came caught hold on the horns of the altar, saying, to bless our lord King David, saying, God Let King Solomon swear unto me to-day that make the name of Solomon better than thy || he will not slay his servant with the sword. name, and make his throne greater than thy 52 And Solomon said, If he will show himthrone. i And the king bowed himself upon self a worthy man, " there shall not a hair of the bed.
him fall to the earth : but if wickedness shall 48 And also thus said the king, Blessed bebe found in him, he shall die. the Lord God of Israel, which hath * given 53 $o King Solomon sent, and they brought one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes || him down from the altar. And he came and even seeing it.
bowed himself to King Solomon : and Solomon 49 And all the guests that were with Adoni- || said unto him, Go to thy house.
61 Chron. xxix, 23.-Verse 37.-i Gen. xlvii. 31. Ch.
iii. 6; Psa. cxxxii. 11.
Chap. ii. 28. -ml Samuel xiv. 45; 2 Samuel xiv. 11; Acts
Verses 46-48. Also Solomon sitteth on the throne | hindered the offering of sacrifices on the altar till -Being in actual possession of the kingdom, such time as Solomon granted his pardon. Let King though his father be alive. For to sit upon the Solomon swear that he will not slay his servantthrone was proper to the king; and none else, on He owns Solomon as his king, and himself as his pain of death, might be placed there. The king servant and subject; and being sensible of his guilt, bowed himself upon the bed—Adoring God for this and of the jealousy which kings have of their comgreat mercy, and thereby declaring his hearty con- || petitors, could not be satisfied without Solomon's sent to this action. And also thus said the king, oath. Blessed be the Lord, &c.—He gave his solemn Verses 52, 53. And Solomon said, &c.—Solomon thanks to God for the happiness of seeing Solomon | did not swear unto him, as he desired, but only debegin his reign, with such affection of his people as clared that he gave him a full pardon for what was they expressed by their joy at his inauguration. It | past, on condition that he behaved himself as beis a great satisfaction to good men, when they are came a good subject for the time to come. But if going out of the world, to see their children rising | wickedness be found in him, he shall die—That is, up in their stead, to serve God in their generation : 1 if he did any thing in future which manifested that and especially to see peace upon Israel, and the he had still a rebellious mind, the pardon, now establishment of it.
granted, should signify nothing, because he had Verses 50, 51. Adonijah feared, &c.—He fled to broken the condition of it. He came and bowed the altar for protection and safety, it being a privi- || himself to King Solomon-Thereby owning him leged place; not, indeed, by the appointment of the for his sovereign, such respect not being otherwise law, but by the custom of all nations. And caught | due from one brother to another And Solomon hold on the horns of the altar-With a resolution, | said unto him, Go to thy house–There to lead a it seems, of not stirring therefrom till Solomon had | private life, without noise, equipage, or numerous given his oath, or solemn word, not to take away his attendants, and not meddling with the affairs of the life. And by thus doing Adonijah appears to have || kingdom.
CHAPTER II. David's charge to Solomon, 1–9. His death and burial, with the beginning of Solomon's reign, 10–12. He puts Adonijan
to death, 13-25. Deposes Abiathar from the high-priesthood, 26, 27. Puts Joab to death, 28-35. Confines Shimci to Jerusalem, 36-38. Puts him to death, 39–46. 8