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dress. She milks her cows twice a day, night and morning. She scalds her milk pails and her pans, so that they are very sweet and clean each time she uses them, and she keeps everything nice in the dairy. 3. After the milk is taken from the cows,

it is put into large flat dishes, made of wood, or of tin, or of earthenware; and there it stands till the next day, when the cream or oily part of the milk is found to have come to the top.

4. The cream is skimmed off, and poured into a vessel called a churn, in which it is tossed and beaten about, till lumps of butter are formed.

5. These are then taken out, washed well from the milk that may still be mixed with them, and put up in such a way as either to be salted for winter stock, or carried to market for sale.

6. Cheese is made of milk. The milk is made somewhat warm.

It is then curdled by some sour substance; the curds are then squeezed, so as to be freed from the thin liquor called whey.

7. In this state the curds are put into a cheese press, by means of which they are made firm and solid, and after a certain time they become cheese; the cheese is then taken out of the press and dried, being often turned as it dries. The cheese, when quite dry and hard outside, is fit for sale.

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LESSON 17.-THE SHIP. Produce

sailers schooner Algerine merchantmen sailors

felucca frigates colliers Chinese

Algiers 1. A SHIP is the noblest thing man has made. The parts of the world have been found out by ships. Ships are used to bring the produce of one country to another, and to defend us in time of war. They are built of wood, or of iron.

2. The ships that bring goods to us from other countries are called merchantmen. Those that are used for fighting are called men-of-war. The largest of these carry as many as one hundred guns. The best men-of-war are now made almost entirely of iron.

3. There are many kinds of ships. Some are called frigates, these are light built ships and good sailers, have two decks, and carry from twenty to fifty guns. Steam frigates are moved by steam, and have very large guns.

4. A brig is a square-rigged vessel with two


masts. A great many brigs are used in the coal trade, and are called colliers. They are made

to carry from two to five hundred tons. War brigs have from ten to twenty guns.

5. A sloop is a vessel with one mast, having a top sail made square, like the square sails of a brig and ship. A cutter has no square sail, her bow-sprit is quite straight, and her mast leans towards her stern, which is called raking aft.

6. A schooner is a two-masted vessel with fore and aft sails, like a sloop, and having a boom to each mast. A smack is a small vessel with one mast. Smacks are used for fishing on the coast.

7. A Dutch galliot is rigged like a schooner, but is more broad and clumsy in her build. Her bottom is nearly flat, but she sails well, and does not draw much water.

8. A Chinese junk is a ship used by the Chinese. It has sails made of the bark of trees, or of a thin kind of wood. An Algerine felucca is a ship used by the Moors and people of Algiers. A barge is used on rivers.


9. A steamer is a ship made to move by the power of steam.

She is often rigged like a schooner, but she trusts more to her paddlewheels than to her sails. Some steamers have paddle-wheels at their sides, others are moved by a screw at the stern. Almost all men-of-war and very many merchant vessels are now moved by steam.

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