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ing to its concentration, and the time the snow, and feed on tripe de roche, without steam has passed through it. When the a murmur. The period is not fixed when solation has acquired 212°, the colour in- the two expeditions shall set out; but it is creases rapidly. If several glasses are expected that that of Captain Franklin connected, and successively raised to the will be ready to start early in the spring. boiling point, by the steam passing through Captain Parry has been appointed hydrothem, all become coloured. Nitric acid grapher to the Admiralty. destroys the colour of this solution of New Surgical Instrument.--A very novel nitrate of silver; and whilst the steam is but interesting operation has been exhiacting, oxygen is disengaged. When steam bited in the anatomical theatre of St. is passed through a solution of gold, a Thomas's Hospital. Mr. Jukes, a surblue liquid is produced, like that obtained geon, who invented the apparatus for exby adding oxalic acid to a solution of tracting poisons from the stomach, having gold. Thus, it seems proved, that the nearly two years ago satisfactorily proved, steam acts in producing these effects by by experiments upon himself, the efficacy deoxidizing the salts of silver and gold. of the practice, attended, at the request Muriate of platina, or either of the ni- of Sir Astley Cooper, to repeat the expetrates of mercury, were unaffected by riment of emptying the stomach by mesimilar treatment.

chanical means. Mr. Jukes chose to be New Expeditions towards the Pole.- himself the subject of the experiment, Three Arctic winters have not cooled the and was so sanguine of the success of the zeal of our distinguished countryman, operation, that he would have swallowed Captain Parry, who is in frequent commu a large quantity of laudanum, had not the nication with Government on the subject entreaties of his friends induced him to of a new expedition in search of the much- substitute a solution of liquorice instead. wished-for passage to the Pole, which has Having swallowed a portion of this solubeen determined upon. It is said that tion, and diluted it by drinking two pints Captain Parry will be provided with every of water, Mr. J. introduced a long flexible thing requisite to enable him to extend tube into the mouth, and passed it down bis voyage to a period of three years, into the stomach. Mr. Scott, a surgeon, should he deem it necessary. The route to who had formerly performed a siinilar be taken, it is thought, will be Lancaster operation upon this gentleman, iinmeSound, and that Captain Parry will pro- diately fixed a large copper syringe to the ceed there in the first instance, and endea- extremity of the tube, and in the space of vour to pass through an inlet which he two minutes completely pumped up the discovered in his former voyage, and whole of the liquid that had been drunk named in honour of the Prince Regent. into a washhand basin held by an assistThis inlet does not open in a direction to ant. Sir A. Cooper expressed the highest wards the Pole, but is thought to commu satisfaction in witnessing the speedy and nicate with the sea which Hearne dis- successful effect of the operation; and the covered. If so, Captain Parry may be theatre, which was excessively crowded enabled to reach the point which he failed by professional spectators, rang loudly in doing through Hudson's Bay in his last with shouts of approbation. This public royage, and, without approaching too demonstration of the practicability of Dear the American coast, proceed at no emptying the stomach by mechanical great distance from it. Such is said to be ineans, though the first inade upon the part of the plan of the new Expedition, human species, satisfactorily assures the from the circumstance that Capt. Frank- medical profession of the easy applicalin is again to be sent out, on an overland tion of the apparatus to cases of poisonexpedition, to Mackenzie and the Copper- ing; and it is to be hoped, that, by the mine rivers ; and from the union of the timely use of this invaluable instrument, North-West and Hudson-Bay Companies, our public records of accidental and every facility for so arduous an under- suicidal deaths from poison will happily taking may be expected. Could guides now be but few. and attendants be procured, possessing Union of a Divided Palale. - In the the same moral energies as our enter- first volume of " The Transactions of the prisiog countrymen, we should entertain Associated Apothecaries, and Surgeon Do doubt of Captain Franklin making the Apothecaries,” just published, is an acmost important discoveries; but we have count of a successful operation for the almost invariably seen, that natives bear union of a Congenital Division of the with less resolution the rigours of clinate, Palate, which is new in the annals of Surthe pains of hunger, and the numerous gery in this country. The surgeon was privations to which such an expedition is Mr. Alcock, and the person operated exposed, than our sailors, who climb upon was a young man about 22 years of mountains, ford rivers, sleep on beds of age, whose palate had been cleft from

his birth. The extent of the aperture milk possesses the same physical qualiwas the whole length of the soft pa- ties as that of the cow, with this only difJate and the uvula, a retraction of about ference—that it is a little viscous ; it has five-eighths of an inch, exposing to the same taste also as cow's milk. With view, when the mouth was opened, the respect to its chemical properties, they inside of the posterior parts of the nos- sensibly differ from those of animal milk. trils. The principle on which the opera- The constituent parts of the milk of the tion was performed, was the same as that Arbre de la Vache are, Ist, wax; 2d, fiof hare-lip, viz. by removing the ex- brine; 3d, a little sugar ; 4th, a magtreme edges, and bringing the wounded nesian salt; and 5th, water. The preparts into accurate contact; but, AS sence, in vegetable milk, of a product may be easily imagined from the nature which is not commonly met with, exof the case, the mechanical difficulties cept in the secretions of animals, is a made a variety of precautions necessary. surprising fact, which we should not have It was found impracticable to effect the announced without much circumspection, union of all the divided parts at one had not a celebrated chemist, M. Vautime, and the whole union was finally quelin, already found animal fibrine in effected after five operations. Mr. A. the milky juice of the earica

papaya. considers the scissors with extremely Nautical Science.-The Clio, Captain thin edges, as recommended for sur- Strangways, has returned to Fortgical purposes by Dr. Wollaston, to be George with Mr. Adam, Rector of the the best instrument for the removal of Inverness Academy, on board, after a the inner edges. In the first four stages cruise of fifteen days among the Orkof the operation, the edges were brought neys, and in the Moray Firth, between together by sutures, in the latter by pins. Caithness and Kinnaird's Head, for the The voice of the patient before the ope- purpose of trying the performance of his ration was strikingly nasal, and his ar- eye-tube to the telescope of a sextant, ticulation so indistinct that he had con- for taking altitudes when the horizon is templated giving up an advantageous situ- invisible. The altitudes taken by this ation, in which he was required to con- eye-tube are not affected by any dip or verse with strangers. After the operation, depression of the horizon. When Mr. his utterance, when careful, was per Adam observed, standing on one of the fectly distinct, and free from any obvious guns, so as to see the horizon over the peculiarity. Mr. Alcock observes, that bulwarks, a screen was placed before in case of cleft palate, the first or prin- the horizon glass of his sextant; and cipal cause of indistinctness of utter- when he observed standing on deck, or ance is the physical defect which ad- on large gimbols, placed in the main mits the air too freely into the nostrils, hatchway, to obviate the effect of the and that defect is removed by union of ship’s motion, the bulwarks intercepted the palate : but another cause is the habit his view of the horizon. Under these of not placing the tip of the tongue pro- circumstances, after rejecting a few obperly at the root of the front teeth in servations, the mean difference of one such sounds as s, th, &c.; and this babit, hundred and ninety-nine altitudes of the after the union of the divided palate, sun, moon, and stars, taken by the eyeattention is required to counteract. M. tube, from those taken at the same time, Leroux, in France, has performed a si- in the ordinary way, by the officers of milar operation to the one noticed above ; the Clio, and corrected for dip, amountwe do not know whether before or since ed to only one minute and ten seconds. the one Mr. Alcock has described.

Considerable care and practice are neVegetable Milk. Amongst the many cessary before the eye-tube can be interesting vegetable productions which handled successfully at sea ; but when are met with in the equinoctial regions, observers have learned to use it, the may be reckoned a tree, which abun- latitude, the time at the ship, and condantly affords a milky juice, similar in sequently the longitude, may all be its properties to the milk of animals, determined by it, when the horizon is and is employed for the same purposes, invisible; and by means of it either the as M. de Humboldt witnessed at the large or the pocket-sextant may be sucfarm of Barbula, where he himself drank cessfully employed on shore, as a subof this milky juice. This liquid is de- stitute for the theodolite, upon making rived from the pala de loche, or de, vacca, the necessary allowance for the parallax a tree which grows somewhat abun- of the instrument, in the name of index dantly in the mountains above Periquito, error, which, on becoming sensible, must situated on the north-east of Maracay, vary inrersely with the distances of the a village to the west of Caracas. This reflected terrestrial objects.

FOREIGN VARIETIES.
FRANCE.

public carriages, as well as on that of the The Academy of Sciences lately heard a American steam-boats. report on the discovery of a petrified man Antiquities.-In that part of the citadel and borse in the forest of Fontainebleau, of Metz which commands the Moselle, That forest is very remarkable, and has near the Tour d'Enfer, some remains of never been properly examined. Cuvier is antiquities were discovered at the foot of charged with the investigation of this the curtain. The first is a tomb, two astonishing petrifaction, and this may stones of which were dug up. The lower lead to other important researches. part of the monument bears the following

Geometry.The author of the Méca- inscription :rique Céleste has published the fifth and CATVLLINVS CARATHO VNicus) last volume of his great work. The question FIL(ius) SEXTILIA SEDVLI Filia) of the form of the earth is treated by him

CONIVX MONIMENTVM in points of view in which it has not hither

SIBI VIVI POSVEPYNT ET to been considered : that is to say,- 1st, P(.) CATVLLIANO QVI VIXIT The dynamic effect of the presence and

AN() IN M(.) vi. distribution of the waters on the surface The end of the inscription is illegible; the of the globe; 2dly, The compression to style of the characters proves that the which the interior beds are subjected; inscription is of the third century. On 3dly, The change of size, which may re- the lower part is the place where the sult from the progressive cooling of the ashes were preserved ; and on the upper a earth. M. De Laplace has arrived at the niche adorned with two pilasters, in which following results : that the great mass of three heads are fixed (of a man with a the earth is by no means homogeneous; beard, of a woman, and of a child,) which that the beds situate at the greatest depth may be supposed to represent Caratho, are the most dense; that those beds are Sextilia, and the young Catullinus. On disposed regularly round the centre of the left side of the monument, below, is a gravity of the globe, and that their form female figure, holding in the right hand a differs little from that of a curved surface discus, and in the left a palin,-perhaps generated by the revolution of an ellipsis ; as an indication that Caratho had gained that the density of water is nearly five a prize in the public games. The bastimes less than the mean density of the relief on the upper side represents the earth ; that the presence and distribution bust a woman, raising her hair with of the waters on the surface of the earth the right hand. On the left side are fragdo not occasion any considerable altera- ments of a winged genius, and of a woman tions in the law of the diminution of the playing on the lyre. The style of the degrees, and in that of weight ; that the monument and the ornaments proves it to theory of any considerable displacing of be that of a family of distinction. This the poles at the surface of the earth is in- opinion is confirmed by their connexion admissible, and that every geological sys- with the Sedulii, who have left numerous tem founded on such an hypothesis will monuments in the country. The second not at all accord with the existing know- monument is likewise a sepulchre, which ledge of the causes which determine the is remarkable, though not executed in so form of the earth ; that the temperature pure a taste as the first. Only the upper part of the globe has not sensibly diminished of it is preserved : it is a niche, in which since the days of Hipparchus (above two are three busts, the head of a woman bethousand years ago), and that the actual tween those of two men. It may be suploss of heat in that period has not pro- posed, from the attitudes, that these three daced a variation, in the length of the persons are reclining at an entertainment. day, of the two hundredth part of a cen- One of the men holds a goblet in his hand. tesimal second.

Above these three figures a winged infant Mechanics.-M. Girard has investigated is hovering, that seems to have come certain questions relative to cast iron, and from the Christian paradise, rather than the use of that material in machinery, in from the heathen Olympus. In the upper pipes for conducting water, and in the part of the niche are vine leaves and boilers of steam-engines. He dednces grapes ; a squirrel is seen, partly hidden from his formulæ the relation between among the leaves, and a bird pecking at the interior and exterior diameters of a a grape. On the right side of the monuhollow cylinder, and the means of impart- ment is a man in bas-relief, dressed in ing the greatest strength to it with the Gallic military costume, playing on a least weight.-M. Dupin has made an shepherd's pipe ; on the left a bas-relief of elaborate report on the construction of a young man, dressed in a short tunic,

VOL. XII. NO. XXXVII,

D

man

PANI
EX OPTIONE LEG. XXIIP
P. F. DEFVNCTI ET FINITIMI

V VAE
T HERDES F. C.

FILI

and holding a trident in his hand. This the name of Flavius Merobandis, who sepulchre is adorned with pilasters and bore arms with honour under Theodosius fluted pillars, and the receptacle for the and Valentinian. Such is the mutilated ashes is still visible. The workmanship state of the manuscripts on which M. appears to be of the period of the latter Niebuhr has laboured, that it is only by part of the Roman dominion in this coun- induction that he has arrived at the name try:-The objects represented on the third of the author. Of five pieces of poetry, monument are less correctly drawn than three are very brief and disfigured; the those on the first two. We here see a fourth, wbich appears to belong to a

at a table, on which are some poem composed in honour of the son of weights; on the left hand lie some tables Aetius, has several good lines; the fifth, for casting accounts ; he holds a book in which is the longest, contains no fewer his left hand, and his right is extended as than a hundred and ninety-seven lines, if pointing at something,—the two last which are the remains of a poem commefingers are bent; before him a young man, morative of the exploits of Aetius himself. standing, with his right hand over the There are two prose pieces of a similar reckoning table, seems to be calculating. tendency; but there are not ten consecu -This monument, which is believed to tive lines of them undamaged. At prebe the first of the kind which has been sent it is impossible to assign Merobandis described, appeared to be that of a Men- any rank among poets and orators; but sarius, or some officer of a similar de- the efforts of M. Niebuhr may stimulate scription.—The fourth monument is also other learned persons to occupy thema tombstone, which is very much da- selves with the same author, and the remaged: the following letters of the in- sult may possibly be to give the world an scription are still legible :

additional ancient poet. It is also to be VENDI

hoped that the lovers of antiquity may be induced to visit the libraries of Switzer

land, which have been too much neglectAE NONNAE CONIVGI

ed, and of which many are well deserving the researches of the learned. Particne

larly in the library which decorates the At the beginning of the inscription the rich and powerful Abbey of Einselden, letters D.m. should, probably, be supplied, there are many manuscripts which appear and then it would be as follows :-Duis very worthy of being published. MANIBUS Vendi Veterani Ex Optione Legionis Vigesimæ Secundæ, Primigeniæ, Etymology.-In a work on the origin of Piæ, Fidelis Defuncti et Finitimiæ Nonuæ, Runic writing, recently published at CoConjugi Vivæ, Filii et Heredes Faciendum penhagen, the author, M. Buxdorf, traces Curaverunt. The twenty-second Roman the source of the Runic writing of the legion has left numerous memorials in the ancient Scandinavians in the Moesogothic countries on the Rhine; its historical alphabet of Ulphilas. M. Buttmann, one epithets were Primigenia Pia Fidelis, of the members of the Royal Academy of which we on many monuments. Sciences at Berlin, has written a paper These monuments are made of white cal- on the word Minye. He examines why careous stone, which is found in abun- the Argonauts were called Minyæ ; and dance in the environs; and all these an- contends that that word was never the tiquities are deposited in the museum of name of a people. According to him, it the Academy of Sciences at Metz.

designated a kind of mythological nobi

lity, and was derived from the East. Ancient Literature.-The library of the Menu is, among the Indians, the father of ci-devant Abbey of Saint Gall, in Swit- the human race. He appears again in zerland, has justly acquired great cele- Egypt, where he is called Men, or Menas. brity in consequence of its having pre- He is again seen in the Minos of the Creserved and given to literature the writings tans, the Manès of the Lydians, the Manof Quintilian, Silius Italicus, Valerius nus of the Germans, and in the word Flaccus, Marcellinus Ammianus, several Manes. The same subject has engaged treatises by Cicero, &c. It is not sur- the attention of M. Neumann, of Gottinprising, therefore, that although this il- gen, who however, in a sketch of the lustrious depot is nearly exhausted, every history of Crete, maintains that the rething that proceeds from it is still re- semblance in sound of the Indian Menu to ceived with eagerness. M. Niebuhr has the Cretan Minos is far from indicating just published, under the title of Fl. any analogy between the Institutions of Merobandis carminum orationisque reli- India and of Crete, which in fact were quiæ, er membranis San-Gallensibus editæ," essentially different. A brief Essay on the fragments of a writer little known, of the Celtic Language by Julius Leichtlen,

DENMARK

see

SWITZERLAND.

mense.

SWEDEN

the Keeper of the Archives at Fribourg, ralogical treasures of the mountains are and in which he examines the four words, said to be as multifarious as they are imBriga, Magus, Durum, and Acum, which

Among them are adamantine form the termination of a number of spar, various metals, American and Celtic nouns, concludes thus: “I am Indian precious stones, especially one of tired of always bearing the Romans the latter, resembling the sapphire, to quoted when the commencement of our which has been given the name of Soimonit, civilization is spoken of; while nothing in honour of the learned mineralogist is said of our obligations to the Celts. It Senator Soimonoff. was not the Latins, it was the Gauls who Variety of Languages in Russia. — To were our first instructors."

give some idea of the great diversity of Extraordinary Current in Norway.- fanguages and idioms employed by the About six leagues from Hundholm, is the various nations who inhabit this vast celebrated current of Salten (Saltenstrom), empire, it will be sufficient to observe which is even more dreaded than the Mahl- that the Bible Society has caused the strom, as all the inhabitants of Saltens- Bible to be translated into the following fiord have to cross this dangerous passage, languages : - Sclavonian, Russian, Hein which several persons annually perish. brew, ancient Greek, modern Greek, There is, says the letter of a late visitor, German, French, Polish, Finnish, Esthoreally something wonderful in the violence nian of the dialect of Dorpat, Esthonian of the current of the waters, when they of the dialect of Revel, Lithuanian, are confined in this narrow passage, where Georgian, Armenian, Sa

ogitian, Carethe current runs about seven French leagues lian, Tcheremissian, Mordowian, Ossein an hour, and forms, besides, a multi- tinian, Moldavian, Bulgarian, Tyrenian, tude of whirlpools wherever it meets with Persian, Calmuc, Mongol of the Bouany resistance from the sinuosities of its riates, Turkish-Tartaric, Tartaric, Tarbanks.

taric of the dialect of Orenbourg, TarDenmark. — The Girst Romance that taric-Hebrew; in all, twenty-nine lanDanish literature ever produced, has guages or dialects. The translation of recently been published at Copenbagen. the Gospel is still going on in various It is called “The birth of Deodatus,” other languages and dialects. and is by M. L. Kruse.

Some contend that for the thirty years Ural Gold Mines.-Respecting these, subsequent to the death of Gustavus III. the following are new particulars from science, arts, and litera have deSt. Petersburgh. The mines on the east clined in Sweden. This assertion is too side of the mountains are far richer than sweeping. M. Berzelius is one of the those on the opposite side. The former best living chemists; M. Nordberg is extend from Verkhoturir to the sources one of the first proficients in Europe in of the river Ural. Those places, however, oriental literature; Wargentin has been where the gold appears to be the most celebrated by Condorcet as an able usabundant, extend between the mines of tronomer. Cardel as an engineer, Font, Nijne-Tajilskoi and Kouphtoumhoi, to in general, and Engestrom in diplomatic the length of 300 wersts (200 miles). The history, have never been surpassed in Swemines here begin almost at the surface, den; and thence it may be fairly inferred under the turf, and the earth that contains that the sciences have not altogether dethe gold is at the depth of a few arsheens. clined in that country, particularly those The ore is obtained merely by washing, connected with public utility. Eloquence and the labour is so trifling, that in ge- is now divested of the exuberance of neral little boys are employed in it. The ornament that distinguished it under the metal appears in small grains, and some- reign of Gustavus Il.; but it has been times in lumps, weighing six marks. On formed inore upon the model of the an average it may be assumed, that 100 English. On the ministerial side of the poods (3500 lbs.) of earth yield 24 ounces public speakers, M. de Wedderstadt, of pure gold. A single land-owner, Mr. more elegant than profound, and M. Jucowliff, on whose estate are the richest de Lagerbielke, known by some very mides yet discovered, will send this year remarkable eulogies, are the individuals 30 poods (1080 lbs.) of gold to the mint most worthy of notice. On the political in Petersburgh. The other mines in the opposition side, there is Ankarowerd, Ural mountains furnish altogether 130 who appears formed as a speaker on poods. The gold seems to have been the model of the ancient classics, and originally combined with greenstone, slaty upon noble and pure principles; and chlorite, serpentine, grey iron earth, &c.; lately (since suddenly dead) M. Posoé, and these substances being decomposed, who in his career seemed to have imhave left the ore pure. The other mine- bibed the spirit of the best French ora

RUSSIA.

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