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but I cannot follow bis argument. F. You must bear with a farm.
E. I perceive then tbat he is er, if I make use of some common too deep for you. I was aware objects to illustrate my ideas. that you did not comprehend him. There is so much bowing and I think his arguments for the scraping to bis auditors when he Judgment are excellence and con- is about to introduce an idea, that clusive.
I can think of nothing else for F. In wbat does the excellence some time. After he has iniroof an argument consist ?
duced himself and prepared the E. Why, sir, I think it consists object of his message, he seems in such inverted sentences as to for some time to forget his errand confound adversary; such or object, and spends a great deal thrilling language as to fill his of time in entertaining them with blood with the cold chills of fear; his own skill in rhetorical flashes and such impetuosity as to be ir. and thunderings. In other words, resistible. I admire to see an or- when he commences an argument ator in a moment at his conclu- his illustrations are so diverting sion, and by such a masterly ma- to the mind, that, instead of serv. næuvering that no one see ing as intermediate links, chaining how it is done ; and then he is the premises with the conclusion, sure that an opponent cannot re- they only serve to confuse the arfute him.
gument, and render the connexion F. I now perceive why Mr. Ir. between the premises and concluving pleases you ; it is because he sion, a matter of uncertainty. chants you into an obsequious You know too, that he bas an air; fondness for the man, and makes an air so peculiar that we cannot you forgetful of his subject, until keep it out of sight. I once he brings you to the conclusion; heard it remarked, that 6 Whate and then out of mere courtesy ever speaker gained the attention you are unwilling to wrest your- of his audience to himself, had self from it.
some defect in manner.” Irving E. Do you then think there is has this defect, though I may neva deficiency in bis manner of rea- er point it out. I think he would soning?
be a better reasoner and a better F. Indeed I do.
orator did he pay more respect E. Then you are ready, I con- to those things he affects to dread clude, to point out this deficiency and despise : for instance, if he and let us have your idea of an intends an argument in favor of excellent argument. Now I ex- the Judgment ; let bim first gain pect to learn something; pro- a strong conception of its essenceed
tial parts in his own mind; then clothe bis ideas in language appropriate ; even theological or tech. religion never was pleasing to the mical, rather than sacrifice per prenewed heart of man. You spicuity and conclusiveness, to a may dress it as you will, and when fondness to please poetic ears. jou present it for the reception
Esq. But one would think from of a sinner, if he discovers its your remarks that he entirely reality or true features, he will fails of his object.
reject it. If you present it clotbed F No. He does not fail of his in such human vestments, that he object; for he never seems to have does not perceive what is prethe right object for any length of sented, he may receive it; but time. He is too enthusiastic io
op the first discovery that it makes please. With him, all is lost if the demands of religion, be will he does not succeed in piea-ing reject it. He conveys the idea that chri..
Esq. But, Sir, you do not suptianity wiil please, when rightly pose ibat all means of commendaddressed to the world. He is ing the gospel are equally eligible. sanguine in this visionary senti. Will not such addresses as some ment. For this reason, his object of Mr. Irving's effectually enter almost always is to please. And the understanding, awaken the he does not often fail perhaps of conscience and subdue the heart? his object.
F. They may reach the under Esq. Very well, can a speaker standing and gain it, arouse ihe expect to recommend religion by conscience and give it vigour, and offending his auditors ?
may reach the heart, but will F. By no means. To offend is never subdue it. The heart is no better than to please. Neither addressed by them; but it holds is the proper object of the out in an obstinacy of pursuit, preacher; his object is to follow which means alone never over. the directions of bis Masier. 6 Go come. Mr. Irving seems at times teach all oations to observe what- sensible of the inadequacy of soever I have commanded you." means; but at others, he speaks Did any Apostle obey his Master as is the only reason why they in this commission, without car- are not always irresistible, is, that rying with him “the offence of they are poor, indiscreet or ill the cross ;” as offensive as “sys- adapted. tematic forms of speech” are to Esq. Well, I confess that I felt Mr. Irving ? Finally, was not our something of this discrepancy in Lord a perfect example of his his work; but you know there own blessed ministry ? And did are some of the most elegant wri. he ever please his hearers, ex- ters of the day who have advanced cept they had already become bis a similar idea. The illustrious disciples ? The trutb is, true Erskine has offered this as his
opinion; at least, be conveys the was to excite a few queries in your idea.
mind respecting it.
I knew you F. True, he does, and nearly to be young and ardent; and the ruined his otherwise beautiful taste of the day seems to encour: treatise on the evidences of chris- age such writings as those which tianity.
we have been considering. Now Esq. How do you account for for one, I do not believe that wisthis ?
dom was born with Mr. Irving . Perhaps the latter writer or will die with him. In spite mentioned may ascribe bis error of his declamation, I have yet left to the want of investigation of a great deal of respect for the that particular topic. Some men clear, pure and appropriate Eobecome so great, certain points glish Language which divines are deemed too easy of decision bare used in days that I never saw. to require investigation. They And I would not exchange it for deem themselves capable of de the careless and far borrowed Scotciding almost intuitively; and will ticisms of the Orator.
C. F. by no descend to the
Con. Ob. drudgery of studying points of theology.
Besides, he has stepped from his profession, and has meddiad
INFIDELITY BROUGHT TO THE TEST OF with matters not appropriately belonging to him.
in writing the Esq. Then none but your life of Mary Woolstencraft, meant Bishops have any right to speak without doubt, 10 recommeud inor write upon theology!
fidelity to mankind, but happily for F. That is more than I mean them, he has in these memoirs exto say. But I seldom knew a man bibited what may be termed a of one profession, that had a deep series of experiments, from which and universal acquaintance with they may learn its tendency, both the peculiarities of other profes- as to morals and happiness. lo sions. It is not irrational to sup- the beginning of the work he inpose that divines should under forms us that Mrs. Woolstencraft stand divinity as well as statesmen, 66 had receired few lessons of relawyers, doctors, or farmers.
ligion in her youth, and that her Esq. Perhaps then Mr. Irving religion was almost entirely of her understands theology, and the own creating"-that she expectmanner of treating it, as well as ed a future state, but would not you, the farmer, do.
allow her ideas of that future F. Yes; I have taken great state to be modified by the notions liberty, I confess. But my object of judgment and retribution.
Now let us hear the progress
which she did for half
an hour of this self-created religion. It without meeting a human being. led her, first, to remissness in at. She then leaped from the top of the tending public worship; and, at bridge, but still seemed to find a length, to discontinue it entirely. difficulty in sinking which she enMr. Godwin indeed thinks or it deavoured to counteract by pressmay be admitted as a maxim, that ing her clothes closely around no person, of a well furgish ed her." She, however, was discovmind, that has shaken off the im- ered, and taken out of the water. plicit subjection of youth, and is 6. After having been for a considnot the zealous partizan of a sect, erable time insensible,” continues can bring himself to conform to her biographer, “ She was recovthe public and regular routine of ered by the exertion of those by sermons and prayers.
whom the body was found.” Her religion was as chaste as But let us hasten to the concluit was devout. It allowed her to sion. She died in childbed. In live as a wife with Mr. Inclay,
the detail of this awful scene, we without being married to him, have the following affecting pasand afterwards on the same terms sage : 6 Her religion as I have alwith Mr. Godwin, to whom she ready shown, was not calculated to was at length married, unly to be the torment of a sick bed; and prevent her complete exclusion in fact, during her whole illness, from decent society.
not one word of a religious cast Her attachment to Inclay seems fell from her lips.” In other words to have been violent. His neglect she died like an atheist. The of her gave her most poignant dise paradoxical cast of her mind was tress. The religion of her own visible in other things as well as creating totally unlike that which in the affairs of religion. She God teaches, affording no resource ridiculed the fashion of the Enfor her wretched miod, she iwice glish vomen in keeping their in the course of five months, re- chamber for a month, and for hersolved on suicide. One attempt self proposed “coming down to to destroy herself is thus related dipper on the day immediately by Godwin ; "she took a boat, and following her being brought to rowed to Putney. was night bed ;” but she was too ill to exewhen she arrived at Putney, and cute her design. The hour was by that time it had begun to rain at hand, the awful hour that was with great violence. The rain to put a period to all her visiona. suggested to her the idea of ry ideas, and all her opportunities walking up and down the bridge of preparing for another wor!! till ber clothes were thoroughly yet she would still utter he drenched and heavy with the wet losophical reveries. Des
THOUGUTS ON THE SABBATH DURING
THE JEWISH DISPENSATION.
what she had suffered, she told onomy. Keep the Sabbath day to Godwin, " thai she should have sanctify it. Deut. 5, 12. died the preceding night bit that Let us then enquire, what are 66 she was deterinined not to leave the duties of the day and what him.” Such is the good sense, the limitations of those duties, as such the piety and comforts of the they are to be found in Scripture new philosophy. These are the during the Jewish dispensation. enlighteners of inankiad. These The fourth commandment shews are the people who undertake to that we are to abstain from our cure us of our prejudice? ordinary worldly calling and em. Chris. 06. VIATOR. ployments, which it is our duty to
pursue on the other six days with diligence. “Six days shalt thou
labor and do all thy work; but PART II.
the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God, in it ibou shalt
not do any work. Exodus, 20.9, The sanctification of the seventh 10. day, which was appointed in the We are commanded also to use time of man's primeval innocence our endeavours that this day be must have continued to be an In- sanctified by all over whom we stitution of constant obligation bave authority or influence. through the succeeding ages, “Thou, nor thy son, nor thy which intervened belween the daughter, thy man servant, nor fall of man and the publication thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, of the moral law at Mount Sinai. nor thy stranger that is within Since we fiud no repeal of the thy gates. original command in the books of We are not, therefore, to perMoses. When a summary of the mit the works of our ordinary moral law was promulgated to the worldly occupations to be carried Israelites, at the Holy Mount and on by others on our behalf; but inscribed by the finger of God on we ought to put the same restraint tables of stone, we find this orig- upon those who are under our inal cominand of a Sabbath, bear. control which our duty requires ing a conspicuous part in the us to put upon ourselves. sacred code. The fourth com- The Supreme Legislator has mandment explains and enforces given us, by the prophet Isaiah, this first institution of God to man. a still more ample account of the Remember the Sabbath day to keep duties implied in the sanctification it holy; or, as it is expressed by of the Sabbath. If thou turn Moses when recapitulating the away thy foot from the Sabbath, commands in the book of Deuter. from doing thy pleasure on my