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or sovereignty of God, nor the agency or dependence of man; but proves and illustrates these doctrines. God acts by the instrumentality of means; and, in doing it, His agency is as real and sovereign as though He acted without means. Man acts freely, while he is acted upon by the Holy Spirit, and, thus, man is really dependent, and still a free agent. (d)

Q.7. Are all men, sinners as well as saints, obligated to use the means of grace ?

A. They are. The commands of God, and the benefit resulting from their use, bind them to this duty. Saints are sanctified through the truth. Sinners are usually converted by the instrumentality of

There is no account in Scripture, that any who had arrived to years of discretion were converted until the means of grace had been used with them. There is, therefore, a much greater hope of the salvation of those who attend upon the means of grace than there is of those who do not. This hope does not arise from anything good in the doings of the unregenerate, but from the fact, that they are brought within the influence of means, and into a situation in which God is wont to grant His Spirit in renewing and sanctifying the soul. God does not, generaliy, extend His grace, in the salvation of men, further than the use of the means which he has appointed. The prospect, therefore, of the salvation of sinners in human view is limited to the use which they make of the means of grace. As means and ends are thus inseparably connected by God, in the economy of salvation, saints and sinners are bound to use the means, in order to obtain the ends. And none but the ignorant, enthusiastic, immoral, and wicked will deny the duty. (e)


(d) 1 Cor. iii. 7. So then, neither is he that planteth anything, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase. Philip. ii. 12, 13. Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God, which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.

(e) Acts xx. 32. And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

Q. 8. How should the means of grace be used ?

A. With sincerity, with a disposition to improve by them, with a deep sense that the blessing of Heaven is necessary to give them a good influence, and with earnest prayer to God that he would render them efficacious.


Q. 1. What is meant by Divine worship?

A. Paying God that homage, or veneration, which is due to his perfect and adorable nature. (a)

Q.2. Is worship a moral or positive duty, or both ?

A. Worship, considered in itself, is a moral duty, and is, therefore, taught by the light of nature; but the manner and time of worshipping God are subjects of positive injunction, and are taught by the Scriptures only. --John xvii. 17. Sanctify them through thy truth; thy word is truth.-Acts ii. 37. Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, What shall we do ?-Acts ïi. 41. Then they that gladly received bis word were baptized; and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.-2 Cor. x. 4, 5. For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God, to the pulling down of strong holds; casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ.--Prov. vii. 33–35. Hear instruction, and be wise, and refuse it not. Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors. For whoso findeth me, findeth life, and shall obtain favor of the Lord.--Prov. xv. 8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord; but the prayer of the upright is his delight.

(a) Rev. iv. 9–11. And when those beasts give glory, and honor, and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveih for

ever, the four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power; for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.

ever and

Q. 3. What kinds of worship does God require of man?

A. Public, private or family, and secret worship. These kinds of worship are taught by the light of nature, and the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and are congenial to the feelings of good people. (6)

Q.4. When is public worship to be observed ?

A. On the sabbath, and at other times, as circumstances may require. (c)

Q. 5. What are the services of public worship?

Ă. They are reading the Sacred, Scriptures, preaching the gospel, prayer, psalmody, the administration of baptism, and of the Lord's supper. These services are always to be performed in a known language. The practice, therefore, of the Greek and Latin Churches, in this respect, cannot be justified. (d)

(6) Ps. Ixxxiv. 4. Blessed are they that dwell in thy house; they will be still praising thee.-Ps. cxxxii. 7. We will go into his tabernacles; we will worship at his footstool.--Josh. xxiv. 15. But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.—Matt. vi. 6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

(c) Lev. xix. 30. Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary; I am the Lord. Joel i. 11. Sanctify ye a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders, and all the inhabitants of the land, into the house of the Lord your God, and cry unto the Lord.-Ps. c. 4. Enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with praise; be thankful unto him, and bless his name.

(d) Acts xv. 21. For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogue every sabbath day.--Acts xviii. 4. And he reasoned

the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks.—1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting: -Col.iii. 16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.-Acts ii. 41,42. Then they that gladly received his word were baptized; and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.

Q. 6. Are all people bound to support public worship?

A. They are, by the most indispensable obligations. Their happiness and prosperity in time, and their well-being in eternity, require it. No people were ever virtuous, happy, and successful, who, for a considerable length of time, did not maintain the worship of God. Besides, God has made it the duty of all men to support, by their contributions, the regular ministrations of the gospel. (e)

Q. 7. Can persons needlessly absent themselves from the house of God, or public religious services, without criminality ?

A. Certainly not; and they do it at their peril. ($) Q. 8. When is family worship to be observed ?

A. Morning and evening. This reason and revelation teach. It is also a duty to acknowledge God in a short prayer at the table, before and after refreshments. (g) And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayer.

(e) 1 Cor. ix. 11, 14. If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing, if we shall reap your carnal things ? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.-Matt. x. 9, 10. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your purses, nor scrip for your journey; neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves ; for ihe workman is worthy of his meat.—1 Tim. v. 18. For the Scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And the laborer is worthy of his reward.—Gal. vi. 6. Let him that is taught in the word, communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.—Rom. xv. 27. It hath pleased them verily; and their debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal ihings.—2 Cor. viii. 13, 14. For I mean not that other men be eased, and you burdened; but by an equality, that now at this time your abundance may be a supply for their wants, that their abundance also may be a supply for your wants, that there may be equality.

(f) Heb. x. 25. Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is.—Ps. c. 4. Enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with praise; be thankful unto him, and bless his name.

(g) Ps. xcii. 1, 2. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praises unto thy name, Most High; to show

Q. 9. What are the services proper to be performed at the time of family worship, morning and evening ?

A. Reading the Scriptures, religious instruction, psalmody, and prayer. (1)

Q. 10. When is secret worship to be observed ?

À. Certainly, at least, daily. Perhaps the best time is immediately after rising in the morning, and just before retiring in the evening. Unifcrinity in this religious exercise is very desirable.

Q.11. What are the reasons for secret worship? A. In secret worship, persons can approach God with more freedom, and unbosom themselves to Him more fully, than in any other way. Besides, there are private personal interests between them and God, sins to confess, woes to bewail, and wants to be supplied, which it would be improper to disclose to the world around them. This service is greatly conducive to a devotional state of mind, and to growth in grace. It is enjoined also in the Scriptures. (*) forth thy loving-kindness in the morning, and thy faithfulness every night.-Ps. cxli. 2. Let my prayer be set before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the morning sacrifice.—1 Tim. iv. 3—5. Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meals, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them, which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving; for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.

(h) Acts xvii. 11. These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, whether those things were so.—Deut. vi. 6, 7. And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart. And thou shalt teach them diligenily unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thon sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.-Ps. xcii. 1, 2. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praises unto thy name, o Most High; to show forth thy loving kindness in the morning, and thy faithfulness every night.-Phil

. iv. 6. Be careful for nothing ; but in everything, by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God.

(i) Matt. vi. 6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father

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