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revolutions of empires or of worlds ; to the thoughts, and affections, as well as to the external actions of intelligent creatures; and to all these creatures, things and events, whether produced with or without means. Nothing in the whole universe of God, takes place by chance or fate. (b)

Q. 5. Are the smallest creatures and things objects worthy of God's notice in their preservation and government ?

A. Most certainly they are. If they were worthy of His notice in creation, they are worthy of His superintendence, or providential regard. And their preservation may, and doubtless does, contribute to important ends, as well as their creation.

Q. 6. Is it not derogatory to the character of the great God to suppose, that his providence is concerned in the trifling occurrences of life ?

A. By no means. But it exalts and magnifies His greatness, and goodness, and wisdom, to suppose,

(6) Matt. x. 29, 30, 31. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear ye not, therefore,

ye are of more value than many sparrows.—Isaiah xlv. 7. I form the light and create darkness; 1 make peace and create evil; I the Lord do all these things. Prov. xxi. 1. The king's heart is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water; he turneth it whithersoever he will.-Gen. xlv. 7. And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. Jer. xxxi. 35. Thus saith the Lord which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; the Lord of hosts is his name.--Amos ix. 9. For lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least

upon the earth.-Job v. 6, 7. 17, 18. Although affiction cometh not forth of the dust, neither doth trouble spring out of the ground; yet man is born unto trouble as the sparks fly upward. Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth; therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty! For he maketh sore and bindeth up; he woundeth, and his hands make whole.—2 Chron. xvi. 9. For the eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to show himself strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect towards him

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that His providence is concerned in the most minute events, as well as those of the greatest magnitude, throughout His vast dominions. Frequently events, which at the time of their occurrence seem trivial, are afterwards found to be of the greatest moment.

Q. 7. What effect has the disbelief or denial of God's particular and general providence ?

A. It destroys the foundation of submission, trust, hope, and prayer, and leads directly to a neglect of these important duties.

Q.8. What effect has the belief of God's particular and general providence?

A. It leads us, 1. To see and acknowledge God in all things; 2. To feel our immediate, constant and absolute dependence upon Him, and obligations to Him; 3. To fear Him, to trust in Him, to be grateful to Him, to hope in Him, and to worship Him.

Q. 9. Has God a right to exercise a providence over the works of His hands?

A. He has. As all creatures and things are His by virtue of creation ; so, He has an undoubted and inalienable right to exercise such a providence over them as His infinite wisdom and goodness shall dictate.

Q. 10. Is submission to the providence of God, at all times, a duty ?

A. It is. And this duty arises from the fact, 1. That God has a right to exercise a providence over all creatures, and, 2. That His providence is wise, holy, just, and good. Were any event to take place, in which the providence of God was not concerned, submission would not be duty. And in submitting to God's dispensations, we should view them connectedly, and not singly ;-in their designs and consequences, as well as in their nature. (c)

(c) Ps. cxlv. 17. The Lord is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works.—Isaiah xxviii. 29. This also cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working.–Rom. viii. 28. And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.-Ps. xxxix. 9. I CHAPTER VIII.

Angels. Q.1. What is the evidence of the existence of angels?

A. 1. The light of nature suggests their existence. In the works of creation, we ascend step by step from lifeless, unorganized matter to man, the lord of this lower creation. Analogy and the nature of man lead us to suppose, that the scale of existence still continues. By his body, man is allied to the beasts that perish; by his soul, he seems to be allied to spiritual and immortal beings. Hence we are led to think, that there are such.- In the works of creation, we behold a gradation of being, so far as our knowledge extends; and from analogy it would seem that this gradation continues, and that there are other beings, endowed with other and nobler powers.People of all ages, nations, and religions, have believed in the existence of spirits, possessing faculties and dignities vastly superior to man. This general belief is an argument in favor of their existence, whether it arose from reason or from immediate revelation at first, which has been handed down by tradition, or from analogy, or from any other source. 2. The Bible gives us the fullest assurance of their existence; for it speaks of them in more than a hundred different places.

Q. 2. With what nature did God create the angels?

A. He created them spiritual, immortal, holy, excelling in knowledge, mighty in power, active, and the most noble and exalted of His intelligent creatures. (a)

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was dumb, I opened not my mouth ; because thou didst it. Matt. vi. 10. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.—Matt. xxvi. 39. Novertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt.

(a) Ps. civ. 4. Who maketh his angels spirits ; his ministers a flaming fire.-Luke xx. 36. Neither can they die any more,

Q. 3. What place did God assign to the angels as their residence.

A. The highest heavens, or the heaven of heav. ens. (6)

Q. 4. Are they the subjects of God's moral government?

A. Most certainly. They are subject to His laws, and accountable to Him for their conduct. And the rule of conduct, given to angels, was undoubtedly the same in substance, as that given to man in innocence. (c)

Q. 5. Were the angels as soon as created put upon probation ?

A. They were. A term of trial was assigned to them all. Each one was to obey, or disobey, for himself. (d)

Q. 6. What was the consequence of their being put upon

trial ? A. The consequence was, some retained their rectitude during their probationary state, and are now confirmed in holiness and happiness; others, probably through pride, rebelled against God, and ruined themselves. (d) for they are equal unto the angels ; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.—Matt. xxv. 51. When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory.--2 Sam. xiv. 20. And my Lord is wise, according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth.-Ps. ciii. 20. Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word.Heb. i. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation ?

(b) Rev. vii. 11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God.

(c) Matt. xxij. 37–40. Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is ihe first and great commandment. And, the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. On these two commandments oang all the law and the prophets.—Ps. ciii. 19. The Lord hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.—Matt. vi. 10. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

(d) 1 Tim. v. 21. I charge thee before God and the Lord Je

Q. 7. What does Scripture say respecting the number of the holy angels?

A. It teaches that the number is vastly great. It represents them as innumerable. (e)

Q. 8. What are the names given to angels in Scripture ?

A. They are called spirits, angels, cherubim, seraphim, watchers, morning stars, sons of God, thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers. (S)

Q. 9. Why are the angels called by these different names ?

A. They are called spirits, because immaterial and invisible ;-angels, because agents, or messengers of Jehovah;—cherubim, because of their extensive knowledge ;-seraphim, because of their holy zeal

sus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things, without preferring one before another ; doing nothing by partiality.—2 Pet. ii. 4. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved unto judgment.

(e) Heb. xii. 22. But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels.-Ps. Ixviii. 17. The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angeis.—Dan. vii. 10. Thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.—Matt. xxvi. 53. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels ?Luke ii. 13. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God.

(f) Heb. i. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth io minister to them who shall be heirs of salvation ?-Heb. i. 6. And again, when he bringeth in the First Begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.Ezek. X. 19. And the cherubims lifted up their wings, and mounted

up from the earth in my sight.-Is. vi. 2. Above it stood the seraphims; each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly:-Dan. iv. 17. This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones.—Job xxxviii. 7. When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy. --Col. i. 16. For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him, and for him.

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