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and love ;-watchers, because of their vigilance and care ;-morning stars, because of their splendid nature and early creation ;-sons of God, because they bear the impress of His image ;-thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers, because of 'the exalted dignity of their nature, high elevation of character, and sublime employments.
Q. 10. What is the employment of holy angels ?
A. They are employed by God in the administration of the affairs of the world, especially in ministering to them who shall be heirs of salvation. They will be subservient to Christ in the transactions of the great day of judgment, and they do now, and forever will, unite with the spirits of just men made perfect, in the worship of Heaven. But they cannot, in all respects and to the same degree as the saints, join in the song of Moses and the Lamb; for they themselves never felt the stings of sin and guilt, and never tasted the sweetness of pardoning and saving mercy. (8)
Q. 11. How should we regard holy angels ?
A. We should love them for their moral excellence, feel grateful for their benevolent conduct towards us, respect them for their dignity and worth, and imitate them in all things which may be imitated by us.
Q. 12. Is there any Saviour provided for the apostate angels?
A. There is none; and, consequently, they must perish forever. They are now in utter despair and sorrows, being reserved in chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. (h)
(8) Ps. xxxiv. 7. The angel of the Lord encampeth round about them that fear hiin, and delivereth them.-Heb. i. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation.—Matt. xxiv. 31. And he shall send his angels wlth a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.-Rev. vii. 11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders, and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God.
(h) Jude 6. And the angels which kept not their first estate,
Q. 13. What are the fallen angels usually called in Scripture ?
A. They are usually called devils. The one who is represented as having been an angel of pre-eminent distinction, and as the first in rebellion, and who is at the head of apostate angels, is called by other names, such as Satan, Dragon, Serpent, Angel of the bottomless pit, Abaddon, Apollyon, Accuser of the brethren, Lucifer, Beelzebub, Prince of devils, Prince of the power of the air, and god of this world. (*)
Q. 14. Are the apostate angels represented in the Scriptures as having an agency in this world?
A. They are. Though invisible, they greatly exert themselves, and do much mischief by leading man
but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day. Matt. xxv. 11. Then shall he say to them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.—2 Pet. ii. 11. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.
(i) James ii. 19. Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well; the devils, also, believe and tremble.-Job'i. 12. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold all that he hath is in thy power ; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord.—Rev. xii. 9. And the great Dragon was cast out, that old Serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world, he was cast out into the earth; and his angels were cast out with him.-Rev. ix. 11. And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.-Rev. xii. 10. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength; and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ ; for the Accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.-Is. xiv. 12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning ! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the na. tions !—Matt. xii. 24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub, the Prince of the devils.—Eph. ii. 2. Wherein in time past, ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the Prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience.—2 Cor. iv. 4. In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not.
kind into sin. Satan tempted Eve, tempted Christ, and instigated Judas to betray his Master. He is spoken of more frequently in the Bible than any other single agent except God the Father, the Saviour, and the Holy Ghost, and always as engaged in evil devices or works. (j)
Q. 15. What is the number of fallen angels ?
Q. 16. Ought the Scriptural account of the devils to be believed ?
A. It ought most assuredly. 1. There is nothing absurd in it. We can conceive of devils as easily and as clearly as we can of holy angels, or of any invisible being whatever. 2. It is the account which God has given. 3. There is the same reason to believe it, that there is to believe the account of holy angels. And, 4. It is very particularly intermixed with the history of Jesus Christ. There is therefore no reason for rejecting it, but all reason for believ
Q. 17. What is the consequence of a denial of the doctrine of failen angels ?
A. It leads to infidelity—to the rejection of the main truths of the gospel, viz. the fall of man, recovery by Jesus Christ, the day of judgment, and final retribution. And the same principle of interpretation would justify the denial of the existence of good angels, of departed spirits, of Peter, Paul and John, of Christ, and of God.
(3) Gen. iii. 13. And the Lord God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The Serpent beguiled me, and I did cat.—Matt. iv. 1. Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wiiderness, to be tempted of the Devil.—John xii. 2. And supper being ended, (the Devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him.)—1 Pet. v. 8. Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary, the Devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour.—Luke xxii. 31. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift
(k) Mark v. 9. And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion ; for we are many.
you as wheat.
Q. 18. How ought we to regard apostate angels ? A. We ought to hate their character, to condemn all their conduct, to fear their evil devices, to resist their wicked temptations, and to flee their unholy examples.
CHAPTER IX. Creation and Primitive State of Man. Q.1. When did God create man? Å. Before the Christian era 4004 years; at the close, or on the latter part, of the sixth day from the commencement of the creation of the world. He was the last of God's created works. (a)
Q. 2. In what state did God create mankind ?
A. He created them male and female, and in His own image, that is, intelligent and holy, and thus resembling in a degree their Creator, in His natural and moral perfections; He created them in the state of maturity, in full vigor of body and mind, in perfect felicity, and but little inferior in nature or order to the angels, and made them lord of creation, and capable of perpetual progression in knowledge, holiness and happiness. (6)
Q. 3. Is man a simple, or a compound being ?
(a) Gen. i. 27. 31. So God created man in his own image; in ihe image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
(b) Gen. i. 27. So God created man in his own image; in the image of God created he him ; male and female created he them.-Eccl. vii. 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.—Eph. iv. 24. And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.-Gen. i. 28. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing, that moveth upon the earth.-Ps. viii. 5. For thou hasi made him a luile lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honor,
A. He is a compound being, having a body and soul. He possesses a completely organized body, formed of the dust of the earth, with the senses of feeling, tasting, smelling, hearing, and seeing; and a rational soul, a pure, uncompounded, spiritual nature, having understanding, affections, and will. (c).
Q. 4. What is the duration of man's existence?
A. His body is mortal, and of short continuance; but his soul is immortal—-endless in its existence. (d)
Q. 5. What relation does man sustain to this lower world?
A. He sustains the relation of its constituted head and lord. (e)
Q. 6. What was the place of residence, and the condition of the first human pair ?
A. They were placed in the garden of Eden, or the earthly paradise, in the enjoyment of every terrestrial good. (f)
(c) Gen. ï. 7. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.—Eccl. xii. 7. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was ; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
(d) Ps. xc. 10. The days of our years are threescore years and ten, and if by reason of strengih they be tourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off
, and we fly away.—Matt. x. 28. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.—Eccl. xii. 7. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.—Luke xx. 36. Neither can they die any more, for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
(e) Gen. i. 28. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.-Ps. viji. 6. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands ; thou hast put all things under his feet.
(f) Gen. ii. 8, 9. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward' in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree, that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.