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them. The inference, then, is, that the atonement is sufficient for all. (f) 4. Another argument to prove the sufficiency of the atonement, is the command, given in the Scriptures, to pray for all men. God would not command us to pray for all men, unless salvation were provided for all. (8), 5. The Scriptures teach this doctrine by express declarations. (h)

Q. 12. Was there any being in the universe, who could make an atonement, but the Son of God?

A. It would seem not. A mere creature certainly cannot make an atonement; for all he can do, he is bound to do as for himself. Among all the variety of beings in the universe, Christ alone has power to lay down his life, and to take it again. This arises froin the circumstance, that He is Divine and human. And it is a combination of these two natures, which alone


i) Mark xvi. 15, 16. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; hut he that believeth not, shall be damned.-Acts xvii. 30. And the times of this ignorance God winked at, but now commandeth all men everywhere to repent.—Is. xlv. 22. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none else.-Is. lv. 1. Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money ; come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.-Rev. xxii. 17. And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst,

And whosoever will, let him take of the water of life freely.

(8) 1 Tim. ii. 1. I exhort, therefore, that first of all supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men.

(h) 1 John ii. 2. And he is the propitiation for our sins ; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.—Heb. ii. 9. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man. -1 Tim. ii. 6. Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.-2 Cor. v. 14, 15. For the love of Christ constraineth us ; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead. And that he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them and rose again.—John i. 29. Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh yway the sin of the world.

qualifies Him to make an atonement. In the work of mediation, Christ acts according to both his na

With each nature, He performs that part which is peculiarly appropriate to it. (i)

Q. 13. Why was the incarnation of Christ neces


sary ?

A. It was necessary, that Christ might be capacitated to suffer and die in the same nature which had sinned, and thus make an atonement. (j)

Q. 14. If the atonement is sufficient for the salvation of all men, why are not all men actually saved ?

A. Because they do not comply with the condition on which salvation is offered. Opposition to God, impenitency, and an evil heart of unbelief, are the Önly obstacles in the way of the salvation of any. If sinners perish then, they will have none to blame but themselves. (k)

Q. 15. Is there a difference between atonement and redemption, as the words are commonly used ?

(i) John x. 17, 18. Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again.

lj) Heb. ii. 14. Forasmuch then as the children are par. takers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil.—Heb. ix. 14, 15. How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God?' And for this cause he is the Mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

(1) Rom. ii. 19. Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.-Luke xiji. 3. I tell you, Nay; but except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.-Mark xvi. 16. He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.—John v. 40. And ye will not come to me that ye might have life.-John iii. 19.' And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men lovod darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.

A. There is. Atonement is for sin ; redemption is from sin and suffering. We may distinguish between atonement, and the application of atonement, but not between redemption and the application of redemption. We may pray for redemption, but not for atonement. Sometimes, however, the word redemption is used in Scripture as including atonement for sin, as well as deliverance from sin and suffering.

Q. 16. Is it important to distinguish between atonement and redemption in their strict sense ?

A. It is very important. Not to do this lays the foundation for great errors. Make this distinction, and none would ever infer the doctrine of universal salvation from the general extent of the atonement. There is a wide difference between an entertainment's being made, and the partaking of this entertainment. So there is a wide difference between the sufficiency of the atonement and its efficiency. It is sufficient for the whole world ; but it is efficient to the salvation of those only who repent and believe. Its sufficiency depends upon its nature; but its efficiency depends upon its application, by the Spirit of God.

Q. 17. Is the atonement a fundamental doctrine of the gospel ?

A. It is. Belief in Christ as a propitiatory sacrifice for sin, our substitute substantially for the penalty of the law, is urged in the Scriptures, as an indispensable condition of salvation. Christ crucified is the then.e and glory of the gospel. (1)

(?) John xiv. 6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father, but by me. --Acts iv. 12, Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.-1 Cor. i. 23, 24. But we preaola Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block and unto the Greeks foolishness; but unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.1 Cor. q. 2. For 1'determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ and him crucified.-Gal. vi. 14. God korbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus


Q. 18. Is the doctrine of atonement taught by revelation only, or is it a dictate of reason, or of the light of nature ?

A. Reason and the light of nature can give no information on this subject. The doctrine of atonement is derived wholly from the Sacred Scriptures. And it is this which peculiarly distinguishes Christianity from Deism, Mohamedanism, Paganism, and all other religions. None, therefore, who reject the atonernent ought to be considered as believers in the religion of Christ.


Regeneration. Q. 1. In what does the new birth or regeneration consist ?

A. 1. It does not consist in baptism by water, nor in external reformation of manners, nor in conversion from one religious sect or denomination to another, nor in the communication of any new natural faculties to the soul, nor in any succession of terrors or consolations, nor in any revelation or impression of God's purpose to save, nor in a modification of any religious opinions, nor in mere conviction of sin. But, 2. It does consist in a radical holy change in the affections of the heart, or in the commencement of holiness in the soul. Regeneration is a moral and not a physical change. (a)

Q. 2. Does regeneration render the soul completely holy?

Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

(a) 1 John iv. 7. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God.—2 Cor. v. 17. Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature, old things are passed away, behold all things are become new.-Eph. iv. 22–24. That ye put off concerning the former conversation, the old man which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and be renewed in the spirit of your mind; and that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness

A. It does not. The soul is sanctified but in part in this state of existence—it does not become perfect in holiness till at death. It is contrary to Scripture to suppose that any arrive at sinless perfection in this life. (6)

Q.3. Is regeneration instantaneous or progressive?

A. It is instantaneous. There is no time when, in a spiritual sense, a person is neither dead nor alive, neither a saint nor a sinner, neither for Christ nor against Him. Of course, there was a moment of time, when the renewed in heart became changed. Regeneration, or the commencement of holiness in the soul, is, consequently, instantaneous. This idea seems to be taught also by the language frequently used in Scripture to represent regeneration, as 'passing from death unto life,' new birth,' new•creation. These events-resurrection to life, birth, creation-are sudden and instantaneous. God, however, may employ a longer or shorter time in preparing the soul by the operations of His Spirit for the reception of the divine life. What is terined sanctification, or the increase of holiness in the soul, is progressive. The subject of it goes on from one degree of grace to another, until he becomes wholly conformed to the divine law, and is perfectly prepared for heaven.

Q. 4. Is the time when regeneration takes place always known to its subjects ?

A. It frequently is known, though not always. The experience of Christians differs in this respect. (c)

Q. 5. Is regeneration indispensably necessary to salvation ?

(6) Eccl. vii. 20. For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.-Job ix. 20. If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn_me; if I say I'am perfect, it shall also prove me perverse.-Rom. vii. 24. O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?I John i. 8. 10. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.

(c) Acts ii. 41. Then they that gladly received the word were baptized; and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.

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