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The Verb Well-en in German fignifies to turn.
coming and going
Thę Solstices being the Times when the Sun reó turns back again, have their Name from that Cirçumstance. Hence the Greek Name Tropics, which signifies Return.
'Twas the same amongst the Celts:—They gave the Name of Iul to the Solstices and to the Months which commence at the Solstices, which in like Manner signified Return,
Stiernhielm, skilled in the Languages and Antiquițies of the North, informs us, that the antient Inhabitants of Sweden celebrated a Feast which they called Tul, in the Winter Solstice, or Christmass; that this Word means Revolution, Wheel; that the Month of December is called Tul-Month, the Month of Return, and that the Word is written both Hiule and Giule.
Chez les Germains le Verbe Weļl-en signifie Tourner.
Les Solstices étant le Tems où le Soleil revient sur ses pas, en prirent le Nom: de-là chez les Grecs le nom des Tropiques, qui fignifie retour.
Il en fut de même chez les Celtes. Ils donnerent aux Solstices, et aux Mois qui commencent aux Solstices, le nom d'Iul, qui signifioit également retour.
Stiernhielm, habile dans les Langues & dans les Antiquités du Nord, nous aprend, que les anciens Habitans de la Suéde célébroient au Solitice d'hyver ou à Noël, une fête, qu'ils appelloient Iul, que ce mot signifie Revolution, roue; que le Mois de Décembre s'en apelloit, Iul-manat, Mois du retour, & que cet mot s'écrivoit également par Hiule & Giule.
The People in the County of Lincoln, in England, still call a Log or Stump which they put into the Fire on Christmass Day, (which was to last for the whole Octave) a Gule-Block, i. e. Block or Log of lựl.
We must not be furprized then if our Month of July, which follows the Summer Solstice, has had its Name from hence. 'Tis true the Romans tell us this Month took its Name from Julius Cæsar; an Etymon that suited well with the Flatteries they heaped on their Emperors, though they had done nothing but altered the Pronunciation of the Word Iul, to make it agree with the Name of Julius, which they pronounced Tulus, a Name which Ascanius, the Son of Æneas, had also, and which afcended from thence even to the primitive Languages of the East.
The Cafe had been the same with the Month following:
If these two Months were fixed on to bear the Names of their first and second Emperors, it was
Les Habitans du Comté de Lincoln en Angleterre, appellent encore Gule-Block, Bloc, ou souche de Iul, la fouche qu'on met au feu le jour de Noël, & qui doit durer l'Octave entiere.
Il ne faudrait donc pas être étonné si notre Mois de Juillet qui suit le Solstice d'Eté, eût pris fon pom de là. Les Romains nous disent, il est vrai, que ce Mois tira fon Nom de Jules César; ce pouroit être une Etymologie digne des Flatteries dont ils accabloient leurs Empereurs, tandis qu'ils n'auroient fait qu'altérer la Pronunciation du mot lul pour le faire quadrer avec le Nom de Jules, qu'ils prononçoient lulus, Nom que porta aussi Ascagne, Fils d'Ænée, & qui remontoit par là même aux Langues premieres de l'Orient.
Il en aura été de même du Mois fuivant. S'ils choisirent ces deux Mois pour leur faire porter les Noms du premier et du second de leurs Empereurs, ce fut premierement parce
principally because their Names already resembled those of Julius and Auguftus.
They did it also in Imitation of the Egyptians, who had given to these two Months the Names of their two first Kings, Mesor and Thot.
As the Month of August was the first in the Egyptian Year, the first Day of it was called Gule, which being latinized makes Gula. Our Legendaries, surprized at seeing this Word at the Head of the Month of August, did not overlook but converted it to their own Purpose. They made out of it the Feast of the Daughter of the Tribune Quirinus, cured of some Disorder in her Throat (Gula is Latin for Throat) by killing the Chains of St. Peter, whose Feast is folemnized on this Day. · Thus far our learned Foreigner, and with such a convincing Parade of Proof, that we must be Scepiies indeed if we doubt any longer of the true Origin of this very remarkable Word.
que les Noms de ces Mois avoient déja du raport à ceux de Jules & d'Auguste.
Ce fut secondement, pour imiter les Egyptiens qui avoient donné à ces deux Mois le Nom de leurs deux premiers Rois, Mefor et Thot.
Comme le Mois d'Août étoit le premier Mois de l'année Egyptienne, on en apella le premier jour Gule : ce mot latinisé, fit Gula, Nos Légendaires surpris de voir ce Nom à la tête du Mois d'Aoûr, ne s'oublierent pas; ils en firent la fête de la Fille du Tribun Quirinus, guérie d'un mal de gorge en baisant les Liens de Saint Pierre dont on célébre la fête ce jour-là."
CH A P. XIV.
Of adorning the Windows at Christmas with
Laurel : What the Laurel is an Emblem of:
An Otjection against this Custom taken off. A Nother Custom observed at this Season, A is the adorning of Windows with Bay and Laurel, It is but seldom observed in North, but in the Southern-Parts, it is very Common, particularly at our Universities; where it is Custornary to adorn, not only the Common Windows of the Town, and of the Colleges, but also to bedeck the Chapels of the Colleges, with Branches of Laurel.
The Lauret was used among the ancient Romans, as an Emblem of several Things, and in particular, of* Peace, and Joy, and Victory. And I imagine, it has been used at this Season by Christians, as an Emblem of the same Things; as an Emblem of Joy for the Victory gain'd over the Powers of Darkness, and of that Peace on Earth, that Good-will towards Men, which the Angels sung over the Fields of Bethlehem.
* Laurus & pacifera habetur, quam prætendi inter armatos hoftes, quietis fit indicium. Romanis præcipue lætitiæ vic. toriarumque nuntia. Polyd. Virg. de Rer. Invent. Lib. 3. Cap. 4. P. 164.
It * has been made use of by the Non Core formists, as an Argument against Ceremonies, that the second Council of Bracara, I Can. 73. forbad Christians “ to deck their Houses, with “ Bay Leaves and Green Boughes.” But the Council does not mean, that it was wrong in Christians, to make use of these Things, but only “ at the fame Time with the Pagans, when " they observed and folemnized their Paganish “ Pastime and Worship. And of this Prohibi“tion, they give this Reason in the same Canon; “Omnis hæc observatio paganismi eft. All this s kind of Custom doth hold of Paganism: Be"cause the outward Practice of Heathenisa “ Rites, perform'd jointly with the Pagans “ themselves, could not but imply a Consent “ in Paganism.”
But at present, there is no hazard of any such Thing. It may be an Emblem of Joy to us, without confirming any, in the Practice of Heathenism. The Time, the Place, and the Reasons of the Ceremony, are so widely different; that, tho’ formerly, to have observed it, would unquestionably have been a Sin, it is now become harmless, comely, and decent.
*. The general Defence of the three Articles of the Church of Engiand.. D. 107.
# Non liceat iniquas observantias agere Kalendarum, & ociis vacare Gentilibus, neque lauro, neque viriditare arborum cingere domos. Omnis enim hæc observatio Paganismi elt. Bracc. Can. 73. Infiell.