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Decisive Battles of the World.-Bentley's
painted by Aug. Von Klæber, engraved by De Quincey's Essay.-See Conversation.
Diary, Pepys's.-See Pepys.
Edgeworth Maria.--Dublin University Mag-
Edinburgh Review on Macaulay's History.--
European Life and Manners.--New Monthly
Good Hope.—See Herschel.
Fox, Sketch of.-See Chatham.
Biographies of Swift.-See Swift.
Robert, Poems.--English Review,
George III, Private Correspondence of with
Bishop Hurd.—Bentley's Miscellany,
Hungary - Westminster Review,
tions at the Cape of Good Hope.-
III.-See George III.
I, J, K.
Christopher under Canvass. See Dies Bo-
Contrast in Biography.—Sharpe's Magazine;
Junius, Authorship of.—Athenæum, .
Letter to Lord Palmerston,
Lyell's Second Visit to the United States.-
, and Cowper's.
Dies Boreales.—Blackwood's Magazine, 61, 259, 381
POETRY.-Heart-treasures, 50; The Past, 71; "Not
116 Sheet, 106; On the death of Abel, 108; Night, 140 ;
The Fatherless, 159 ; The Shadow of the Past, 169;
277 Prayer, 181; May you die among your kindred,
238; Moss, 270 ; Sonnet to Elihu Burritt, 335; Come
kiss me and be friends, 374; A Dirge, 415; To &
346 Lark, 446; The True Hero, 469; Hymn, 492;
Westminster Abbey, 532.
River Jordan and the Dead Sea.--See Jordan.
Recollections of a Police Officer.-Chamb
Reign of Louis XV.-See Louis XV.
Railway System of Great Britain.--North
Swift and his Biographers.—North British
Sources of the Nile.See Nile.
416 System, Railway: --See Railway.
Thoughts on Poetical Injustice.- See Poetical.
What Strikes an American in England.-
Wicked Women.—Dublin 'University Maga-
Wrongs of Hungary.-See Hungary.
The Case of Hungary stated. Manifesto published in the name of the Hungarian
Government. By Count LADISLAS TELEKI, Member of the Hungarian Diet. Translated from the French, with prefatory remarks. By H. F. W. BROWNE, B. A. London: Effingham Wilson.
The nation, which, in political language, | life to supply the deficiencies of those mounwe call Hungary, but comprising many na- tain regions which contribute minerals to the tionalities, is that large tract of country national wealth. Hungary is copiously waterincluded in the Austrian dominions, extended by noble rivers. The Danube flows through ing from the Carpathian Mountains on the the heart of the country; and the Thiess, north, to the Gulf of Quarnero on the Adri- the Drave, the Save, and waters of lesser atic and the Turkish frontier; longitudinally, magnitude, give breadth to Duna's mighty it extends from the Austrian boundary line flood. The superficial magnitude of the of Moravia, Lower Austria, Styria, and Illy-country is estimated at nearly 88,000 square ria on the west; eastward to the Alpine chain miles. which bounds Transylvania. It would seem The kingdom of Hungary is composed of as if nature had designed it for the separate Hungary proper, Sclavonia, Croatia, Transylhabitation of a great people. On all sides it | vania, and the Gränz Comitates, or military is defended by the bulwarks of nature- frontier. It is subdivided thus : mountain or flood. Nature has been prodigal in the gifts of a rich soil, and of a climate I.-Hungary proper, containing the folfavorable to all productions necessary for lowing districts and population : the sustentation of man. It is a country
1. Hungary west of the Danube ; diprolific in corn and wine; the broad plains vided into eleven komitats, or counafford luxuriant pasturage for the flocks, and ties; population in 1842, 2,109,510. the mountains yield mineral treasures of
2. East of the Danube; thirteen counboundless extent. In the admirable distri- ties; population, 2,764,247. bution of Providence, the richer soils of the 3. West of the Thiess; eleven counties plain yield more than enough of the staff of population, 1,789,700. VOL XVIII. NO. I
4. East of the Thiess; twelve counties ; | Sclavo-Roman origin, the descendants of the population, 2,631,600.
Roman colonists who peopled Dacia in the II.—Sclavonia; three counties; Syrmia, time of Trajan. Verócz, and Posegan; population, 336,100. The statistics of the religious faith of these
III.—Croatia; three counties; Kreutz, Wa- populations, according to the tables of 1842, radin, and Agram; population, 506,500. for the whole kingdom, including TransylIV.-Transylvania; containing :
vania, are these: Roman Catholics, 6,444,1. The Hungarian country; eleven coun- 418; Greek Church (united,) 1,379,717 ; ties; population, 1,279,700.
(non-united) 2,603,060=3,982,777. Pro2. The Szekler country; five cantons; testants (Lutheran,) 1,014,518; (Calvinists,) population, 373,000.
1,949,606=2,964,124; Unitarians, 45,769; 3. The Saxon country; nine cantons; Jews, 258,882. To this bird's-eye view of
population, 446,700; making, with a the country it may be interesting to the military force of 9,005, a total of English reader to add an outline of the his2,108,405.
tory of Hungary, for which information must V.–Five small separate districts; popula- still be sought in the chronicles of the kingtion, 296,100; making, with 66,243 military dom. for the districts, exclusive of Transylvania, a The history of Hungary is copious in incitotal population of 10,500,000, according to dents, replete with romance and deeds of an approximate estimate made in 1842. chivalry, and affords ample materials for
The bulk of the population is composed of philosophical reflection. We cannot, howthree races: 1. The Šlagyars, or Hungarians ever, do more than indicate the prominent par excellence. 2. The Sclavonians, or Sclaves, points necessary to illustrate the origin, procomprising various tribes, as the Slovacs, gress, and recent liberal development of the Croats, Serbs, &c. 3. Germans. The rela- Hungarian Constitution. The earliest active proportions are thus stated by M. counts are fabulous and obscure. We know Fényes: Magyars, 4,812,759; Slovacs, nothing certain prior to the Roman conquest 1,687,256 ; Germans, 1,273,677; Wallaks, of Pannonia. And from that period till the 2,202,542; Croats, 886,079; Raiks, or Magyar settlement, about the close of the Raitzes, 828,365; Schocks, 429,868; Wends, ninth century, there is little to arrest the 40,864; Ruthenians, 442,903; Bulgarians, attention of the political inquirer. The Hun12,000; French, 6,150; Greeks, 5,680; Ar- garians, in the common desire of mankind to menians, 3,798; Montenegrins, 2,830; Cle- trace their origin to a noted ancestry, have mentins, 1,600; Jews, 244,035=12,880,- reckoned the conquering Huns of Attila as 406.*
their ancestors; but ethnology and history The chief settlements of the Magyars are alike fail to support the assertion.* The the plains west and east of the Danube. country which we now call Hungary, prior The Germans are for the most part of Saxon to the period when it received that name, and Suabian descent, and dwell on the Aus- appears, according to the best authorities, to trian frontier and the mining districts. The have been successively occupied by the Huns, Slovacs, who are supposed to be the oldest the Goths, and Gepidæ, (between the years settlers, and who came of the Czecs of Bohe- 489 and 526 ;) by the Lombards, till 568; mia, people the northern districts along with and by the far-conquering Abares or Avars. the Ruthenians or Russniaks (from Red Rus- Towards the close of the ninth century, the sia,) and the slopes of the Carpathians. The progenitors of the Magyar or Hungarian naSchocks inhabit Sclavonia ; and with the tion obtained their first settlement in the Raitzes, who people that province as well as country. The received opinion is, that they the district called the Banat, lying between the rivers Danube, Thiess, and Arad and Transylvania, are of the Serbian stock of * Gibbon has graphically described the Calmuck Sclaves. Many of this race took shelter in characteristics of Attila's Huns. The Magyars bear Hungary from the persecution of the Turks, On the historical point we may quote Gilbon,
no traces of the personal peculiarities of that race. and settled in the country. The Croats in the brevity of his summary: Hungary has been habit the district of Croatia. The Wends successively occupied by three Scythian colonies.are of the Styrian tribe of Sclaves. The 1. The Huns of Attila ; 2. The A bares, in the sixth Walaques or Wallaks are supposed to be of century; and 3. The Turks, or Majiars, A. D. 869– were of an Asian tribe which wandered west- Tradition says that seven tribes of these ward in search of a better land, from their Magyar wanderers, under the conduct of original settlement to the south of the Black Almus, or of his son Arpad, entered the Sea ; a learned but fanciful attempt has even country near the Thiess, and gradually won been made to trace them to the family of the settlements in the fertile plain, but that it ancient Egyptians.* As in all attempts to was ten years before they conquered the determine the etymology of names, there is country. Whatever may have been the much diversity of opinion on the origin of origin of the race and of the Hungarian the Hungarian name. Some of the hypo- name, these Magyar warriors had brave notheses are curious. It is said that the Huns tions of liberty ; if they enslaved the vanof the race of Attila returned to Pannonia in quished, they were yet resolved themselves the eighth century, under the leadership of to live free; they exercised but the right of their chieftain Hungar—a word signifying the sword, which, nine centuries later in the the valiant, or the conqueror; and that, hav- march of civilization, is still the “ultimus ing acquired a settlement, they gave the name ratio regis.” The very foundation of their of their commander to the land of his con- State was laid on the right divine of the quest. Others affirm that it is but a com- people. To concentrate their strength, they pound of the national denominations of the chose Arpad as their duke, or leader; and two races who had previously peopled the a solemn compact was made between that land-the Huns and the Avari. A third chief and the heads of the tribes, that the legend says, that near the spot where the office of chief magistrate should be hereditary nomade warriors first encamped, stood a for- to his line, but that the right of the tribes to tification called Hungvar, which they made choose their governor, if they so willed, their stronghold ; and that, when they sallied should never be questioned. It was, in forth on raid or foray, the terrified natives short, a federal aristocracy, or union of clans of the plains, as they prepared for defense owing a limited obedience to a superior or fled, warned their brethren that the chief; for there appears to have been an exHungvarians were coming. In northwestern press stipulation made by the heads of the Hungary there is a town called Unghvar, tribes, that the ducal title, on every new acwhich gives the name to one of the eleven cession to the leadership must be solemnly komitats of the district west of the Thiess. acknowledged by the State, and that a reThe town is situated on the river Ungh. fusal to take certain oaths prescribed, to obBut there is no bound to the fancy of the serve the popular liberties, should be followed etymologist. The comic historian could pos- by rejection. The fullest liberty of action sibly support an hypothesis as plausible, was reserved by the people, or rather by that the name was not given from the their chiefs. They promised to yield military ferocity, but from the voracity of the conquerors.
the immediate and genuine ancestors of the modern
Hungarians, whose connection with the two fornier * “Statistique du Royaume de Hongrie,” par is extremely faint and remote.”—Decline and Fall Alexius de Fényes. Three vols., 1843–1844-1845. of the Roman Empire, chapter xxxiv.
glowing account of bis sojourn at the Duke's court.
After a council of the chiefs had been held, the mes, * Dr. F. Thomas—Conjecturæ de origine prima senger was sent back to Vezprim, with a snow-wbite sede et linguâ Hungarorum. Budæ, 1806.
steed meetly caparisoned, 7 In Dr. Bowring's interesting specimens of the
“ With golden bit and saddle rich," poetry of the Magyars, there is a translation of a national ballad of the thirteenth or fourteenth cen
as a peace-offering to his Grace the Herczeg; and tury, much admired by the Magyars, and
often sung in the country for his tribe. Alas! poor Duke-his
the messenger craved the boon of a quiet settlement at their festivals—“On the conquest of the Magyar love of a snow-white steed cost him his ducal doLand.” The minstrel sings how their sires, in search of a better land, left their Scythian home, and came
minions. The Magyars advanced to the conquest of
the landto Erdely or Transylvania
“In those prond wars, the Magyars,
By God upheld, their foemen quelled,
And weighty was their gain.'
The Duke sought oblivion in Duna's flood, and the
occupied the land which his race still reArpad, “ The Magyars' pride,” was the leader. In tains. The poet thus triumphantly concludes his their wanderings they came on the broad waters of
song: the Duna or Danube, and much charmed were they “Of those who gained the Magyar land, with the fatness of the land. An embassy was sent
A chief as bold as any
Was Budon, who, when Arpad died, to the ruler, the “ Lengvel lord,” at his court at Vez
Was Magyars' Kapitany. prim. The ambassador cunningly represented that
He reared his throne by Duna's banks, he had come to learn the people's laws, at which
Near Pesth, along the hill; the Herczeg or Duke expressed much self-satisfac
And Buda's city, fair and rich, tion. The messenger returned to Erdely, with a
Preserves his memory still.”