« AnteriorContinuar »
part of the sovereigns; but there are some peace was concluded. In 1604 an arrangepoints of political importance which it will ment was concluded with Stephen Botschay, be convenient to detail.
a Hungarian noble of the Calvinistic faith, From the accession of Ferdinand I., till by which the Catholics, Lutherans, and Calthe Hungarian throne was made hereditary vinists, were to have equally the free priviin the house of Hapsburg in 1687, seven lege of religious worship in Hungary. "The princes had ruled over the country in the reign of Matthias was tranquil and prosperfollowing succession : Ferdinand I., 1526–ous; but his policy toward the Protestants, virtually (or by formal recognition, in 1547) in the end, involved Hungary in the troubles to 1564; Maximilian, 1564-1572 ; Rodolph, of the Thirty Years' war. While the Protest1572-1611, all in succession of primogeni- ants of the empire composing the evangeliture. Matthias II., his brother, 1607 to cal union, were supporting the Palatin Fred1618, when he relinquished the crown in fa- eric against Ferdinand II., Bethlem Gabor, vor of his cousin-german, Ferdinand II., Prince of Transylvania, on the invocation of 1618-1625. Ferdinand III., his son, 1625- the Hungarian Protestants, who offered to 1655; Leopold, from 1655-1687, when he support him for the crown, entered the abdicated in favor of his son Joseph.* country in 1620, at the head of 60,000
Shortly after the accession of Maximilian, troops, composed of Turks, Tartars, and men he was compelled to take arms against John of other nations; but his efforts were badly Sigismund, Prince of Transylvania, vassal to seconded, and after an army had been sent the Sultan, who aspired to the Hungarian against him, he concluded a truce, in which throne. After the capture of Tokay and he resigned all pretension to the crown, and some other places, a peace was concluded, received very advantageous terms. He died and John transferred his feudality from the in 1629. After the base assassination of Turks to the emperor. That prince died Wallenstein, the King of Hungary took comshortly afterwards; and Stephen Bathori, mand of the Imperial troops up to the pacifielected as his successor by the States of cation of Prague. Transylvania, renewed the treaty. A war In 1663 Hungary was again invaded by with the Turks succeeded, who laid siege to the Grand Vizier Kupruli
, at the head of the city of Sigath, on the Sclavonian fron- 100,000 Turks, and defeated by Montecutier, bravely defended by Count Zerini, who culi, at the great battle of St. Godard on the with 300 men of Spartan valor, made a sally, | Raab, in the following year. As Hungary and died with glory. The town fell in 1566, was then threatened with serious internal although Maximilian was close by with a troubles, the king was fain to conclude a large army. The king ingloriously aban- peace as speedily as possible. The policy of doned the war, and concluded a truce for Leopold was most despotic; his aim was to eight years. Amurath III., successor to So- subvert the national institutions of Hungary, lyman, the party to the truce, following the and bring the country completely under imChristian example set his ancestors in the perial sway. Under pretense that a conspiprevious century, broke the truce, and in- racy had been formed against the life of the vaded Croatia in 1592. Rodolph beat one emperor, several of the leading magnates of army, killing or drowning 12,000 men. the kingdom were put to death. The brave Amurath, however, entered Hungary with and high-spirited people, unable to bear the another large force, and committed great rav- oppression of this despot, flew to arms. ages. Rodolph advanced toward Belgrade The king sent General Sporth with a large and gave battle to the infidels, signally de- force against the insurgents.
That comfeated them, and killed 12,000 of their most mander, aided by the Marquis of Baden and warlike Janizaries. The Imperial forces cap- Prince Charles of Lorraine, treated the Hungatured many places of great strength, which rians with great rigor. After a brief but brave had long remained in the hands of the Turks ; struggle, the patriots were compelled to sucand in the pitched battle of Hatvan, in 1594, cumb to the fortune of war. "But, though they were again victorious. The war was conquered, they were not won; their affecconducted with great spirit by the Archduke tions were alienated, and the house of AusMatthias, till 1606, when an advantageous tria never permanently regained the love of
the Hungarian people. So intolerable was
the German rule of Leopold, that the strug* The regnal years of Hungary and the Empire gle was renewed in 1679. The leaders of do not correspond; for in almost every instance, as before stated in the text, the heir-apparent was
the national party assembled secretly, drew elected and crowned in the lifetime of the king. up a plan of action, and engaged in their in
terest the Prince Abassi of Transylvania, who | field. The Hungarian war, and successive aided them with a large body of troops, un- incursions of the Turks, engaged the Imperial der the command of the famous Count Eme- arms, until the peace of Carlowitz, concluded rik Tekeli. When the emperor-king heard on the 26th of January, 1699, freed the emthe news, he sent a numerous army against peror from the attacks of the latter. the insurgents, who were defeated in several Down to 1687, the throne, although pracengagements. In their extremity they ap-tically confined to the house of Lorraine, was plied to and obtained aid from the Sultan elective by the States of the kingdom, and to Mahomet VI., stipulated in a treaty by ensure the succession to that house, it had which Tekeli was to become King of Hun- been the practice with the emperor to secure gary, and pay tribute to the Sultan. Tekeli, the Hungarian throne by the election and in the mean time, was elected king by his coronation of his heir during his lifetime. By party. In the spring of 1683, the Grand his later victories over the Turks, and by the Vizier Kara Mustapha entered Hungary with capture of all the principal strongholds of the a magnificent army of 280,000 men, with the kingdom, Leopold acquired great power and design of marching on and besieging the Im- legislative influence in the country, which was perial capital itself. In his terror, Leopold in fact under the domination of a German sought and obtained the military alliance of army.
He convoked a Diet at Presburg, John Sobieski, King of Poland. The Turks composed of men nearly all devoted to his advanced in their conquering progress on the interests. A number of Hungarian magnates, right bank of the Danube, and Tekeli on the who had come up to the capital to plead the left. The Duke of Lorraine was sent, at the cause of their country, were seized by Leohead of the Imperialists, to prevent a junc- pold on the pretext that they had been ention of the invading armies, in which he was gaged in correspondence with the Count Tesuccessful. About the middle of July the keli, then living in the Turkish dominions. Turks invested the city of Vienna, defended Many of them were dragged from the churchby a force of 65,000 men and armed citizens. es, and some even from their bed-chambers. Sobieski with his own troops and those of No tittle of the charge was proved against Saxony, Bavaria, and the Circles, to the num- them, and they died without one word of ber of 64,000, attacked the besiegers with confession extorted from their lips. The Diet great fury, who simultaneously with a defen- was kept under the most rigid constraint, and sive movement assaulted the city with 20,000 was compelled to assent to whatever the soldiers. The Ottomans, seized by one of court dictated. Nevertheless, some of the those unaccountable panics which at times members had the courage to refuse to exerprostrate the moral and physical powers of cise their suffrages; and Leopold, in the full armed hosts, fed, and Vienna was saved. license of despotism, with a stroke of his pen Sobieski followed them to the plain of Bar- repealed the electoral formalities of seven kan, where they were again signally de-centuries. On a pretended resolution of the feated. But the noble Poles, when they had Diet, he founded and issued an edict, declarvanquished “the enemies of Christendom,” ing that the choice of the kingdom had fallen had done enough for duty and for glory; on the Archduke Joseph as their legitimate they would not fight against men who were sovereign. The hand that dared to strike in arms for the defense of their national lib- this blow against the primal privileges of the erties. Sobieski, therefore, persuaded the Hungarian nation, was not scrupulous in cutDuke of Lorraine, the Imperial commander, ting down other ancient laws to suit bis desto listen to proposals for peace; and in the potic purposes. The patriots remonstrated tent of the Polish Lion, the following de- earnestly, and fought and died bravely; but mands were made by the Vice-Chancellor of the Imperial troops carried out the imperious Hungary : The confirmation of the ancient will of their master, and the crown became liberties and institutions of the Hungarians; hereditary in the house of Austria. liberty of conscience; the restitution of con- The popular struggle for national indefiscated property; the convocation of a free pendence was continued, in the beginning of Diet; winter quarters, and a suspension of the next century, with the same zeal of purarms pending the negotiations; and, lastly, pose, but uncertainty of process, which had a confirmation of the lordship of Tekeli in the previously characterized the military efforts territorial possession which he had acquired of the insurgents. Under the leadership of in the preceding year. The Duke of Lor- Prince Rakoczy, they baffled all the efforts of raine replied that he had not the power to the Imperial court to subdue them. Progrant the terms, and Sobieski quitted the posals of peace were made on these, the principal terms, that notwithstanding the result down their arms, until they had first obtainof the pretended Diet of Presburg in 1687, ed their demands. They likewise declared the Hungarian nation should exercise their that the Protestant religion should be mainancient liberty of choosing their king after tained in the country ; that the proceedings the death of Joseph, and that meanwhile he of the Diet held at Presburg in 1687 were should take a new oath of fealty to the con- illegal and contrary to the written law of stitution; that Catholics and Protestants Hungary; that they must be annulled, and should enjoy equal religious liberty ; that a the ancient liberty to choose their king, whengeneral amnesty should be granted to all ever a vacancy occurred, restored to the peowho had been in arms against Austria; free- ple; that without the express permission of dom of commerce and from taxes, except the Diet no troops should garrison the counthose imposed by the States; that three try but those of Hungary; and that all offimonths after the ratification of the proposed ces of trust should be filled by Hungarians, treaty, a general Diet should be held to de- unless the Diet specially declared that signal termine the laws of the nation, and to restore service to the State entitled foreigners to rethose which had been arbitrarily abrogated; ward. The members of the council themthat a Diet should be triennially, or oftener selves solemnly swore to observe these resoif necessary, convened to deliberate on the lutions, and to treat as criminals and traitors affairs of the nation; and that the Diet should to their country all who should abandon the nominate one or two deputies to reside at confederation, or enter into any separate Vienna in the capacity of counsellors of the treaty with the Imperial court. King of Hungary, to assist in the administra- The war still continued, and the insurgents tion of affairs concerning the kingdom. A increased in numbers as well as in the earnmediation ensued on the part of Great Britain estness of their demands. Joseph convoked and the States-General of Holland, respect a Diet at Presburg in 1708, but the result ively represented by Mr. Stepney and the only tended to show him the firm resolve the Count Rechteren. The emperor-king was nation had made to resist the Imperial desdesirous to draw his troops from Hungary, in potism. The patriots were beaten at Trentorder to employ them against France and schin, but on the other hand, General Heisler Spain, and a meeting of plenipotentiaries was was obliged to raise the seige of Neuhausel. accordingly held at Chemnitz, in Upper Hun- The struggle proceeded, and by the end of gary: The Imperialists, however, in insist- 1710 the insurgents lost, with but one coning that Tekeli should relinquish his rank as siderable exception, all the positions they had Prince of Transylvania, prevented the con- gained. In 1711 Joseph died, and during clusion of the treaty.
the interregnum of six months, when the Meantime, in 1705, the Emperor Leopold dowager Empress Eleonora Magdalen adwent to the great judgment-bar of kings and ministered power in all the hereditary States, tyrants. His son, Joseph I. of Hungary, be a pacification was accomplished. By the came Emperor of Germany. Joseph made treaty of Zaturar on the 29th of April, 1711, an offer of peace to the Hungarian insur- all the property confiscated during the trougents, in which he proposed to restore con- bles was restored to the lawful owners; the fiscated Protestant property ; to convoke a Protestants had accorded to them liberty of general Diet, at which all grievances should worship and conscience, and a confirmation be stated in writing ; that the liberties, priv- was made of all the national liberties and ileges, and prerogatives of the nation should privileges. be established and confirmed, in as far as Charles III. (Charles VI. of Germany) they did not interfere with the hereditary succeeded his father. Of the events of this succession to the crown; the convocation of reign it is unnecessary here to speak, more Diets triennially; an examination of the than of the Pragmatic Sanction of 13th April, claims of the Prince Rakoczy and the other 1713, by which Charles regulated the order patriot leaders; a general amnesty; and, of Austrian succession in favor of maleslastly, that, within five months, the Hunga- failing whom, females; and in failure of both, rians should lay down their arms, on penalty to the Archduchesses, daughters of the Emof losing all benefit under the treaty. But peror Joseph, to the Queen of Portugal, and the leaders were not so easily to be persuad to the other daughters of Joseph, and their ed to place themselves at the mercy of a descendants in perpetuity. The Diet acfaithless court. A grand council of the pa- cepted this line of succession; and on the triot Hungarians was held, when it was re- death of Charles, his daughter, the famous solved that they should on no pretense lay | Maria Theresa, married to Francis of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, came to the stitution. The Pragmatic Sanction only prothrone, and the Hungarian States took the vided that Hungary should accept the terms oaths of allegiance. This princess, by her of succession therein stipulated; it altered voluntary recognition of the ancient laws and not the political relations of the two counliberties of Hungary, and by her personal tries, nor did it affect the ancient constitution qualities and troubles, won the hearts of the of Hungary. The declaration of Joseph II., chivalrous Magyars. How she invoked and and the solemn oaths sworn at their coronasecured their aid in the hour of her need, is tion by all his successors, are all additional one of the golden pages of history. The guaranties and proofs of Hungarian indegreat European war which followed the ex- pendence. Hungary, therefore, is not an tinction of the Austrian house as emperors Austrian province, but a free and indepenof Germany, contributed to place the hus- dent nation.* band of Maria Theresa on the Imperial throne, As one of the political institutions of Hunas Francis I., after the death of the Emperor gary, we must pause for a moment to deCharles VII., in 1746. Joseph II. succeed- scribe the establishment of a military governed to the Hungarian kingdom. In an earn- ment on the Turkish frontier, which has reest desire for that system of centralization, or mained in all its integrity to the present day, bureaucratic rule, at Vienna, which has ever and has served as a powerful aid to Austrian since been the policy of the Imperial Court, influence in the country. We allude to the he made many attempts to amalgamate or military komitats or colonies of the frontier; incorporate Hungary with Austria ; but the devised and established by Prince Eugene nation boldly and successfully resisted them; during the Turkish wars, and considerably and in 1790 the Diet of Presburg exacted improved in the system of working, at a later from him an express recognition of their period, by the French Marshal, Lascey, rights, in Article 10 of which he solemnly The “Gränz comitates," as they are termed declared—“That Hungary is a free and in- in Austrian phrase, extend from New Orsova dependent nation in her entire system of on the Danube, opposite the southwestern legislation and administration, and not sub- boundary of Transylvania, to the Adriatic, a ject to any other State or any other people; distance, to follow the boundary line, of not but that she shall always have her own sepa- less than 500 miles. The maximum breadth rate existence and constitution, and shall con- is thirty miles; and the country is politically, sequently be governed by kings crowned ac- or rather strategetically, divided into fourcording to her national laws and customs.” teen komitats. The government, in fact It is to defend these rights that the Hun- everything connected with this territory, is garian nation, in this year of 1849, are now peculiar to itself. There is a governor, or in arms.
commander-in-chief at Peterwardein, and From this sketch of the political history of subordinate to him are several generals of Hungary, it will be seen that the throne was district. All the land belongs to the crown; elective from the accession of Ferdinand I. and it is portioned out to the inhabitants on in 1526, to the coercion of the Diet at Pres- a military tenure. Every man is a peasantburg, in 1687, by Leopold. By force of the soldier. In peace each county, must keep Imperial arms, the hereditary succession of on foot two battalions, of 1,200 men each; the Austrian house was maintained in the in war the number is increased to four. In male line till the failure of the heirs of King case of exigency, the emperor may call out Charles III. transferred it to a female—Maria every man between the ages of 18 and 36. Theresa, under the Pragmatic Sanction. In All above and below that age, capable of Francis of Lorraine, the male line was restored, and has since continued in the house of
* A monarchical event in our own history, mutatis Hapsburg Lorraine. Hungary was never
mutandis, is a case in point. When James VI. of conquered by Austria. Moreover, it has Scotland, by the death of Elizabeth, became James been a constitutional requirement as well un- I. of England, England did not therefore become a
What would the der the hereditary as the elective system of Scottish province, nor vice versa. monarchy, that the king must swear fealty independent citizens and stout ’prentices of London, to the constitution, and be crowned king with and done, had thë British Solomon led the kilted caall the solemnities required by custom of the terans and borderers (mitigated prototypes of Jellakingdom. The monarch might be king de chich's murdering red mantles) to force England to facto, by succession or might of arms; but become a Caledonian province? The parallel will de jure, he was not recognized as sovereign Anglian king down to the legislative union of the
hold good if we suppose a like folly in any Scototill he had fulfilled the conditions of the con- two countries, when they became Great Britain.
bearing arms, must arm for local defense. I city representatives ; and that, if political In peace the emperor has, therefore, always terms are to be taken according to electoral at his disposal 30,000 admirably disciplined and non-electoral proportions, was essentially infantry, which by a mere order from the oligarchical. But all discussion on this point War Department may be increased to 60,000, is precluded by the statistics of the case; for without seriously affecting the defense of the of the persons either having influence in, or border. The men ultivate the soil, and once an electoral influence on the Hungarian Diet, a week assume the garb and arms of soldiers, the aggregate hardly exceeded 200,000 souls and are splendidly drilled into companies. -about the number composing the electoral Once a month they are exercised in battalion. colleges of France under Louis Philippe. Along the whole of the frontier, a regular Two hundred thousand males alone enjoyed chain of posts is established night and day, the liberties, rights, and privileges of the on a system of as rigid observation as if an Hungarian constitution; all other classes and enemy were in front.
Each county is gov- conditions of men were beyond the pale of erned by colonels, majors, captains, lieuten- citizenship. Political duties they had abunants, sergeant-majors, sergeants, and corpo- dantly allotted to them in the exclusive payrals, who each has his department of office ment of the taxes of the State, and in the allotted to him; and to such perfection is military service of the Honved when an “inthe supervision carried, that the most private surrection" or general muster was required affairs of every man are known and register- for the defense of the country; but political ed. Civil and judicial functions are per- rights they had none; not even in the sense formed by the chiefs. In short, it is a mili- attached to the unmeaning phrase of a “virtary colony, governed with Spartan discipline tual representation,” beyond a limited proand severity—an institution, the sole end and tection by the common law of the land. purpose of which was, and is, to train a race When we come to look at the more social of soldiers for the service of the Imperial aspect of the position of the people, we are State. These men know rio duty but services compelled to admit that the peasant classto the emperor; no law but obedience to the the great bulk of the population-were socommands of their military superiors.* cially and politically in serfdom. The Hun
Up to this point we have been detailing garian peasantry corresponded in some rethe successions and transactions of kings and spects to the second class of Roman slaves— nobles ; let us now see what has been the the adscripti, or adscriptii—who were bound condition, political and social, of the great to perpetual service in cultivating a particumass of the people. That the legislative con- lar' field or farm, and who were rather stitution was essentially aristocratical, must slaves to that farm than to the owner of it; have been apparent to the reader in our brief so that he could not transfer his right in statement of its composition. The Upper them without alienating the farm to which Table was entirely noble in its elements, they were astricted or bound. In some reeither by birth in its laity, or position in the spects, also, they corresponded to the anecclesiastical dignitaries. In the Lower Table cient navili, or bondsmen of Scotland.* The noble birth prevailed, for the members for the komitats were the representatives of an mittees deal with the poor voters in boroughs. There inferior, because an untitled nobility, and of is prodigious feasting at the castle—there is no end their order or class.f The only democratic of magnanimous declarations—no lack of brilliant element in the legislature was the burghal or
and spirit-stirring speeches ; under the influence of
which, and of the wine and strong drinks that ac*The curious reader is referred, for complete in company them, the pauper eidelman becomes a hero formation as to the details of the system, to the
in his own eyes. But alas! political gratitude is work of Marshal Marmont, who was governor in the
not more enduring in Hungary than elsewhere. The Southern Sclavonian district during the occupation crisis has its course, and the scion of a glorious race of the country by Napoleon.
—the representative of a family which followed Al+ " Of these (the county constituency) very many
mus to the Thiess, and gave the coronet to Arpadare, in point of fact, mere peasants, whom the mis- goes back to his hovel, and his daily toil, and his fortunes or imprudence of their ancestors have re
filth, and his wretchedness, there to chew the cud of duced to poverty; but all must have noble blood in bitter fancy, till the return of an electioneering seatheir veins, for it is an honorable descent, and not
son shall call him forth once more to act a part upon the possession of lands or houses which entitles a the stage of life.”—Germany, Bohemia, and
Hungary man to exercise the elective franchise in Hungary. visited in 1837. By the Reverend G. R. Gleig, M. Such poor nobles are of course controlled and man- A., Chaplain to the Royal Hospital, Chelsea ; vol. aged by their wealthier neighbors, who, when the season of an election comes round, deal with them * See Reg. Maj.
, ii. c. 12, s. 45 ; quoted in “ Erskine's pretty much as our own candidates and their com- | Inst.,” ii.c. 2, s. 60.