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timidity or the jealousy which stopped Dr. , gifts of nature, both in the animal and vegBiallobotsky at the threshold of an enter- etable worlds, and rich in objects of comprise which had been undertaken with the merce—and that the waters of the Nile do very view to solve this important geo- not flow through these inland regions in the graphical problem, (although probably un- shape of a narrow continuous stream, but dertaken in a too southerly latitude,) is expand into lagoons and lakes, and are thus deeply to be deplored. It has thrown back made to become a reservoir for inundating a the progress of geographical inquiry possibly lower country, and, at the same time, to fera quarter of a century, and has drawn upon tilize an immense tract of country under an itself the animadversion of all lovers of en- almost tropical sun. terprise. There are few discoveries to be “If,” says M. Werne, “we consider this made without some risk or some danger. enigmatical stream territory, we ask ourThat risk must be very glaring that could selves whether the White River, of and by authorize a consular officer to deny support itself, with such a weight of water, can to an expedition sanctioned by the Prince maintain these lagoons under an African Consort. As to the opposition of the mis- sun? Were the Nile one stream, it must sionaries, it was no more than was to be ex- flow off faster; for the rains have already pected : it is a common feature of human ceased here and previously—indeed, under nature—whether missionary or geographic the Equator itself. How could the Nile, not to like to be anticipated in a new field of which still shows its peculiar disposable research or discovery.

mass of water, in its main-stream supply, But while thirty days' journey, it may be quite alone, that enormous mass of waterobserved, might carry the traveller to the and even to the present time maintain under division of the White Nile, forty might not water these immense reedy lakes—unless reach its sources. At the island of Tshanker, other tributary streams, the mouths of the most southerly point attained by the which stagnate, owing to the level nature of Turk expedition, the stream was upwards of the ground and the counter-pressure of the 300 yards in width from the island to the main stream, supplied a nourishment great right shore; and there were two other arms. beyond belief to this, with which it equally The waters were at this period of the year fall. rises and falls ? For the whole mass of ing, and the vessels could only by taking out all water in complexu must suffer an incredible their freight pass the only defile that remained diminution during such a long tract, in its in the rugged gneiss rocks. Had the ex- slow ebbing under a burning sun, or this pedition arrived twenty days previously, M. Bahr el Abiad must have real giant springs Werne says, “neither would all these rocks in its source. have been an obstacle, nor would they have We do not think that it is in the least debeen a pretext for not proceeding further."

gree necessary to have recourse to those The expedition ultimately started on its vague notions of tributary streams with return, under salute of a shower of stones stagnated mouths, or giant springs, to acfrom the negroes. No wonder, when they count for the phenomena in question. In had killed eleven of their countrymen—were the first place, the springs themselves are perpetually cheating or plundering them- probably more distant than is imagined ; and had assumed in their intercourse with and being derived, as before reported, from them the air of masters and lords of the soil. four different quarters, they may be far more It certainly is unfortunate for future travel- productive than has hitherto been supposed. lers that they should have been preceded by But a still more important fact to be kept in a Turkish expedition. The ways of Provi- mind is, that this great hydrographical sysdence are, however, not always to be easily tem is in part produced where it is met ascertained ; and the results of this imper- with. At the rainy season, according to the fect and half-civilized exploratory expedition blacks, the rain falls in these regions in indeare still of the highest interest and impor- scribable streams, and a single drop (to use tance. Although the sources of the White an Arabic comparison) is as thick as Nile have not been discovered, it has been musket-ball. Subsequently to these violent positively determined that they are situated showers, innumerable shallow lakes may be far more to the south than was ever imag- found in many places swelling up, and at ined by the boldest theorist—that they come last pouring their water into the Nile. “The from a great mountainous land wholly un- character," says M. Werne, (vol. i. p. 249,) known and unexplored—that they water of an emptied lake basin is expressed in the lands densely populated and abounding in the whole stream territory."

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An hypothesis before set up—that of Times, a plan is developed for adapting a making the White Nile spring from lakes- new kind of vessel to shallow and shifting would be thus partially confirmed, but the waters. Upon this plan, which is of a theory could not be extended to the united composite boat-consisting, in fact, of several Nile, for both rivers increase and fall at the vessels connected by one deck, and which same time. The two arms of the Nile, the admit of a wide distribution of tonnage—it White and Blue Rivers, begin to ascend appears that 250 tons of cargo or fuel might nearly simultaneously on the 2nd or 3rd of be carried upon twelve inches' draught of May; and it is scarcely possible that even waler, with a speed of fifteen miles an hour ; one drop of these first rains in the high a peculiar construction of wheels being also land, which the thirsty soil, moreover, im- resorted to, with the view of assisting the mediately absorbs, and which are swallowed vessel in running over shoals. For the up by a course in a long valley-land, should building and fitting of a boat of this kind, reach Khartum in so short a time. The re- with engines of 350 horse-power, an estigions lying lower, and equally subject to the mate, it is said, has been sent in at £35,000, tropical rains, would appear, then, to be the by Messrs. James Watt and Co , who feel first cause of the swellings of the White no difficulty in undertaking it, and who beRiver. • If we should not,” M. Werne lieve that, in anticipating a speed of fifteen justly observes, “take the nearer district of miles an hour, they have left an ample marthe tropical rains as an explanation of the gin for all contingencies. simultaneous swelling of both arms of the It is obvious that, with such boats, all the Nile near Khartum, we could not explain this great rivers of the world might be opened phenomenon, for the mountain waters of the to scientific exploration, and to commercial White stream must, though with a far and friendly intercourse. Mr. Bourne anslower course, make three times as long a ticipates that not only might the distance way as the Blue Nile, in just the same time.” between Calcutta and Allahabad, which It would almost seem,” he remarks else- now takes on the average twenty-two days, where, “ that the river is accumulated in a be reduced to three-and-a-half days, but cauldron-shaped valley, the declivities of that the entire distance to Delhi might be which encroach with long arms on the Afri- accomplished in from six to seven days. can world, and from which the discharge, The navigation of the Indus might, by the after the periodical rains, would be also only same means, be extended to the five rivers periodical."

of the Punjaub; and, with the newly-opened “A steam-boat,” M. Werne remarks else- navigation of the Euphrates and Tigris, where, (vol. i. p. 187,) “here might sur- would once more restore to Great Britain mount many difficulties, and give us the ne- the commerce in the East which has lately cessary corrections for a map, which cannot been absorbed by Russia. The interior of be effected by sailing with a constant wind, China would be laid open by its main arteowing to the often diametrically opposite ries. The mail could be taken up the Euwindings, and the endless difficult calcula- phrates in about five days, travelling only tions. “ The greatest difficulty,” he pro- by daylight. The unhealthy portion of the ceeds to remark, “would be the establish- Niger could be passed over in the briefest ment and protection of coal-magazines; and possible space of time, and its more healthy with regard to applying charcoal to this interior opened to commerce and civilization. purpose, although the White Nile in its The Nile also, it now appears, opens to the lower course has forests enough, yet not so missionary, to the merchant, and to the man on its middle and upper part ; and even if of science, the central regions of Africa the requisite wood should be found, much regions hitherto marked in the map as time must be lost in felling and preparing it mountainous or desert, but in reality well for charcoal.” This last objection is founded peopled and fertile. For such great obon mistake : the steam-boats which first jects, M. Werne justly remarks, Euronavigated the Euphrates were for a consider- peans alone are fitted, for,” he adds, in true able time worked by green wood, cut on the Teutonic simplicity, “they have ideas of banks of the river. In a pamphlet on river humanity, and subjection to the will of navigation in India, by Mr. John Bourne, One.” noticed lately in the City Article of the

66

From the British Quarterly Review.

LETTERS.-CHESTERFIELD, JUNIUS, COW PER.

1. The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield ; including numer

ous letters now first published from the original manuscripts. Edited, with

Notes, by Lord Mahon. Bentley. 2. Junius; including Letters by the same writer under other signatures. With

a preliminary Essay, Notes, &c. Printed by G. Woodfall. 3. Couper's Letters. Edited by Southey. Baldwin and Craddock.

The majority of men say, with Horace, , world altogether; we must therefore menthat Fame consists in being pointed at with tion it in quite another place. the finger. Some, however, who have fail- These are the chief sorts of fame; and each ed to get this mark, maintain that it consists exhibits it as very scarce and very,

fickle. in the praise of the wise “standards of opi- ! The be-sung, be-flattered, and be-sought (but nion;" —while others, who have not been never be-guiled) goddess, even when won, either pointed at by the many or applauded seems to watch to slip away.

Like the by the few, insist that it can only be award- heart of Miss Pardoe's slave, she is a fettered by posterity: A very small minority, less thing. Like the trained negro who was with a courage that does them honor, declare sold, under disguises in all the States, (havthat there is no such thing as true fame in ing a happy knack of slipping the collar, and this world at all.

rejoining his seller before his buyer could The finger-pointing fame is mostly confer- turn him to account,) she appears ever to be red without much reflection, and withdrawn on the outlook to take flight. She should without any scruple. The object of it is not be represented with a trumpet, thereseldom worthy, and cannot keep it. The fore, but with a staff. She should be paintpublic pump is got to work, and the water ed with the loins girt, and the wings spread, comes, but the vessel receiving it being a to show constant readiness to fly—to intisieve, the liquid slips away. That fame mate, moreover, that her hunters need not which is conferred by the wise, or “stand only swiftness to obtain her, but their utmost ards of opinion,” can of course only fall per- vigilance to hold her when she has been manently to the greatest minds. No others caught. can stand test, or bear the winnowing; The finger-pointing fame has as many and even if they could, the “standards ” of shapes as Proteus. Like the ancient kings to-morrow always have it in their power to in battle, she has many doubles ; but, like reverse the verdict of the standards of to the Banquo of the feast, most of these are day. The people who appeal to posterity false. They wear the seeming of reality, do so only as a refuge. They would other but are as insubstantial as the wind. A man wise be open to the ridicule of having labor- believes that they are as solid as they seem ed in vain-of having run, and lost. But to be, and rushes in pursuit—he grapples their satisfaction is false. They care no more with them, he looks into them, and finds that, for posterity than you do. They have not like the crater of Vesuvius, there is little belived and acted only to obtain praise which sides vacuity. Chief in this ghostly army is they can never hear; they rather solace their political fame. It is a swift game, and for pride by imputing to blindness what they a long time baffles the keenest hunter, but as are ashamed to allow they should impute to last he seizes it and makes it bis. It voices merited contempt. For the courageous mi- | out his name until he thinks the farthest age nority—we cannot deal with it at present. must hear; it echoes and re-echoes his It denies the existence of real fame in this i praises; it trumpets him along the way: and then, when his soul is swelling in him, and he With the South-Sea swindle we have now hugs himself with the assurance that he will no more to do than to note, that in consebe “forever known,” it suddenly dissolves quence of the excitement caused in England under his touch, and leaves him—all the by its failure, the Stuart made another throw voices cease, the trumpets die away, and he for the sceptre, but was himself thrown. The falls headlong, never to be pointed at again. king was just at that time very popular, and Political fame is like a brilliant firework, Stanhope spoke in favor of augmenting the that blazes wildly for a little, and then sud- army; a declaration of attachment for which denly expires, leaving but a dim smoulder, he was made a captain in the Guards. which ere long fades out into the darkness. 1725, however, he refused the order of the

In 1714 the celebrated, or notorious, Lord Bath, then revived, and ere long was disBoling broke was ousted from the Secretary- missed from his post. This might have been ship of State, and Addison the Spectator step- serious for him, had not both his king and ped into his shoes. Queen Anne died. The his father died in the year following. He hasty regency party proclaimed George I., became Earl of Chesterfield. He left the and Addison stepped out of the shoes, which Lower House with the Walpoles and Pultewere given to General Stanhope, whose kins- neys, and other stars, shining there, and man, Philip Dormer Stanhope, afterwards joined company with Wharton, Argyle, Earl of Chesterfield, was at Cambridge. Carteret, Queensbury, and the other great George, on ascending the throne, declared men of the Upper one—whose names are for the Whigs, and the Tories, who had been the stumbling-blocks in Pope's verses, and in power since Sacheverel's time, kicked the whom we anathematize when asterisks and beam. In 1715 Walpole impeached Lord patent pot-hooks call us down from the Bolingbroke, who fled the country. The poetry, to prosy memoranda of their lives. late leader was outlawed, lived some years George II., on acceding to power, retainin France, and acquired French notions of ed his father's favorites, much to the chagbelief. When the storm passed, he returned rin of those who championed him when to England, had his outlawry reversed, made Prince of Wales. But Chesterfield was not much noise, and won much applause and quite forgotten. He was sent ambassador censure; on the whole deserving Dr. Croly's to Holland in 1728, and in consequence of summary for his fame now : that “He gave his tact in that position, won the king's from youth to age the unhappy example of praise when he was, a little after, travelling genius rendered useless, rank degraded, and on the Continent. This induced Townshend opportunities thrown away. Gifted with to attempt to turn out Newcastle, then Secpowers which might have raised or sustained retary, and put in the Earl, which, however, the fortunes of empire, his youth was dis- he was not able to do, and Chesterfield, who tinguished only by systematic vice, his man had accompanied George to London, returnhood by unprincipled ambition, and his age ed to Holland, after having been gartered at by callous infidelity.

the king's charges. It was about this time In the same 1715 young Mr. Stanhope that the Commons objected to public reports made his first speech in the House against of hon. members' speeches. We hope to be Ormond, who was likewise impeached of pardoned for sometimes almost wishing that high treason. This done, he immediately it objected now. took a pleasure trip to Paris by advice—for We need say little of the next years. The he was under age, and the opposition threat- | tragic seaman who kept his ear in his pocket, ened to expose him if he voted. During for exhibition when the time came to rouse his stay here he is thought to have been of up the Lion to revenge it, bas told his story much service to Lord Stair, in discovering about Spanish wrongs, and got satisfied-at the Jacobins' plot—but be that as it may, least we hope so. The French intrigues, the Chevalier de St. George's friends were too, and the Danish and Dutch, are over, induced to make the first attempt—we know now, The things intrigued about were with what disastrous results to every one but rarely worth half the noise they made; and the dastard for whom they made it. Stan- the landmarks so curiously set in those days, hope returned to England, and though his by battles and treaties, have been mostly rising was for some time delayed, in conse- washed away by the tides of later wars. quence of a dispute between his Majesty and Suffice it for us that Chesterfield, in 1731, the Prince of Wales, whose side he took, his gained much honor in getting the Vienna kinsman had his eye on him, and showed treaty signed. In 1732 he returned to desire to push him on.

England, and distinguished himself by opposition to Sir Robert Walpole. In 1734 | ball-room, all hilarity; and now, like Mullihe found time to marry. In 1737 he made gan on the door-step, after supper, in tears. his once celebrated speech against dramatic His cry was liberty, and his aim was power. censorship, proposed by Walpole. Fielding Such an one, invaluable for opposition, could had produced a satire on the ministers, not govern. Such talents are as opposed to (Pasquin, for which Hogarth drew an illus- those needed by a statesman as abilities for trated bille) which the town, as the public criticism are from those for authorship. He was then called, flocked to hear. The ex- failed, of course, in time of need. He was ample was much followed, till the premier made Earl of Bath, and so sailed comfortaresolved to stop it, which he did in spite of bly away—to oblivion. opposition. After this, a quarrel between Of the ensuing parliamentary history and Walpole and the Prince of Wales, whose war-work we are too sick to make notes side Chesterfield took, brought about an here. Ministers came short, as usual, and open breach between the factions, and the speeches were made, and applauded, and so called country party was obliged to go - forgotten, as usual. There was another into the country. Bath was chosen as the Stuart landing, and droves of victims were place of refuge, and Beau Nash (Douglas led to and offered at Saint George's altar, Jerrold's hero,) becomes visible in the so- not in Hanover-square. We can, however, lemnity of history, anticking and fooling for recollect or imagine these, and pass to 1745, a moment, on the scene.

when Chesterfield, after another successful In 1739, however, the tide showed signs embassage to Holland, was made Lordof turning. War was commenced against Lieutenant of Ireland. This was the best Spain, and Vernon was sent to Darien. The part of his life. He gave himself to the metrans-Pyrenean nation had done our shipping lioration of that blessed island, which was so much damage, and robbed us so in- then, as now, boisterous as the surrounding famously in Honduras, that the country element. He was liberal, but firm. He would no longer suffer Walpole's patience would not, like others, hunt the Catholics to of insult and shyness of fight. His popu- please the Protestants. He saw the crow's larity was sinking—the shadow was melting feet round the Scarlet Lady's eyes; he saw from his grasp.

In 1740, Sandys, the that decay was at work, and he would not motion-maker, attacked him Anstey-wise. help her to fictitious life by the tonic of perHe failed; but in 1742, when a new par- secution. Indeed, he early showed his spirit liament was convened, and the nation was in that matter when an eager Protestant told sick of the war, which had been prosecuted him that his coachman was a Roman and till the Panama business brought it to an often went to mass. · Does he ?” said the anti-climax, the opposition to his longer. Earl, “ then he shall never—drive me there." holding office was so great and general, that Yet he did not trust or favor them. Once, he thought it well to retire. Poor Walpole! when he heard of a projected rising, he took The once famous statesman found himself, one of their chief men aside, and said, “If now his career was well-nigh closed, the your persuasion behave like faithful subjects, object of resentment, if not of finger-point- I will treat them as such ; but if not, I shall ing. He had done his best—and now his be worse to them than Cromwell.” This life was scarcely safe. Fond of the shows was quite sufficient to prevent any insurrecof greatness, he had but little greatness to tion while he was king's vicar; might we deserve the shows. But Time has hung the not suppose that if such a course were purcurtains around him, do not let us too sued in our times, such a result would folroughly rend them back. His premiership low? The Irish might have believed in is over now—and its cares and its toils, and Mumbo-Jumbo, like the Cingalese, or in his life, are over. He is away–his fame, the Moon, like Chinamen, but Chesterfield too, is away-one day the morning will would not have stretched out a state arm to break, and we shall be away.

molest them, if they kept the peace. The kaleidoscope once moved, many Unfortunately, in 1746, he left this post, things shifted together. Pulteney, the and took the seals with Newcastle. His “people's friend” of those days, was natu- good sense was swamped in other people's rally looked to as Walpole's successor. He nonsense. They made a bad business of it was a living dissolving view. His face was on the whole, and in 1748 he retired. His said to wear a new expression every day. only other appearance in history as a notaHe was by turns a saint, a savage, and a ble man was in 1751, when he proposed in sage. He was now, like Mulligan in the l the Lords, the change of style, as it was

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