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strange tales we hear respecting their fulfil- y example. “We even think that something ment?”
of hope may be supplied to man from our “The relations, Master Hobbes, touching own example; nor do we say this in the the force of imagination and the secret in- spirit of boasting, but because it may be usestincts of nature, be so uncertain as to re- ful to say it. If any be distrustful let him quire a great deal of examination ere we consider me; a man among the men of my conclude
upon them. There be many reports age, the most occupied with civil affairs, of in history, that upon the death of persons of somewhat infirm health (which occasions nearness of blood, men have had an inward much loss of time,) and in this matter clear. feeling of it. I myself remember that, being ly a first adventurer, following the steps of in Paris, and my father dying in London, no other, nor even holding communication two or three days before my father's death respecting these things with any mortal, and I had a dream, which I told to divers Eng. who yet, having entered firmly upon the lish gentlemen, that my father's house was true road and submitting my understanding plastered all over with black mortar ; that I to things, have, as I conceive, carried forward well remember, and have often mused upon these things somewhat." Well might he it.”
have added in the touching words of Milton, Though in a conversational form, the “I began thus far to assent * above are no imaginary or fictitious opinions inward prompting which now grew daily upplaced in the mouth of Bacon. In his on me, that by labor and intense study “Sylva Sylvarum” they are to be found. (which I take to be my portion in this life,) Though naturally tinctured with the crude joined with the strong propensity of nature, notions of the seventeenth century, the I might perhaps leave something so written extent and variety of his information are to after times, as they should not willingly perfectly amazing. There is scarcely a let it die.” subject in science or philosophy to which he Great and varied talents, which would had not directed his attention. Reflection, singly have adorned any man, were in Bacon and an aptitude for philosophic inquiry, were united. His powers of conversation were of qualities inherent in his mind; originality of the highest order, set off by a keen sense of conception, and facility of execution, bis humor and the most sparkling wit. So comgreat characteristics. With great minute-pletely did his fame as a philosopher fill the ness of observation, he had an amplitude of world of letters to the exclusion of other comprehension such as has scarcely been points in his history, that Bayle, writing only vouchsafed to any other human being. a century after his death, had not, with all
It was his custom, when investigating a his inquisitiveness, so much as heard that subject, to set down inquiries on slips of pa- Bacon had been dismissed with disgrace from per, and at his leisure to reconsider the points, his political offices. His abilities as an orator or submit them to experiment. For exam- have been placed on record by a contempople, amongst other memoranda, Dr. Tenni- rary who had often listened to him with deson found this—“Mem. to send to Dr. Mev- light, and who was highly qualified to judge erel. Take iron, and dissolve it in aquafortis, of his pretensions. "There happened in my and put a loadstone near it, and see whether time one noble speaker who was full of gravit will extract the iron; put also a loadstone ity in his speaking. His language, where he into the water, and see whether it will gather could spare or pass by a jest, was nobly cena crust about it."
Bacon apparently satis- sorious (censor-like); no man ever spake more fied bimself on this point without troubling neatly, more pressly, more weightily, or sufthe doctor; for, in the “Inquisitio de Mag- fered less emptiness, less idleness, in what he nete” (in the “Opuscula Posthuma,'') the uttered. No member of his speech but confirst paragraph is a reply to the inquiry, “If sisted of his own graces. His hearers could iron be dissolved in aquafortis, and some not cough or look aside from him without drops of the solution be placed on smooth loss. He commanded where he spoke, and glass, the magnet neither extracts the iron had his judges angry and pleased at his denor attracts the water.”
votion. No man had their affections more To be able to form a correct estimate of in his power, The fear of every man that our own talents is a characteristic of a supe- heard him was, lest he should make an rior mind: with the modesty of true genius, end.”+ was united in Bacon a perfect consciousness of his own powers: he calls upon those that
* Milton-Account of his own studies. follow after to take encouragement from his | Ben Jonson's Works by Giffard, ix. 184.
There is no doubt that the evening of Ba- he, · Madam, I am no good footman.'” This con's life was greatly embittered by pecu- tendency to syncope rendered him cautious niary embarrassments. When in prosperity of exposing himself to unpleasant odors, for he had made no provision against adversity. which reasons his servants invariably appearOn the contrary, large as was his income, his ed before him in boots of Spanish leather, expenditure greatly exceeded it ; love of dis- for he had a great aversion to the smell of play was one of the weakest points in his calf-hide. character; his style of living, when chancel- During meditation he often had music in lor, was princely, and when in banishment he an adjoining room, by which his fancy was could not give up his darling pomp. It was enlivened. He had many little whims and during that time that Charles I., then Prince peculiarities, some of which may excite a of Wales, when coming to town, saw at a dis- smile : for instance, in the spring he would tance a coach followed by a large retinue on go out for a drive in his open coach whilst it horseback; being informed that it was the rained, to receive in the quaint language of Lord St. Alban's, he exclaimed, with a smile, Aubrey) “ the benefit of irrigation, which “Well! do what we will, that man scorns to he was wont to say was very wholesome, go out like a snuff.” He was not only ex- « because of the nitre in the air and the unipensive in his habits, but so careless of versal spirit of the world.” He had extramoney that his servants plundered him in ordinary notions respecting the virtue of nitre, the most barefaced manner, with perfect im- and conceived it to be of inestimable value in punity. When stripped of his offices and the preservation of health. So great was emoluments he had a hard struggle against his faith, that he swallowed three grains of poverty: he was obliged to sell his ancestral that drug, either alone or with saffron, in town residence, York House, with all its warm broth, every morning during thirty splendid furniture, to reduce his establish- years! He seems to have been very fond of ment at Gorhambury to a mere shadow of quacking himself; once a week he took a its former self, and to reside chiefly at Gray's dose of the “water of Mithridate,” diluted Inn. He was sometimes so pinched as to be with strawberry-water. Once a month, at compelled to borrow trifling sums from his least, he made a point of swallowing a grain friends. But, embarrassed as he was known and a half of “castor” in his broth and breakto be, it was reserved for Lord Campbell to fast for two successive days. prove, beyond a doubt, that Lord Bacon died sixth or seventh day he drank an infusion of an insolvent. It has been ascertained that rhubarb in white wine and beer immediately after his death a creditor's suit was estab- before his dinner. lished for the administration of his estate: He made it a point to take air in some his servants were paid their wages in full, high and open place every morning, the third after which the fund arising from the sale of hour after sunrise, and if possible he selected his property was divided rateably among the a spot where he could enjoy the perfume of creditors.
musk, roses, and sweet violets. Besides thus Lord Bacon was of a delicate constitution, breathing the pure air of nature, he was and inherited from his father a tendency to fumigated with the smoke of lign-aloes, with gout and a calculous disorder. He was ex- dried bays, and rosemary, adding once tremely susceptible of atmospheric influences, week a little tobacco.
week a little tobacco. On leaving his bed and it is asserted by Dr. Rawley, who, as he was anointed all over with oil of almonds, his chaplain and companion during many mingled with salt and saffron, and this was years, must have been well aware of his followed by gentle friction. peculiarities, that he was in the habit of faint- He was rather a hearty feeder, and, when ing at certain changes in the moon. Were young, preferred game and poultry, but in the statement from a less questionable quar- after life, gave the choice to butchers' meat, ter, it might have been received with sus- which had been well beaten before being picion, but it is to a certain extent corrobo- roasted. At every meal his table was strewed rated by another contemporary. Aubrey with flowers and sweet herbs. Half an hour says,
“I remember Sir John Danvers told before supper he took a cup of wine, or ale, hot me that his Lordship much delighted in his and spiced, and once during supper wine in (Sir John's) curious garden at Chelsey, and which gold had been quenched. The first as he was walking there one time he fell draught which he drank at dinner or supper down in a sowne. My Lady Danvers rubbed was always hot, and on returning to bed he his face, temples, &c., and gave him cordial ate a bit of bread steeped in a mixture of waters. As soon as he came to bimself, said | wine, syrup of roses and amber, and washed
it down with a cup of ale to compose his, him, and assist him in a little excursion to spirits and send him to sleep. In the spring make the experiment. At Highgate they he was fond of a glass of spiced pomegranate found snow lying behind a hedge in great wine early in the morning, and greatly en- abundance, and, entering a cottage, they purjoyed water-cresses. These little points may chased a fowl recently killed. The philosobe unimportant in themselves, but they assist pher, with a keen sense of enjoyment of the us in drawing a mental portrait of the man. experiment, insisted on stuffing the body of
During the three first years which suc- the fowl with snow with his own hands. ceeded his retirement from public life his Soon after, the cold and damp struck him health was good ; the great care he took of with a chill, and he began to shiver. He himself, and the regular life he led, warded was carried to his coach, but was so seriously off attacks of the disorders to which we have indisposed that he could not travel back to referred. The year 1625 was remarkable for Gray's Inn, and was conveyed to the house the sickness which prevailed, and the friends of his friend, the Earl of Arundel, at Highof Bacon saw with grief a perceptible decay gate. There he was hospitably received, and, in his health and strength. In this year he out of ceremony, placed in the state-bed; published a volume of apophthegms, said to but it was damp, not having been slept in be the result of a morning's dictation as a for a year before, and he became worse. А recreation in sickness, and also a trans- messenger was immediately despatched for lation of some of the Psalms of David, his old and tried friend Sir Julius Cæsar, which, in a dedication to his friend George Master of the Rolls, who immediately hasHerbert, he states was a poore exercise of tened to him. The next day he was a little my sicknesse.” This was the last of his better, and was able to dictate the following literary labors. In the autumn he retired letter to the Earl of Arundel, which proved to Gorhambury, and on the 29th of October, his dying effort. The allusion to the success he writes, “ I thank God, by means of the of the experiment proves that, despite of sweet air of the country I have obtained his illness, the fowi had been preserved, some degree of health." His feeble frame and is another illustration of “ the ruling paswas, however, unequal to contend against the sion strong in death." severe winter of 1625, and serious fears were entertained for his life. On the 19th of “MY VERY GOOD LORD, December, thinking that his course was well “I was likely to have had fortune of Cajius nigh run, he made his will—that remarkable Plinius the Elder, who lost his life by trying an document in which he touchingly appeals to experiment about the burning of Mount Vesuthe liberality of future generations. For vius ; for I was also desirous to try an experiment my fame and memorie, I leave it to men's of bodies. As for the experiment itself, it suc
or two, touching the conservation and induration charitable speeches, to foreign nations, and ceeded excellently well; but in the journey bethe next ages.”
tween London and Highgate, I was taken with The genial influence of the spring of 1626 such a fit of casting (vomiting) as I knew not wrought a favorable change in his health; whether it were the stone, or some surfeit or cold, his spirits revived, and his strength increased, or, indeed, a touch of them all three. But when
I sufficiently to enable him to return to his
came to your lordship’s house I was not able to favorite seclusion in Gray's Inn.
go back, and therefore was forced to take up my
lodging here, where your housekeeper is very It was on the 2d of April of that year that careful and diligent about me, which I assure the life of this illustrious man was brought myself your lordship will not only pardon towards to a close. It is to be regretted that the him, but think the better of him for it ; for, indeed, accounts which have come down to us of the your lordship's house was happy to me; and I sad event are but meagre, but happily the kiss your noble hands for the welcome which I chief particulars have been preserved. In is for me to write to your lordship with any other
sure you give me to it. I know how unfit it contemplation of a new edition of his Natural hand than mine own, but by my troth my fingers History he was keenly examining the subject are so disjointed with this fit of sickness that I of anti-septics, or the best means of prevent-cannot steadily hold a pen." ing putrefaction in animal substances. It struck him that flesh might as well be pre
It is evident that Bacon did not think he was served by snow as by salt. From the length dying when he wrote this, but inflammation and severity of the winter he expected that supervened, and early in the morning of Eassnow might still, in shaded situations, be ter Sunday, 1626, he expired in the arms of discovered on the ground. Dr. Witherborne, Sir Julius Cæsar, who, having shared with the king's physician, agreed to accompany | Sir Thomas Meautys the glory of steadily
adhering to him through all his reverses, had chael's, near St. Albans. This church is built the satisfaction of affording consolation at | within the precincts of the ancient city of that dark hour when it is most needed, and | Verulam, and crowning a gentle undulation the comfort of rendering the last sacred of the surface, forms a beautiful feature in the offices of friendship, when the immortal spirit landscape. It was founded about the midhad taken its flight.
dle of the tenth century, by Abbot Ulsinus, After careful consideration of the case, there and bears ample evidence of the original can be little doubt that the attack which was Saxon architecture. For some time the spot the immediate cause of death was that form where lay the remains of Bacon was unmarkof pulmonary disease called Peripneumonia ed by stone or monument, but the omission Notha. Chronic bronchitis, or inflammation was nobly supplied by the munificence of his of the larger air-tubes of the lungs, is a com late secretary, Sir Thomas Meautys. By mon complaint of persons advanced in years, him a statue was erected, representing Baand is apt to be converted by exposure to con absorbed in meditation ; his head rests cold into the disease we have mentioned, a upon his hand, and the design is in a style of characteristic symptom of which is, the secre- classic elegance. tion, in immense quantities, of viscid mucus W have thus endeavored to place before which chokes up the lungs, and kills the our readers a brief sketch of an interesting patient by suffocation, if relief is not afforded portion of the life of the immortal founder by appropriate treatment.
of true philosophy—a life which was termiThus died, in the sixty-sixth year of his nated in a characteristic manner by his obtainage, Francis Bacon, who, notwithstanding all ing, in addition to other distinctions, the diahis faults, was one of the greatest ornaments dem of a martyr to science. When young, like and benefactors of the human race.
Milton, he felt that he was destined for great A pleasing feature in that great man's things. “I confess,” said he, " that I have character was the love he bore to the memo- as vast contemplative ends as I have mod
of his mother; she was a woman of remark- erate civil ends.' We cannot but regret that able talent and learning, and from her careful his lot was cast in such a mould that his own tuition her son derived much of his early magnificent conceptions were but partially knowledge; it was by her care and tender carried out. Had he been enabled to devote solicitude that his constitution, naturally the whole of his life to the extensive field of feeble, acquired strength and his frame philosophic inquiry, his character would have health. Through life he regarded her memo- come down to us pure and spotless ; could ry with affection, and left special directions he have borne bis burden in that promised in his will that his mortal remains should land,
,-a land to him flowing with milk and repose by hers.
honey,—not only would mankind have been No pompous funeral attended the body of immeasurably more his debtors, but his counthe great philosopher to its last resting-place; trymen could have pointed him out with a few choice and sincere friends shed tears hönest pride, not only as the greatest phiover his coffin, which was interred in the losopher, but as one of the most perfect most simple manner in the church of St. Mi- characters of all races and all ages.
TREES OF INDIA.—The grass trees which useful to those who may feel disposed to grow in India, it is thought, would flourish attempt its introduction into the United equally well in the Middle States of this coun- States. The report will probably appear in try. One of our missionaries to China, Rev. the transactions of the society for 1848='49. Mr. MacGowan, writes of the grass cloth : In my opinion the soil and climate of the
"I would call your attention particularly Middle States are adapted to this plant. The to the seeds of the plant from which the cloth is expensive, owing to the tedious manfibre is obtained for manufacturing 'grass ner of separating the fibre. It may be precloth.' At the request of the Agricultural sumed, however, that our mechanicians would Society of India, (at Calcutta,) I have drawn soon devise means for overcoming that difup an account of the article, which may be ficulty.”
From Hogg's Instructor.
SIR DAVID BREWSTER.
The Scotchman looks in vain beyond the , that short period, however, she has most last fifty years for the intellectual glory of effectively presented herself in the van of his country. That mental vigor, and depth, thinking, teaching nations. The garland of and capacity, and perspicacity, which so warlike pre-eminence which she had worn distinguish the Scottisii mind, had oniy with pride upon ner hectic brow for nearly flashed out in premonitory scintillations be- nineteen centuries, red reeking with the fore the scepticism of Hume aroused it from blood of her foemen, and of her sons and its sleep of ages, and developed it in all its daughters murdered to satisfy the passions thoughtful majesty and strength. While born of feudalism, has been cast aside to England was listening to the graphic and wither, or to be regarded as an object of glowing strains of the accomplished Chaucer, inferior interest; and the voice of her genius Scotland was imbibing ferocity from the has suddenly swelled into a symphony of screamings of the slogan; and when Eng. glory, speaking in the holiest strains of land had given to mental philosophy and poetry, in the deepest tones of Christian poetry a Bacon, a Locke, a Shakspeare, and philosophy, in the most humanizing expresà Milton, her northern sister bad still to de- sions of mechanical power, and in the most plore the sterility of her genius. It is true exalted eloquence of art. If Scotland could that Sir David Lindsay and Dunbar had present no parallel to the array of great struck the harp to higher strains than those literary names which graces the annals of which generally characterized Scottish poet. England at the epoch of the Reformation ical expression; and that John Knox and and Commonwealth, the era of the first George Buchanan had invested Scotch con- French Revolution finds her second to no troversy with a wild and earnest genius, as country in the majesty of her intellectual well as high scholastic dignity; these, how- soul. In Reid, Brown, Dugald Stewart, ever, were only the precursory flashes of a Playfair, and Sir James Mackintosh, she exdeeply-hidden fountain of mental fire. They hibited that philosophical courage and illusshone amidst a nation rude, and stern, and trious virtue which were essentially requisite dark; as if to let that nation know her to successfully combat with the subtle scepinnate strength of mind and the capacities ticisms of Hume. In Burns, she gave to the which she possessed for assuming a dignified world a poet as versatile as Shakspeare, and position in the arena of intellect.
a lyrist as burning as Sappho. Her Scott There is no doubt that Scotland was never was the Colossus of history, poetry, and destitute of minds of the first order and romance; her Jeffrey the Aristarchus of power. Fierce, fiery energy, and indomi- literary criticism, and the Cicero of the table courage, joined to speculative ideality, forensic tribune; while to the mechanical were always characteristics of the Scotch ; genius of her James Watt the industrial but these qualities were for centuries only world bends in grateful homage. exhibited upon the field of war, or the field In fifty years the Scottish mind made itof polemical strife; and the men who might self a fame as illustrious as other nations have enlightened a grateful world with the have done in centuries. Bold, enterprising, light of art, or poetry, or mental philosophy, and indomitable, her sons went abroad to or science, passed away into a dark oblivion, conquer the realms of science, and to bring after having struggled their brief hour upon to her shrine the chaplets of loftiest literary the stage of local controversy. It is scarcely honor. They explored the interiors of rehalf a century since Scotland could claim a gions before the unknown dangers of which respectable place in the catalogue of British a Columbus or a Gama would have quailed ; literature or science; within the compass of they tracked the courses of rivers over burn