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intercourse, but we pay British generosity lish friend ; "Which I suppose, being transthe compliment of being surprised that it lated into English,” said Mr. Bull, "means does so.
the railway." Now, had not the Yankee a The tone of British statesmen towards right to be astounded, to find he had made America, is all that any American could ask a blunder in not promising to “take the or desire. Those who nurse illiberal preju- railway ?”! He may forbear to “guess, dices and express ungenerous dislike of the “reckon," or "calculate," refrain absoNew World, have not the apology of the lutely from talking about his “location;" example of their rulers. In Parliament, in study the “Times” in the morning, and the highest courts of law, by the throne it- listen to parliamentary speeches at night, he self, the United States are invariably treated will be sure, after all, to betray himself by with a respect equally honorable to both some difference of speech, and in England to sides. If all England were as wise, a war differ is to err. To his ear the speech of the between the two nations would be impos - model land is exceedingly deficient in variety sible. As it is, there are people in the of tone; it seems to have lost all the grace United States insane enough to long for a of natural modulation by subjection to the war with England, that her people may be conventional standard; it gives a perfectly chastised for certain contempts. So absurd arbitrary sound to some of the vowels—a is national irritability--so irritating is na- sound unprovided for in any table of pronuntional injustice.
ciation. But the American is obliged to look for The American acknowledges-none more some nearer and more immediately operative cordially—the authority of English standard cause of his strangerhood in Britain, and he writers; he quotes the English Reviews, finds one in the common language, which is in support of new words, he hears with apat once a source of brotherhood and of dis- preciative ears the speeches of highly. union. The Englishman can forgive a educated men, but with regard to the use of Frenchman for his nasal and his peculiar certain expressions which have sprung into accent, because the Frenchman does not use simultaneously in England and America, pretend to speak English, and may do what under the mere emergency of the times, and he likes with his own outlandish gibberish. with regard to certain others which have But when the Yankee, supposing himself to been the fruit of a peculiar state of things be enunciating, with no little elegance, the in his own country, he is unable to perceive language of Johnson and Burke, strains his that one authority is better than another. words through a shut nostril, and rounds his This is the natural mode of formation in all periods with a drawl, the vexation turns all languages—the addition or modification of the milk of human kindness to vinegar in the words and expressions as occasion for their Briton's bosom. He makes his own speech use arises. To invent or compile new words, more abrupt and harsh than ever; gives is a liberty constantly taken by the English every word with a cast-iron distinctness, and themselves; they could hardly have dein striving to impress his transatlantic friend scribed their wonderful inventions and imwith the elegance of the ore rolundo, mouths provements else; and there seems to be no his sentences like a third-rate actor, and reason why, in the United States, where inoverwhelms poor Jonathan with the new ventions and improvements are equally freconsciousness that his school and college quent, and where the people are far more have betrayed him into the use of a spurious generally educated than in England, the tongue, which in fact has no existence, or same liberty shall not be enjoyed, without right of existence, any where on earth, and subjecting the new-found words or expreswhich must be forgotten before he can begin sions to the charge of barbarism or vulgarity, to speak English. Not only is his manner because they lack the sanction of usage in of speaking utterly condemned, but his use the mother country. These changes are, to of words is discovered to be barbarous. To be sure, of consequence only as they affect the words which are to be found in the the friendliness which ought to reign be“Spectator," he gives the same meaning tween people so nearly allied. Little things with his English brother; but there are are of consequence where the affections are some words which have come into use since in question, and abstract considerations do Addison's time, which the Americans use in not fortify us against their influence. Both a sense wounding to British ears. “I shall countries are losers by the bitterness that take the car in the morning,” said an Amer- springs up from trifling causes. It is imican gentleman, in our hearing, to his Eng- possible to disunite them; the pride of the mother might indeed induce her to shake off Frenchman, or-oh dread climax! a man the child; but the child-proud too, and unaccustomed to good society—that is to almost angry with herself for it—will for- say, to society where the presence of a few ever cling to the mother with an instinctive persons of rank or eminence imposes a ceraffection, in spite of sneers and sarcasms; tain restraint on the rest, who are content, and circumstances would compel a cold and for the sake of the honor of such association, angry union, even were there no affection on to play an inferior part. Now of all this, either side. This union will take its tone Jonathan, in his primitiveness, knows or almost of course from the elder nation. cares little or nothing. He has been accus
There is one thing to be noticed with re- tomed to receive as much respect as he gard to this difference of speech ; it is this; renders, save when venerable age or transthat while the faults noticeable in American cendent merit prompts him to offer a enunciation and expression are shared in natural homage, which he does with characsome degree by all classes, and all parts of teristic enthusiasm. He perceives the difthe United States, there are no persons in ference between the accueil of his English any class, or any part of the country, who friend, and his own, and perhaps even adspeak a jargon, or anything in the least mires the graver manner, for we have ever difficult to be understood by anybody who an instinctive respect for anything bespeakspeaks English. In England, on the con- ing self-conquests, however trifling; but it trary, small as is the space occupied by the strikes him that, after all, natural manners community, there are many dialects which, are the best, and that the chill of subdued not only to the hapless American traveller, manners, from the effect of which he yet but to the native Englishman, present diffi- shivers, is a counterbalance to their superior culties almost equal to those of a foreign elegance. He recurs, as is his custom, to tongue. And this occurs not only in the the fundamental reasons and uses of things; remoter districts, but in London itself; and and concludes that the sum of human hapthere, not only in St. Giles's, or Billingsgate, piness would not be increased by a general but in Westminster Abbey. The guide who repression of sympathy; and that although torments strangers through the chapels of a man may appear more dignified when he that national monument, talks a patois so is cool, and surrounded with outworks and intolerable, that its import can only be defenses of reserve, he is more loveable, guessed at by one accustomed to the English more human, when his affections are warm language. This vexation, added to that of enough to melt these barriers, and potent not being allowed to linger a moment among enough to depend on themselves for protecthose interesting relics of the past, makes a tion and safety. We do not say that Jonavisit to Westminster Abbey anything but than is correct in these notions. He has satisfactory to the stranger, and affords a not had time to perfect his system of social painful contrast to the intelligence and philosophy, and is as yet, no doubt, dangerliberality of the continental arrangement of ously natural. We are but apologizing for these matters.
the want of that conventional calmness which Perhaps the unsubdued vivacity of the the Englishman, whose character and manmanners of the American should be reckoned ners have been maturing these thousand among the causes of his half-reluctant, half- years, has fixed upon as the test of good critical reception in England. One of the sense and good breeding. We are quite first things that strikes him is the habitual willing that Jonathan should become the gravity and reserve of English manners, but pupil of his elder brother in this matter. it is some time before he begins to perceive A general lack of deference for mere rank that to be gay when he feels happy is not is another of the American's peculiarities, bon ton.
incurable in him, and offensive to his English The Briton, however, who is the sworn | friends. It requires an express education to servant-not to say slave—of conventional make this deference second nature, and it is ism, has as great a horror of natural manners only such education that enables the Englishas of a natural small-pox, or any other thing man himself of the present day, under all which it is his custom to take by inoculation. the new and powerful influences of the time, He is shocked at any indulgence of impulse to be sincere in his respect for rank. When which may betray the subject of it into some kings and nobles were sacred, or were conword or deed unsanctioned by authority. sidered so, or were so even by an accepted To him, a man who laughs and talks freely, fiction, there was little difficulty, probably, , is a dangerous man, or a buffoon, or al in yielding them a reverence quite independ
ent of their character or conduct. Their vulgar eye shall penetrate. Yet on certain
, he is in danger of despising it, the leading idea of a republicequality. and of showing that he does so, which is While political equality is held to include very little to his credit. But he should be social equality, domestic service must conpardoned for the sincere astonishment with tinue to be an anomaly in a republic of the which he regards the outward manifesta- nineteenth century; and there are some extions of rank, the outward signs of deference, cellent people in America who attempt, in and the habitual forms of ceremonial observ- the midst of most discordant elements, ance, which meet his observation in Eng- to carry out the patriarchal plan, considering land. He is accused of being fond of titles; their servants only as the sharers of the but as the only titles in his own country are household labors, and making them their military ones, and the use of these is not at constant associates. This can, of course, tended by the slightest personal deference, never become general, unless universal culhe is as little prepared for the pompous ture should produce a real equality among designations of English rank, as if he had men—a result only to be dreamed of. Meannever seen a militia major or colonel. He while, the wiser way would certainly be to has been accustomed to hear his chief ruler settle the terms of a relation confessedly in
potentate who wields a power possessed dispensable; and as far as some little opporby few sovereigns—addressed in conversa- tunity for observation has enabled us to tion as plain Mr. and to see him ad- judge, we should think the American who dressed by letter without even this unmean- desires to do the best possible thing for the ing prefix; and it seems odd to him to see class of persons accustomed to find a resource a long string of surnames and titles of honor in domestic service, could not do better than appended to the name of a man whom he study the relation of master and servant as has met in the dress of a plain farmer riding it exists in England, where the servant's about his fields, or seen betting on a race at rights are ascertained quite as decidedly as Newmarket. He observes in general a pe- the master's, and where the master, feeling culiar disposition to seclusion and exclusion that they are so, and sensible, besides, that on the part of the privileged classes—a his own comfort must depend very much drawing down of blinds and a drawing up upon the relation between himself and his of glasses – walls, and veils, and plain domestics, accords to them all the respect clothes, and an evident desire to move in an and consideration which their good conduct inner circle, into whose secret glories no I and faithfulness may deserve. There is even
very little servility of manner among English | elegance of Italy; he would but add the servants. They feel quite as much at liberty elegance of Italy to the solid grandeur of to be brusque as American servants; but they England. perform their duties better, knowing that a It is singular that with such an assured good character is essential to their success in sense of superiority over all other nations as the path of life they have chosen. People is apparent in the English, they should at in America never choose domestic service as the same time be so sensitive with regard to a regular business. They adopt it en altend- the smallest derogation. They call the ant something better, or they are driven to Americans sensitive, and so they are; but it by ill success or the effects of former mis- their sensitiveness has at least the apology conduct, or by want of judgment and com- of youth-of conscious deficiency—and of mon sense to enable them to undertake the most unsparing and contemptuous critisomething more ambitious. The few excep- cism on the part of their British neighbors. tions to this general remark which may be If, on the other hand, they see anything, found in the older communities are but suffi- however unimportant, which may call for cient to prove its truth. Respectable people animadversion in England, what wrath-what will never become servants until the position indignation—what severe recrimination falls is shown to be a respectable one, which it on their defenseless heads! Speak of the certainly is in England.
Spitalfields weavers—of the starving thouOne of the things which strike most forci- sands that everywhere set off the wealth of bly the American visitor in Great Britain, is England, and how quickly will your remark the immense amount of spirits and beer be rebutted with slavery! Mention the offered for sale. From the time he sets foot abuses of the Church Establishment, slavery ! in Liverpool, until he returns thither for em- Game-laws, slavery! and so on through the barkation after travelling all over the Con- whole catalogue of ills under which Englishtinent, the pre-eminence of Britain in the men growl and grumble enough when Amerconsumption of strong drink is astounding, icans are not by. They pay us at least the and leads him almost to wonder whether compliment of implying that we have but one there are any sober people in a country great evil to contend with, and we are quite where alcohol occupies such a place among willing to acknowledge that one to be a host; articles of merchandise. During a somewhat but we do not fancy that it ought to blind extended tour on the Continent, we could our eyes or shut our mouths. No nation in not but notice that the only people we saw the world understands better than the Engdrinking spirits were Britons—even in Ger- lish the application for its own benefit of the many and Holland, supposed to be drinking parable of the wheat and the tares; and the countries. The difference in this respect Americans, though of hastier nature, are between Britain and other countries is more learning the lesson too. They will have got striking than any one could believe without rid of slavery at least as soon as England actual observation, and the fact is certainly has reformed “the family of plagues that one which demands serious consideration. waste her vitals” as one even of her own The number of persons one meets in England poets hath said. Meanwhile let each enbearing evident marks of intemperate habits deavor to bear, now and then, a grain of shows that it is quite time the subject at-truth from the other, without bristling, or tracted the attention not only of the philan- snapping, or darting out forked venomous thropist but the statesman.
lightnings in return. English remarks upon The stranger naturally enumerates the America too often lack the basis of kind things that strike him unpleasantly in Great intention which takes the offense from severBritain, because it is impossible to take the ity; American remarks upon England have opposite course, and recount and remark been too generally recriminative rather than upon the points that claim his admiration. judicious. To find fault without a good He sees so much to approve-so little, com- motive is mere contemptible venting of spleen paratively, to condemn. If a certain coarse - and envy; to make careful and discriminatness and want of taste strike him painfully, ing strictures is the proper office of sincere he is none the less impressed with the sub- and unselfish friendship. When the English stantial greatness and excellence which respect us, or are willing to own that they everywhere abound. Perhaps it is because respect us, they will be able to do us good"; he sees such excellence that he longs to see and when we cease to be made angry by the outward grace added. He would not their sneers, we may perhaps do them good exchange the worth of England for the in return.
From the Quarterly Review.
SIR JOHN HERSCHEL'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS.
Results of Astronomical Observations made during the Years 1834, 5, 6, 7, 8, at
the Cape of Good Hope ; being the completion of a Telescopic Survey of the whole Surface of the Visible Heavens, commenced in 1825. By Sir John F. W. HERSCHEL, Bart., K. H., &c. 4to. 1847.
This volume is very unlike the majority of It will readily be apprehended that telethose records of astronomical observations scopic astronomy, and the records of telewhich form an annually increasing load upon scopic observations, are of far more general the quarto shelves of our scientific libraries. interest than the reading of altitude and aziThese may be, and for the most part are, of muth circles, the counting of pendulum beats, the greatest value, as containing the data and the determination of a few seconds of upon which the future progress of one large error in the tabular places of a planet. And department of astronomy is to be founded, though, as we shall see, there is a vast but Sir John Herschel's work is a record of amount of numerical work in Sir John Herthat progress itself.
schel's pages, yet the results are so numerous Practical astronomy is naturally divided and varied, so striking by reason of their into two branches: Ist, that which depends novelty, and so picturesque in their details, mainly or solely upon the perfection of the that they are fitted to interest every one who Telescope as an instrument of research—in is even moderately acquainted with the genwhich the highest resources of optical art eral facts of astronomy, and render the work are expended in the examination of the hea- j eminently readable, which is precisely what venly bodies considered singly, or in such | (it may be stated without any disparagement small groups as may be discerned at one to our regular observatory publications) the time in the field of a telescope; 2d, that others are not. The difference may be illuswhich depends more directly upon our power trated by two descriptions of a distant counof measuring and subdividing time and space, try which we can never hope to visit. The whereby the relative places of the heavenly one is a statistical report of its extent and bodies are determined, the laws of their mo- resources, the number of acres of arable, tions and the forms of their orbits: the pasture, or wood, the latitude and longitude divided circle and the clock are the charac- of its cities, the altitude of mountains, the teristic implements of this branch of astron- number of inhabitants, and the sum of reveomy; telescopes of enormous power are, The other is a graphic description of generally speaking, inapplicable to it. Now its natural features and political condition ; the bulk of the publications issuing from our the road-book of a traveller who has explornational observatories belong to the latter ed its recesses with the eye of a naturalist class of inquiries; whilst the former has, and a painter, whose sketches live in our rewith some exceptions, been left chiefly in the membrance, and by an appeal to universal hands of amateurs, or at least of private in- associations, enable us to realize scenes and dividuals. The labors of Sir William Her-manners which we shall never see for ourschel, to which his son has in the present and selves, but which we learn to compare with in former works so largely added, belong in | what has been all our life long familiar. a peculiar manner to the first class. The Thus does the astronomy of the telescope telescope is almost the sole apparatus : fine lead us to understand in some degree the telescopes, and the much rarer qualification economy of other systems; it brings to its of using them to the best advantage, are the aid every branch of physical science in order requisites for success.
to obtain results regarding the nature and