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being spread that he was in the habit of entertaining them in secret with the most fantastic visions, he was again cited before an ecclesiastical tribunal. There he affirmed that our Saviour and the Prophet Elias had appeared to him, prior to his arrival in Poland, commanding him to convert the Jews, and that he was still reminded in nightly visions of his mission. He added however in conclusion, that should the Church disapprove of his proceedings, he was ready to obey its command as became a dutiful son. He was acquitted of having any bad intention, but lest he should at some future time use his influence for a bad purpose, he was confined in the monastery of Czenstochowa. On being released some time after, he retired into Austria, where Maria Theresa gave him protection, with the intention of making him instrumental in the conversion of the Jews. After a residence of several years at Brünn in Moravia, and then at Vienna, he finally settled at Offenbach near Frankfort. There he lived in regal state, and was waited upon by chamberlains and pages, bis disciples. The rich contributions he constantly received from Poland, enabled him to defray the expenses of his court until his death in 1792. He was buried according to the Roman Catholic ritual, and a cross was erected over his tomb, His daughter next presided for some time over the sect; and it is generally believed that the present chief of the Frankists is a distinguished lawyer, a member of the late Polish diet, now living in France as an exile. A great number of them reside at Warsaw, all moving in the respectable circles of society, and are mostly physicians or lawyers.
Some assert that the Frankists only outwardly prefess themselves Christians, and that in their hearts they adhere strictly to pure Mosaism. It is difficult to decide this question ; but there is no doubt that such a simulation of Christianity by the Jews has many precedents. There are unquestionably swarms of such mysterious personages in Russia, who not unfrequently hold high offices in the state. It is also a historical fact that the same simulation was practised with perfect success in Spain and Portugal. A Jew is said to have even exercised the office of grand inquisitor in Portugal, and only to have revealed, on his deathbed, his real faith. According to the testimony of the celebrated Orobio, a Spanish Jew, who says that he himself feigned Christianity, monks of various descriptions, and even Jesuits, used to come from Spain, and expiate their simulation before the grand synagogue of Amsterdam. With such facts as these before their eyes, those who think that the Frankists are only half Christians have some reason on their side.
The real tenets of Frank have never been accurately ascertained. He is said to have maintained that both Elias and our Saviour were still in this world, and that they continued to appoint twelve Apostles for the propagation of Christianity. Though he did not himself claim to be considered as Messiah, he yet never objected to being called so by others. It is also asserted that he believed that he had received a commission to unite all religious persuasions. Until more satisfactory proofs be adduced to the contrary, we may however call the Frankists Judeo-Christians. They have incurred much obloquy for the exclusive spirit that prevails amongst them; which, politically speaking, is l'esprit du corps, but which cannot certainly be allowed to be very Christian. Should this reproach be made against them by a Pole, it might be accounted for on the ground that they were only half Poles, though not half Christians; many of them, however, warmly espoused the cause of Poland's independence on the late occasion.
A most valuable addition to our information respecting the Jews under the Russian dominion at the present day has been lately furnished by the Rev. J. Samuel. His work, to which we have already alluded, is a well written volume on a very interesting question, which, though it has been often asked, has not yet been answered, namely, what has become of the Ten Tribes of Israel? Our author flatters himself that he has discovered the remnant of them—all that we are led by prophecy to expect-in Daghistan, a wild, mountainous country, situated to the south-west of the Caspian, bordering on ancient Media, and now nominally subject to Russia. Mr. Samuel is not a mere theory-monger, but is fully qualified to investigate his subject, being himself a converted Hebrew of the tribe of Aaron, and well acquainted with the rites and customs of his nation. To these advantages he adds a knowledge of the New Testament, and a deep religious sentiment and zeal, which supported him throughout his laborious journey. Having been sent as missionary to the Asiatic Jews, he visited India, Persia and other adjacent countries, and whilst exerting himself to bring them over to Christianity, he had ample opportunities of observing them as an antiquarian and a Jew. We will sum up his arguments in favour of his opinion, as far as our limits will allow. The Jewish power began to decline upon the death of Solomon, when the Ten Tribes revolted from his son Rehoboam and formed a separate kingdom. After a protracted period of civil and foreign wars, this kingdom was destroyed, and the people were carried into captivity by three several deportations.
“ First, Of the two and a half tribes on the other side of the Jordan, by Pul and Tilgath-pilneser.
" Second, of the bulk of the seven and a half tribes, by Shalmaneser. " Third, Of the remains of the latter by Esarhaddon, who swept the
land of even the poor lingerers on the mountains of Israel; so that Israel.could not by any nieans become a people, but remained broken as a nation and broken as a people too."
A similar fate some generations afterwards befel the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, but they were permitted by Cyrus to go back to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple; whilst the ten tribes never returned. What then became of them? Mr. Samuel thinks he has discovered their descendants in Daghistan, and all the facts and reasons adduced by him seem to establish this point. On the shores of the Caspian a number of Jews are found ; some in a state of slavery and ignorance ; others free, but hardly more civilized; whilst those dwelling in Daghistan appear to be genuine Jews, ruling themselves according to the pure Mosaic law, unpolluted by Talmudić traditions, and to certain patriarchal customs. His inference that the latter are a part of those Israelites who were led captive into Media seems a very probable one. In the remote fastnesses of the Caucasian range they might easily have preserved their nationality, clinging to it with a tenacity peculiar to this stubborn people and to mountaineers in general. Our author thinks that their identity as primitive Jews might have been better established than it now is, had Daghistan been visited before it was invaded by Nadir Shah in the last century, when many of them were compelled to embrace Mobammedanism. 1. The proofs which he has collected are numerous and minute, touching upon slight differences in the rites and practices of the Hebrews, and consequently less manifest to a Christian than to a Jew. Three 'main points however may be noticed as deserving of particular attention. These Jews alone sacrifice the paschal lamb, the others substituting for it other meat roasted in a peculiar manner; they practise the ancient mode of circumcision, whilst others resort to that which was introduced after the time of the Maccabees and finally, they observe the letter of the law concerning the Sabbath day, not even kindling fire nor a light. :
“ They remain," says Mr. Samuel, “ in the coldest and darkest weather without these and have no recourse, as other Jews, to the services of Gentiles to supply them with these, preserving in their own persons the letter, and destroying, through strangers, the spirit of the law. "It is 'remarkable tbat as they are quite ignorant of the oral law and traditions followed by the Jews elsewhere, and wbich enumerates thirty-nine different species of occupations from which they consider tben selves prohibited, the Jews of Dagbistan observe all these prohibitions except the last. This last is called janty or 2770, which is a reservation of a permission to carry loads from one house to another on the Sabbath day. It is allowed by the following ceremony practised by the Jews being observed. A cake, wbich is called 217'y, is consecrated and suspended in the synagogue. A string or rope is extended from
each corner of a street where Jews live; and this is deemed to constitute those embraced within the extremities of the 21790, one family', thereby evading the penalty resulting from the prohibitory injunction is
“ If we refer to the prophet Jeremiah (xvii. 21.-27), we find this is in direct opposition to the word of Jehovab:- Thus saith the Lord, Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the Sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem ; neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day, neither do ye any work, but hallow ye the Sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers.' Thus, in 'this important respect, the Jews of Daghistan preserve the institution according to its appointment before the prophet in question was commanded to reprove the Jewish people for infringing thus its sanctification, which was after the captivity of the lost tribes.
“They further differ from the Talmudists in the following obseryances. The Jews throughout the world abstain from those duties which necessity and mercy justify, such as feeding cattle, milking, &c.
“ The day is to them a day of rest and peace, and cheerfulness; they dance, sing and play ou instruments. These are of a religious nature, expressive of religious emotions, but are expressly forbidden by the oral law or Talmud. They spend the forenoon of the Sabbath in the way described in the following Scriptures, which serve to illustrate their religious habits on that day better than any description of mine. See Exodus : also Samuel, vi. 15; Psalm 1xviii. 25, 26, cxlix. 3; el. 4.
"" The afternoon is spent in a very profitable way, quite unlike the Jews elsewbere. They resort to the dwellings of their elders and of religious men, who sit in their places of abode to receive the visits of those who come to them, and instruct tbem in the doctrines of their Scriptures, and make allegories of the law of Moses. This custom of resorting to boly men on the Sabbath day is a very ancient one: as may be gathered from 2 Kings, iv. 23 ; practices long before the great captivities. They surround these good men until sunset, who' pronounce the Sabbath to be ended; the women kiss the hem of their garments and the men the hands of the elders.”.
Mr. Samuel's account of the Scriptures in the possession of the Jews of Daghistan, will probably be interesting to some at least of our readers :
- They are in possession of a few manuscript copies of the law of Moses, which are divided into five books like ours, which they call the book of the covenant, noga 70 according to Exodus, xxiv, 7. They are written in the original Hebrew character, without any division of cbapters, sentences or points; which manuscripts they bold to be very ancient, and would not part with them on any account. No man under thirty years of age is permitted to read tbem; and I bave been told, by the individual whom I sent expressly for the purpose of examining them, that their copies do not differ from the Hebrew copies in our possession, except in two places, namely, in the book of Deuteronomy, ch. xxxiii. where the last blessing of Moses places Judah after Reuben in our copies, and Simeon is omitted altogether, whilst in their copies Simeon and Levi are placed together, as in the blessing of Jacob in Gen. xlix : second, the last chapter of Deuteronomy is omitted altogether, and the book concludes with the prophetic blessing, 'Happy art tbou, O Israel. who is like unto thee, O people ; saved by the Lord, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency; and thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee, and thou shalt tread upon their high places.'
" From this it appears that they are in possession of the original text of the book of the law of Moses; for it is certain that the last chapter of Deuteronomy was added after the death of Moses.
“ They are not in possession of D'187 bin'?), the first prophets, wbich consist of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Kings, and the last prophets, d'anns binn2, Isaiah, Jeremiab, Ezekiel, and the minor prophets.
“ They have not braina, the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, the Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiab, and the two books of Chronicles; but are in possession of a part of the book of Esther.
“ They are in entire ignorance, with the rest of their brethren elsewhere, of the existence of the apocryphal books.
"They are very anxious to get the Psalms of David, and so ignorant are they of the New Testament, that in the year 1837-8, when two of the Jews from Andrewa visited me and saw the volume, they put it three times to their forehead and three times to their mouth, and kissed it. I sold forty-six New Testaments for a high price. They are free from the hatred and superstitions of their brethren towards Cbristianity.” . It is however to be feared, that the conduct of their new masters will soon inspire them with this hatred, since, according to Mr. Samuel, these latter carry their system of inquisition and espionnage to the remotest corners of their empire.
“ What a state of things," says he,“ is that which owes its support wholly to bristling bayonets, where such a system of ramified espionnage exists, that the very wife is an emissary to report the actions and opinions of her busband to an ever suspicious and jealous government.”
In taking leave of Mr. Samuel, he must allow us to admonish him that slovenliness of style ought not to be mistaken for ease, and that however interesting the subject-matter of a work may be, the pleasure of the reader is materially influenced by the manner in which the author communicates his information. In spite of its defects, however, we recommend the work to the perüsal of our readers; and will conclude our extracts from it by the following graphic description of the country which this peculiar people inhabit, and the author's allusion to the circumstances which led him to the discovery of his “ Remnant."
“ Dagbistan, on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, lies between the rivers Kaisin and Rubas. It is about 134 miles in length, by between 30 and 40 in breadth. It is almost entirely mountainous, as its name