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the organization of the medical establishments. On these topics we have had nothing so full and satisfactory before. Dr. Clot alludes to the mode of bringing up the Arab. from his infancy; and attributes to it his freedom from many disorders, which attack the natives of other countries. One cause of the excellent constitutions of the Arab-Egyptians is owing to their great sobriety, their abstaining from animal food, from wine and other alcoholic drinks. According to our author the majority are real teetotallers; for, says he," the greater part of the Egyptians know no other drink thau water; the Christians and the Jews alone make use of wine, and especially of brandy.” Coffee, however, is a stimulant much used by them; and he is of opinion that an habitual indulgence in it has an injurious effect on the constitution by producing that enervation and languor for which the Orientals are noted. Opium is of course much worse, inducing upon the nervous system another and more fatal kind of prostration : happily its use is rare among the Egyptians, though many indulge greatly in haschich, a substance not much less deleterious than opium. The use by them of the vapour-bath and its accompaniments is a great preservative of health and cleanliness. The Egyptians arrive to a great age; Dr. Clot speaks of a man whom he had seen 130 years old, without any other infirmity than cataract in one eye; and he knows another now living at 123 years of age, who enjoys a perfectly sound state of health, and has several children, the eldest of whom is 80, the second 74, the third 3 years old, and the youngest only a few months. This man at the age of 82 cut six new teeth, which he was obliged to have immediately estracted on account of the pain and inconvenience they occasioned him.
In his advice to foreigners settling in Egypt, Clot-Bey cautions them against the too free use of animal food, of every kind of stimulating nourishment, of wine and alcoholic liquors. He observes that mortality among the English resident in the country is far greater than that of other foreigners, in consequence of their dogged adherence to their native customs and usages in this respect.
If the Egyptians are exposed but to a comparatively few maladies, some of these are of the most destructive and painful nature. The plague, as endemical, show's itself almost every year about the same time in the Levant, and in the ancient land of the Pharaohs, and as such generally with a subdued intensity. When it appears under its epidemic form, which happens at intervals of six, eight, or ten years, like the Asiatic cholera, it occasions the most horrible ravages wheresoever it prevails.
.“ The plague is not contagious," says Dr. Clot, " and the great majority of medical men who have studied the malady of late years are of my opinion. This belief, moreover, has always been that of the Mussulmans; never have they avoided the contact of the pestiferous ; nor must we suppose this notion of theirs to be the consequence of a ridicu. lous fatalism, and that from all time, an entire people would voluntarily expose themselves to so dreadful an evil, acknowledged to be contagious, when they might so easily protect themselves from it."
He next treats of the affections of the digestive organs-dysentery, hepatic disorders, hemorrhoids, hernia, and cutaneous diseases. His observations on ophthalmia are more extended, and contain some instructive and original suggestions in regard to this local and peculiarly distressing affection. He states the causes generally assigned for it, and from certain facts wbich he adduces, he very justly, we think, impugns their validity. The primary cause of ophthalmia he conceives to be meteorological or climatic, or what has hitherto escaped our investigations. The different authors that have written upon Egypt have very rarely made men. tion in their works of calculous derangements; probably either because they had no opportunity to make researches into the subject, or because they did not imagine there existed in Egypt an affection which has been generally supposed to be confined to cold and humid regions. However, vesical calculus is most fre. quent in that country, the doctor himself having operated for it, as we have before observed, in more than a hundred and sixty cases.
Next, we have some remarks on cancerous affections, syphilis, on cerebral, mental, and nervous maladies. Mental derangements are very rare in Egypt; in Cairo, containing about 300,000 inhabitants, there are not more, it appears, than from thirty to forty persons affected that way. Nervous and rheumatic affections of all kinds are very rare, and as to the gout, it is entirely unknown. Tetanus is seldom met with; and what is very extraordinary, in a region subject to a burning climate, and where animals of the canine species abound, which often suffer much from hunger and thirst, no one instance of hydrophobia, says our author, has been known in men or animals.
Pulmonary phthisis, or consumption, so general in more northerly latitudes, is exceedingly uncommon in Egypt. Pliny tells us that the Romans were wont to resort thither to be cured of this complaint, or for the purpose of preventing its development. And yet, of the Abyssinians and Negroes, who come from warmer regions, a great number die annually of this malady. On the other hand, the northerns, such as Turks, Greeks, French, English, Germans, Italians, &c. enjoy the immunity of the natives. “I know not an instance," says Clot-Bey,“ of any one of these being affected with pulmonary phthisis; and even of those who were ill when they arrived, I have seen many cured, and as to the rest, a very sensible alteration for the better has taken place. Do not these facts demonstrate that beat (chaleur) is one of the powerful conditions which prevent the development of the symptoms of this disorder? These considerations respecting a malady that is so fatal in Europe, ought to interest the faculty of all countries, and induce them to attempt researches into the subject. For myself, if I bad to give advice to the rich, who are languishing, nay, dying, in their own country of pulmonary consumption, or to those who are predisposed to it, I should say, instead of travelling to various parts of Europe, and finding little or no benefit therefrom, come to Egypt, which offers you greater chances of ultimate restoration than any other place."
In the succeeding sections of this department of his subject, the author refers to the state of medicine among the Egyptians previous to the new institutions under Mehemet Ali, and gives a very interesting and instructive history of the organization and actual condition of the health-establishments to which we have before referred, and concludes with an account of the present state of veterinary surgery, and the institution of a veterinary school at Choubrah under the able direction of M. Hamont.
In the debate in the House of Commons on the settlement of the Eastern question, Mr. Hume observed that life and property were as secure, nay, he might say more secure, in the dominions of Mehemet Ali than in the neighbourhood of London; and he gave an anecdote of the singular recovery of some lost property, if we recollect aright, to illustrate his position. Every account that we receive serves to corroborate his statement, and that, of all the reforms of the viceroy, he has conferred no service upon Egypt more extensive or essential than in this particular. A most rigorous system of civil discipline prevails in every part of Africa subjected to his sway, that was formerly a prey to the depredations of tribes in quest of rapine and pillage. * At the present time,” says Clot-Bey, “ more security is perhaps enjoyed here than in the best governed states of Europe." If we contrast more in detail the former condition of Egypt in this respect with what it is now, the merit of the viceroy will appear in a yet stronger light. And those who recollect the expressive and graphic energy with which Volney has sketched the anarchical state of Egypt in his time, and compare it with the improvements of late introduced, will comprehend the extent of the labours of the present enlightened governor.
“ All that we see," says this intelligent traveller, “and all that we hear (in Egypt) announces that we are in a land of slavery and of tyranny. Nothing is talked of but civil tumults, public misery, extortions of money, bastinados and murders. No security for life or property; human blood is poured out like that of an ox; justice even sheds it without the process of formality. The officer of the night, during his rounds, the officer of the day, in his walks, judge, condemn, and execute in the twinkling of an eye, and without appeal. Executioners accompany them, and at the first order, the head of a miserable wretch tumbles into the leathern sack. The semblance alone of crime might, indeed, expose to the danger of punishment! But often, without any other motive than the cupidity of some powerful individual, and the accusation of an enemy, a man suspected of having any money is summoned before a bey; a sum is exacted of him, and if he refuse to pay it, they throw bim on his back, give him two or three hundred strokes of the bastinado, and sonietimes even massacre him. The devil take him who is suspected of having property! a hundred spies are always ready to denounce him! It is only by the outside show of poverty that he can possibly escape the pillage of the powerful !”
Such, then, was Egypt under the Mamelukes, at the period of Mehemet's accession to the government. Moreover, the Bedouin Arabs were at that time all-powerful ; they imposed tributary ransom upon the inhabitants of Egypt, whose wives and children. they came to Cairo to seize and carry off. Bands of their brigands infested the desert between the Red Sea and the valley of the Nile. The oasis could not be reached; no one could proceed as far as the first cataract, nor visit the pyramids without their permission. The caravans which traversed the Isthmus of Suez paid them considerable tribute. Mehemet would fain establish his absolute authority over the desert as over the cultivated regions. Sixtus the Fifth said, “ I wish that in my dominions every one should be able to carry his purse in his hand, and even leave his door open of a night without running any risk.” The viceroy, on assuming power, conceived the very same resolution. In order to realize it, he attempted at first pacific measures. He concluded divers arrangements with the Bedouins, but these arrangements were violated without fear by them; and Mehemet Ali soon found it necessary to employ force to reduce them to obedience. He made war upon them; he pursued them with moveable columns of cavalry, who harassed and surrounded them until they were obliged to beg for mercy. Since then, the Bedouins have been under complete subjection to the viceroy.
When we consider the situation of Egypt with regard to the people of Europe, surely we are justified in asking who have greater reason to be thankful than these latter for the improvements effected in the civil and social system of the East ? None of the European governments could reap any advantage from seeing that state of things continue which Mehemet has replaced. We have seen that its evident tendency must be to compromise
the life, the fortune of their subjects, and their commercial relations, subjected to a thousand perilous risks, and constantly diminishing. England has now, by the Red Sea, the route to India open and free. Thousands of camels are placed at her disposal, to transport at a low rate from Suez to Cairo her travellers and her merchandize. Mehemet Ali has ever shown, in peace and in war, a ready disposition to protect the interests and to facilitate the concerns of English commerce.* Other nations also are admitted to enjoy the benefits which Egypt offers to commerce, and the security which the viceroy has provided for exchanges,
* In corroboration of this statement we have the grateful task of recording the following testimony conveyed in a remarkable recent correspondence between the Pasha of Egypt and the merchants of Liverpool : it has appeared in some of the newspapers :
“ To His Highness the Pasha of Egypt. “We, the undersigned, merchants, bankers, and other inbabitants of the town of Liverpool, beg to convey to your Highness our admiration and grateful thanks for the uniform protection and kindness manifested by your highness towards our countrymen . for many years past, when travelling through or sojourning in the extensive countries under your role, and which protection has not been less efficacious than universal. These sentiments have been still further enhanced by your Highness's conduct on a recent occasion, when, with that consideration for the welfare of the mercantile interest and the benefit of travellers, and with a magnanimity worthy of the most enlightened policy, your Highness was pleased to allow the free transit of mails and passengers through your country under circumstances which generally dissever the tjes binding mankind together in friendly intercourse, affording thereby a rare exception in such cases to the general rule, a brilliant example to the potentates, and justly deserving in our estimation the thanks of the whole civilized world. That you may long continue to govern the fertile dominion committed to your charge in prosperity and peace, devoting to its improvement all the energies of your enlightened mind; and that you may enjoy advanced age in health, honour, and happiness, is our sincere wish
“Liverpool, Feb. 26, 1841."
“Gentlemen,-His Highness the Viceroy has ordered the undersigned to communicate to the mayor, bankers, merchants, and other inhabitants of the town of Liverpool, that their address has reached him. The sentiments expressed in that address are highly gratifying to his Highness, who accepts the good wishes thus conveyed to him, and will always exert himself for their realization. Mercantile interests and travellers in the countries under the role of his Highness will always enjoy that effectual protection which is the type of civilization in all nations; and in strictly adhering to his system of civilization even in periods of the greatest difficulty when his intentions were unknown, his Highness has been faithful to his principles, and has given to his officers and to the people under his government, a lesson that will bind them always in more friendly ties to the enlightened people of other nations, for their mutual welfare. Amidst the regrets which his Highness sonetimes experiences at being unable to realize all the good he meditates, Providence grants him occasionally some consolation, which comes as a soothing balm, and of this nature is the address of the mayor, bankers, merchants, and other inhabitants of the town of Liverpool. The undersigned is charged to express the great satisfaction that it has given to his Highness, and to convey them his thanks. The undersigned has the honour to subscribe himself, Gentlemen, your most obedient and most humble servant,