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INTRODUCTORY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS
ON EACH BOOK OF
THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
THE FIRST BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED GENESIS.
Tas Jews call this Book Bereshith, its first word in Hebrew, which signi- | their apostacy from God; the prevalency of sin in the world ; and of the ge be, "In the beginning." The Syriac and Arabic versions have called it the I neral deluge produced by the wickedness of mankind. We are also informed Book of the Creation, because it furnishes us with an account of the original how the carth was re-peopled : of the origin of sacritices; and are furnished fuotation of all things. This the Greek translators meant to express by the with an account of the lives, actions, and genealogies of the patriarchs ull the word Genesis, which means the origin of all things, and which has been death of Joseph. universally adopted. It is indeed the most ancient, important, and exact re. This book is the fountain of every historical document, and the basis upon cord of hietory, and affords information which cannot be derived from any which both tradition and history are built and the principles and facts otot source. It comprises a period of about 2369 years. It gives us a de- which it exhibits and narrates, are referred to in many other passages of Scriptailed account of the order of creation; the prineval state of our first parents : | ture.
en les recette de comprises internation which cannot be under de and exactre
We are now arrived at the close of a book, in many respects the most ex: 1 of God in man's salvation. The Book of Genesis closes with the death of traurdinary in the world. In antiquity, it goes back to the origin of min, and Jacob and Joseph. But before the scenes shut up, we have graphic and exof the clube which he inhabits, while its prophetic annunciations extend to panded views of the fate of the twelve tribes of Israel, in the prophetic bless*the Lust days." It contains an inspired record of the creation, and a retro-ings of their dying father, of which those relative to Judah are to us for the
Petive view of the transactions of Providence for nearly 2000 years. These most interesting, as they point to Him, in whose work all the plans and proVi are infinitely preferable to any of the speculations of Gentile philoso mises of JEROVALI centre and are accomplished. ptat. cither of the East or West. Its discoveries lead directly to the Author One of the wisest and most learned men of the last century was Sir Wil of car lo2, the Creator of all things; their theories sink the human mind liam Jones, whose researches into Eastern literature were unexampled, and in the Les of idolatry, or the gulf of atheism.
remain unrivalled. This great man, it appears, in the early part of life, was We have bee the elements of universal history, which furnish evidence of tempted to intidelity; but he esteemed it no small advantage that " his rethese moit important thiths: that God hath made of one blood all the na searches had corroborated the multiplied evidences of revelation, by confirm. Lions that disill upon the earth ;"_" that He made man upright, but he hath ing the Mosnic account of the primitive world." As his last hour came on, he arhit out any corrupt inventions:"-that He whom man offended, found out retired into un inner apartment alone, and died in the act of prayer. But hen
Fans of his salvation, and even in his sentence of condemnation mingled fore his death he lett this testimony to the truth and excellency of the Scriptha prou se ofrudemption. Here we have an authentic record of that most awful tures, particularly of the Old Testament : "I have regularly and attentively judant-ibe universal dcbige; also the renewal and re-peopling of the world. read the Holy Scriptures, and am of opinion, this volune, independent of its
The one now contracts from Noah to Shem: from Shem to Abraham : divine origin, contains more sublimity and beauty, more morality, more iniand from Abraham to Israel. The history of the Bible become more welect; l portant history, and finer strains of poetry and eloquence, than can be collected it is the bestury, not of the world, but of the church; and the affairs of other from all other books, in whatever language or age they may have been comaators are only adserted to as they become connected with the great design | posed." Ld. Teignmouth's Life of Sir W. Joncs.
THE SECOND BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED EXODUS.
The name Exodus is horrowed from the Septuagint, and means departure : immediately fomed into a connected history ; nor is it of the least importance Bea the departure of Israel from Exypt, with its causes and consequences, to ascertain the exact period when this book was written. form the leading subjects of the history. That Mosey was the author of it, The period of history which it occupies is reckoned at one hundred and there can be no reasonable doubt ; for it is cited as his by David, Daniel, and forty-five years, from the death of Joseph to the consecration of the Taber
the sacred writers; also by Manetho, Tacities, and other heuthen authors. nacle. I di TUV an intimate acquaintance with the affairs of Erypt, and the Besides historical facts, this Book contains the institution of the passover goraphy of the wilde 149. But the time of this Book being composed is not the moral law-the miracle of manna in the wilderness--the pushing rock of co clear, thouzh it is certain it must have been written after the commence Horeb-directions for building the Tabernacle and inercy-seat, and for forming mnt of the fabumacle worship. It in reasonable to believe, that such a man the priestly vestments; most of which circumstances, in their prominent @# Mors, after he was called to sustain a public character, would sutter no points, had a typical reference to the New Testuinent dispensation, as is largeimportant event to pass without a record, though these might not have been ly shown by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
OF MIRACLES, PARTICULARLY THOSE OF MOSES.
* A Miracle is a sensible suspension or controlment of, or deviation from, 1 quisite after they have been long established? The Jewish economy was introthe koonn laws of nature.
. . By these laws God governs the duced by a host of miracles, and some of them were continued for forty years. wird He alone established. and He alone. therefore can suspend them. After it was firmly established, and the early part of the Old Testament Efts which are procicnly the regular operation of these laws, or which written, they were, comparatively, few. Again, at the commencement of the are confiable to the established course of events, are said to be natural : Christian dispensation, the whole world was sunk into idolatry: and the phiant every palpable deviation therefrom, a miracle."
losophers and literati, if they did not themselves believe the popular supersti Its commonly objected that a miracle is beyond our comprehension, and Lions, encouraged the vulgar in the belief. At first, therefore, miracles were
the pore contrary to reason. But many objects, which are continually pre equally neceasary as in the days of Moses : but when the Scriptures were inte! to us. 1 no less inscritable and mysterious. Every science we study, completed, and widely circulated, they gradually ceased, and are now unne.
ponte tyre : Magnetism, Galvanism, Electricity, &c. : and no question is cessary t e on the the principle of vitality in man; but because we cannot com But the most important point in this controversy is, to fix certain criteria, or prihnind this, are we to deny that we are living creatures ?
marks, to distinguish between true and false, or pretended miracles: this is Hume, the seat opponent of the doctrine of miracles, contends, that they most essential, before we can depend on any miracles, as the evidence of a di ar contrary to experience." That they are contrary to our experience, is vine mission, which is the end proposed in the case before 18the miracles of only to 3y that we have never witnessed any: and is to reason like the Em Moses. The criteria laid down by the celebrated Leslie, (Short Mether with peror of China, who denied the existence of ice and snow, because he bad a Deist,") and generally a lopted by Christian advorates, are the following:
er en them that is, they were contrary to his experience. But in how 1. He contends, every true miracle must be submitted to the outwar senses, nalla portion of time and space is our experience circumscribed? Could we as seeing hearing, &c. 2. It must be performed before competent witnesses. L ! the age of the Jew of Jerusalem, it might give some weight to our 3. The memory of it must be preserved by certain monuments, or muihintis en rietre; yet, during the age of miracles, bad he lived in the other hemis. records: or perpetuated by a certain in titution, which. 1. Must have onikilia pete, of een but a few score leagues distant, they might all have happened ted at the time the Irisnction is reported to have occurred. Now, let us atly without his knowledge ; that is, without coming within the sphere of his ex these criteria, as a test of the miracles wrought and attested by Moses. I They
were all submitted to the sight, and several of them. (as the insects, botches, This otrjection goes upon the principle, that the experience of every age is &c.) to the feeling, hearing, &c. 2. They were wrought before the king. uniform, than which nothing can be more abeurd or false, while we see every his court, and all his learned men, or magiciang. 3. The memory of the nig thing around us changing Climates change. The sea invades the land, in one preserved in the national records of the Jews, and some of them in the wri. country: in another, it retires and leaves it dry. How then shall the experi tings of the Gentiles. 4. The truth of them is further certified by the Fassover, enre of one age be the standard of all others.
an institution purposely intended to preserve the memoril of one of them, Besidre, have there not been different dispensations, the Patriarchal, the (the death of the firstbom,) and which may be trared up to the very fine. Jewish, and the Christian? And might not that kind of evidence be necessary But an argument may be adduced in defence of these miracles, which can O trdnce the Jewish and Christian dispensations, which is by no means re hardly apply to any other they were wrought in rompetition with, or opposi.
• Ttaallases to the sandering Jew, who, in the last century, travelled throagh Europe, tion to all the wise men of Egypt, at that timo distinguished for wisdom and sedang lo lare been present at the crucifixion of our Lord.
science above all nations.
INTRODUCTORY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON EACH BOOK
(MOSES, having in the Book of Genesis described the Creation of the World, I ODUS of the Israelites from Egypt, and their miraculous PASSAGE OF THE the Ongin of Nations, and the peopling of the earth, details in the Book of RED SEA, are attested by PALEMON and CHREMON, MANETH0, BEROSUS. EXODUS the Commencement and Nature of the JEWISH CHURCH and POLITY. I ARTAPANUS, STRABO, DIODORUS SICULUS, NUMENIUS, JISTIN, and TA. which has very properly been termed a Theocracy, in which Jehovah appears CITUS. The tradition mentioned by Diodorus, anong tho Ichthyophagi, who not inerely as their Creator and God, but as their King. Hence this and the lived near the Red sea, that the whole bay was once laid bare to the very lol. following books of Moses are not purely Historical; but contain not only laws
only lines tom, and
tom, and that the waters afterwards retumed to their accustomed channel with for the regulation of their moral conduct and the riter and ceremonies of their a most tremendous revulsion, is not extinct to the present day. The inhalireligious worship, but judicial and political laws relating to government and ants of the neighbourhood of Corondel, according to Dr. SHAW, preserve the civil life. A part of these has been detailed in this book; and an account remembrance of a mighty army having been once drowned in the bay which given of the erection of a superb royal palace, the tabernacle, in which Jeho. PTOLEMY calls Clysma. The very country where the event happened, in some vah was pleased to dwell, or manifest his especial presence, by the sbechinah, degree bears testimony to the accuracy of the Mosaic narrative. The Scrip. or glory, appearing between the Cherubim. The stupendous FACTS, con tural Etham is still called Eni; the wilderness of Shur, the mountain of St. nected with these events, are fully attested by every succeeding water of the nai, and the country of Parani, are still known by the same names and Mara, Sacred Scriptures, as may be clearly perceived by consulting the References Elath, and Midian, are still familiar to the ears of Arabs. Several writen, and notes ; and many of the circumstances are confirmed by the testimony of particularly ORPHEUS, in the verses ascribed to him, speak of the delivery of heathen writers.
the TWO TABLETS OF THE LAW from God, and of the institution of the HeNUMENIUS, a Pythagorean philosopher, mentioned by EUSEBIUS, speaks brew rites. Add to this, that many of the notions of the heathen respecting the of the OPPOSITION OF THE MAGICIANS, whom he calls Jannes and Jambres, appearance of the Deity, and their religious institutions and laws, were borto the miracles of Money. Though the names of these magicians are not pre rowed from this book; and many of their fables, as has been partially shown, served in the sacred Text, yet tradition had preserved them in the Jewish were nothing more than distorted traditions of those events which are here records, from which St. Paul, (2 Ti. ini. 8.) undoubtedly quotes. The Ex- | plainly related by Moses.)-Bagster.
ononment. Thelaint that is 20_22., York'tar un
ists of myocrated,
THE THIRD BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED LEVITICUS.
INTRODUCTION. This Book is called LEVITICUS, because it chicfly contains laws and regu- "And if ye shall say, What shall we cat the seventh year? behold, we shall lations respecting the duties of the Priests and Levites, though many of them not sow, nor gather in our increase. Then I will command my blessing on you refer also to the body of the people. The New Testament teaches us to con in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. And ye shall sider many of these rites of sacrifice and purification as typical of the atone. sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninh year, until her inent of Christ, and the puritying influences of the Holy Spirit. How far the frunts come in, ye shall eat of the old store." (xxv. 20-22., Yet, we do not find. body of the people saw into the spiritual meaning of these rites, it is difficult to in the whole history, a single complaint that this extraordinary promise failed say Unbelievers, most likely, did not trouble themselves about it ; and be of an exact accomplishment. The twenty-sixth chapter likewise contains an lievers would penetrate their design, more or less, in proportion as they were evident predicton ofthe present state of the nation of Israel, which amidst all enlightened.
its dispersions and oppressions has hitherto been preserved a distinct people, *Leviticus contains little history, except the awful death of Nadab and Abi apparently in order to the performance of the promines made them in the close hu, the sons of Aaron, as goon as consecrated, for irreverence in their sacred of the chapter. It seems peculiarly useful, in this skeptical age, to introduce otlice: and it principally consists of rituallaws, delivered to Moses from above carh lok in the sacru volume, by some notice of those prophecies found in it the mercy-seat, during the first month after the Tabernacle was erected; though which have received an evident accomplishment, many ages after the time moral precepts are frequently interpersed. ---In these cerenjonies the gospel when we have full proof the books were extant; as this tends to establish, not was preached to Israel: and the solemn and exact manner, and the many re | only their authenticity, but also their divine authority, far more than human petitions, with which they are enforced, are suited to impress the serious mind testimony can do.-In addition to this we inny observe, that the sacred Wriwith a conviction, that something immensely more important and spiritual, ter, in all the subsequent parts of Scripture, and even our Lord, as well as bis than the external observance is couched under each of them. We are indeed apeetles, quote or refer to this book in language which proves, both that it is tbus taucht that all true religion must be groundid on divine revelation, and the genuine work of Moses, and also that the statute contained in it are the be regulated by it, and not be left in any degree to human invention : yet one word of God; the two point- wbich many, called Christians, sem at present inspired apostle calls the legal institutions "beguarly clements," and "the ready to concede to skeptics and infidels. (2 Chron. XXX. 16. Ezra vil 6, 12. law of a carnal commandment;" and another allows, that they furined "a Mali. viii. 4. Luke ü. 2.-24. Rom. X. 4, 5. Comp. Lev. xxvi. 12. with 2 Cor. vi. yoke which neither they nor their fathers were able to bear." But if we look! 16. and Lev. xix. 19, with Gal. v. 14.) Let us therefore adhere to the testimony carefully into the New Testament, we shall be convinced, that these ordi of these unexceptionable witnes, and study it as a part of the orucles of nances, which w numbers appear so unieaning and unreasonable, were not God;" and very iniportant instruction will be derived from it, even to us in this only * shadows of wood things to come," but real prophecies; which, being remoteage, though we are no longer under the obligation of its ritual appoint. exactly accomplished in the gospel, prove the book in which they are found to ments."-T. Scoil. be divincly inspired. It is not known how far the Israelites observed the sing The frw events mentioned in this book, and all the lawr delivered, are sup lar law concerning the sabbatical year, and that of Jubilce, which, it is evi posed by Usher and others to have been within one month, answering to part dent, were very frequently neglected; but no impostor would have ventureel to of April and part of May, in the year of die world 2514, or 1490 years before the enact such statutes ; much less to have committed himself by these words: Christian era.
ficence their risarriti
edilen bir to
impe, brein aluat the law by Mosilo. On the same darbe Theded
IL MARCHEWYSa and barier sommer and December
CONCLUDING REMARKS. (Thus terminates this most interesting and important book ; a book contain: 1 Old Style; and so the other months. Ist. The feast of Trumpets (New ing a code of sucrificial, ceremonial, civil and judicial laws, which, for the Year's Day) Levit, xxli. 24. 25. toth. The great day of atonement. Levil. purity of their morality, the wisdom, justice, and beneficence of their enaci. xxiii. 27, &c. 15th. The feast of tabernacles, which lasted oven lars, and monts, and the simplicity, dignity, and impressive nature of their ries, are the righihi was a holy convocation. Levit. xvii. 31, &c. 21 The deceation inertectly unrivalled, and altogether worthy of their Divine A lor. Sarrifi. of Solomon's Triple. 2 Chron. vii, 10. On the same day the Jeus commen) cins was a mode more ancient than idolatry or the institutions of Moses; but rated ille giving of the law by Moses. The early or fumer rains, in Pülesamong the heathe'll vario119 superstitious customs were introduced, which were tine, begin al out the end of this month, but last only a few days, when the wiwells escluded from the religion of the Hebrew. In these laws, in which ploughin' season follows.The days very hot ; the nights cold, we find the most minute circumstances of the act of sacriticing prescribed, II. MARCHESVAN, (October and November.) In this month grapes were there is no mention of any thing preceding the saying of the amınal, proept its gatheredi, rud wheat and barley sown. being sound and of a proper age. It was not brought with any gürlands. No III. CHISLET, or Casten. (November and December.) 25th. The feast of cakes of barley and silt were pitipon its back. No cinc was pored upon dedication, which lasted eight days. This was instituted by Judas Maccabeus, its horns. Vo hair was taken from its forehead to be cast into the fire on the in memory of cleansing the second Temple, I Macc. iv. 52–59; and wanc. altar. And nothing is said about inspecting the entrails, with a view to di tioned by the presence of Christ, John X. 22. The heats abate by day, and the vination, which was a principal object in all the heathen sacrifices. All the nights rrow still colder. rites and ceremonies of the Mosaic law are at once dignified and expressive. IV. TEBETH, (December and January.) Weather very cold, with rain or snow. They point out the holines of 'heir Anthor, the sinfulness of main, the neces. V. SEBAT, (January and Foorury.) sity of an atonement, and the state of moral excellence to which the grace and l. VI. ADAR, (February and March.) 14th and 15th. The feast of Purim. (or necy of the Creator' have destined to raise the human soul. They include, lots.) in memory of the nation's deliverance from destruction, in the time of as well as point out, the gospel of the Son of God; from which they repive Esthes. Esther ix. 20-22. Much rain and snow. their consummation and pertinction. The sacrifices and oblations were signifi VIL ABIB, or NISAN, the first month of the Ecclesiastical Year, (March cant of the atonement of Christ; the requisite qualities of these sacrifices were and April) i1th. The Passover commences, and lasts seven days. Exod. xii. emblematical of bis immaculate character and the prescribed mode in the and wi 15th. The first of unleavened bread. Levit. xxiii. 6. 16th. The form of these offerings, and the mystical ntes ordained, were allusive institu shent of the new barley harvest offered. Levil. xxiv. 10. In this month the tions, calculated to enlighten the apprehensions of the Jews, and to prepare weather is temperate; toward the end, trually, the spring or latter rains fall, them for the reception of the gospel. The institution of the high priesthood and swell the Jordan. Barley ripe at Jericho, though wheat is not yet in car. typified Jee11s the Great High Priest, called and prepared of God, who hathan VIII, IJAR, (Jyar) or Zif. (April and May.) Toward the end, the latter unchangeable priesthood, and is able to save to the uttermost all that come rains ceger. Barley cut down, and when begins to ripen. unto God by bin. The prohibition of neats as unclean taught the avoidance IX. SIVAN, (May and June) 6th. The feast of Pentecost, which lasted a of what Gol prolibits; and the various kinds of uncleannesses, with their week. This is sometimes called the feast of weeks, being seven (or a week of) correspondent expiations, illustrated the necessity and importance of internal weeks after the Passover; the feast of harvest, &c. Exod. xxiv. 32. Levit. purity and the holines Tir very best comment on this book is furnished by XXII. 14. Summer commences this month with the wheat harvest. the inspirerl Apostle Paul in his epistle to the Hebrews; and, on the other X TAMMUZ, (June and July.) Weather intenscly hot. Early figs and aphand. thill epistle, as well as numerous sum of the New Testament, ples ripen. would be alsolutely unintelligible without this portion of the Sacred Volume.) XI. AB, (July and August.) The heat at its height. Dates ripen at Jericho. -- Basstor.
XII EL.L. (August and September.) 7th. Dedication of the walls of the We here subjoin (from Calmet's Dictionary, and Horne's Introduction) Temple by Nehemiah. Neh. xi. 27, &c, Sky serene an: fair. Fiys, olives, the outline of a HEDREW CALENDAR, soith Hints on the Seasons in Pa- and staje ripen. The original Jewish Year was Solar, like ours; an was lestinc:
also that of the Egyptianx. It contained u monthy of 30 days, according to I. TIZRI, or Ethanim, the first month of the Ciril Year, (which was the Calmet; and the 12th container 35. It is also thought that they had occaonly year before the Exodus,) began about the middle of our September, and sionally an intercalary month, which followed Arlar, and was called Ve Adar ended about the middle of October, nearly answering to our September, or the 2d Adar ; but we have no account of this in Scripture.
TIIE FOURTI BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED NUMBERS.
The name of this Book is derived from the title it bears in the Vulgate, by the Jews into ten parasha, and thirty-two sederim ; and in our Billes conNUMERI, WHTC anterne translation of the Greek ARITHMOI, its title insists of thirty-six chapters. It comprehends the history of between thirty right the Spam ko called from its containing an account of the numbering and thirty-nin years; containing an account of the enumeration of the people, and markhilling of the Israelites. Like the preceding books, it takes its He. their formation into a regular camp: the constis of the Levites, and their sena. brew name from a distinguishing word in the commencement: being frequently ration for the service of the tabernacle ; the purification of the cup; the law called WYDADBUR, and he spoke, from its initial word: but, in most Hebrew 1 of the Wizarites and form of blessing the people, the otherings of the princes ; Bibles, its title N BEMIDBAR, in the inilderness, which is the fifth word. I the consecration of the Levites; the celebration of the pasover; regulations for There can be no doubt that Moses was the author of this bok: and from ch fixing and removing the camp; the journey of the Israelites through the wilder Wxvi. 13. it would seem that he penned it in the plains of Moab. It is divided I ness to the land of Moub; the urunsactions in the plains of doub.
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. THUS terminates the book of Numbers; a book containing a series of the not justify those signal displays of his grace and mercy; and in every rela. most astonishing providences and events. Every where and in every circum tion, we perceive the consistency of the divine intentions, and the propriety of
anca God appears: and yet tbere is no circumstance or occasion, which does those law which bs established.
THE FIFTH BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED DEUTERONOMY.
INTRODUCTION. ALL the Books of Moses are, by the Jews, denominated from their first sistance, is inferred, both from the reason of the denunciation, and from sevewurde in Hebrew; the names we have given them are borrowed from the Sep ral facts attending its execution. The reason given why they were to be cut traint, and are expressive of their contents. The name of this fifth Book off is, " That they teach you not to do after all their abominations :" which of Mosey. Deuteronomy, means a second law, or rather a second delivery of reason would be set aside by their submission and acknowledgment of the the same law, which is rendered the more interesting, from the intermixture God of Israel. The facts referred to are the following: Alter the conquest of with it of many pathetic admonitions, and even many important prophecies. the country, we are told, “There was not a city that made peace with the It contains, also, a history of the last month of the life of Moses, with an ac children of Israel, save the Hivites the inhabitants of Gibeon: all other they count of his death, which, in all probability, was subjoined by Joshua, his took in battle. For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts, that they should
come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly." (Josh. xi. A the Children of Israel were now engaged in a sanguinary conflict with 19, 20) This, surely, implies that they had the opportunity of peace, if they the dev'editions of Canaan, and were pledged to their extirpation, this had thought proper to accept of the proposed terms. That the Lord liurdened ses a projet place to examine the authority under which they acted, and. their hearts. I consider as a judicial blindness inflicted on them for their reso far as may be necessary, to vindicate their conduct; or ratber, to vindicate peatedly hardening their own hearts against him, as was the case with Pha. the God of Israel, under whose authority they acted, from the charge of cru. taoh and others. (See Cottage Bible, Exodus, chup. vii.) So Maimonides elty and injustice not only as respects their attack upon the Cannanites, but supposes they rejected the first offers of peace, and the Lord punished them also as to their taking vengeance upon some other nations, who brought de by refusing them any farther opportunities. struction on themselves by attacking Israel
The case of the Gibeonites seems to confirm this, inasmuch as it is difficult to 1. The first thing to be considered in the sovereignty of God, whose are the conceive that the oath and covenant made with them, under the circumstances live and properties of all his creatures. Most unquestionably, the Almighty of deception, should have been so sacred, if the order for their extinction hud basan sholute right over his creatures, even considered as innocent, to place admitted no limitation. The preservation of Rahab, also, (Josh. iii. 12--14.; or displace them wherever he thinks proper; and to take away the life he Vi. 22. 23.) and a family of Bethel, (Judges i. 25.) with some other instances, Comminurated, where he has given no issurance to the contrary
(1 Kings ix. 20, 21.) incline strongly to this exposition. 2 "Thi nght will appear tronger and more incontestable, when it is added, 6. Nor is the destruction to be attributed to Israel wholly, even as instrui. that all mankind are sunners; a fact so glaring, that it can hardly be denied ments. The Lord himself, partly by storms and tempests, partly by noxious Ivy ary man in his right senses, however it may be palliated or dissembled. insects, and partly by inspiring terror into the minds of the inhabitants, ex. Sentire proofs of this are numberless; and those from fact intinite. To deny pelled and destroyed, perhaps, more than the Israelites themselves. In obey. tun ers are justly obnovous to punishment, is to deny the course of jus ing the divine injunction, they, therefore, only concurred with the providence tire To demand for them mercy, is a contrdiction in terms; for mercy de of God, which went before, and, by the display of Alinighty power, prepared
andales no more mercy. But is it not cruel to involve infant children in this their way wbithersoever they were called to go. (Exod. xxiii. 27, 28. Josh. JUINCHO in Lel common sense give the answer. Would there be mercy X. 11. &c.) in qaring a thousand orphan infants, without a mother's breast, or a father's 7. Doubtless God might have destroyed these nations without the co-operaC ! Does the earthquake or the ocean spare thiem? Certainly not. In all tion of the Israelites : by lightning and tempest, by inundation or earthquake, tem wral calamities their fate is mixed up with that of their parents.
or by a sweeping pestilence; and either way, unquestionably, their women 3 rb leared Jacob Bryant mamtains, that "The Canaanites were cer and children would have been involved in the same cominon ruin, (as always inly run and had acted in open defiance of God's ordinance, by seizing is the case :) and who dare say to the Almighty. What does thou? But in the land appropriated from the beginning to the children of Israel." he chose to employ human agents, probalily to inspire them with the greater
it XXII ) In the Eusebian Chronicle of Scaliger, mention is made of horror against those scenes of idolatry and vice, which, by their being the Cunaan, the son of Hamn. first making an innovation in the world. "He try. instruments of punishing, would be necessarily disclosed to them. (Levit.
Yuwon the rights of his brethren, and seized upon the land, which had xviii. 29.) napropriated to God's future people. (sco Gen. xii. 6. and Notrg.).... 8. The Almighty has, in fact, executed judgments on mankind far more se. When therefore, the Israelites were brought to Cannan, they came to their Vere than this. Though the inhabitants of Canaan are reckoned seven or
en intentance; and those who usurped their property knew it, and knew eicht nations, their whole country was much less than England, not containby wlwm it had been appointed."
ing more square miles than the single county of York: and what is this to the The seven nations of Canaan were early corrupted and depraved. They drowning of the world ? a fact attested by all ancient histories, divine and Spans from the guilty and accurred race of Canaan, the son of Ham; and so human, and confirmed by innumerable monuments of the event. And even in
nrly as the time of Abraham, they were inarked out for punishment in the our own times the earthome at Lisbon, and, more recently, that at Alerro; Bartbergerution." their iniquity being not yet full. (Gen. XV. 16.) This the cholera morbus in India, the yellow fever in America, and inundations in W awring ven them; and it appears in the case of Rahab, and by the various parts of the world, have swept away thousands of our follow-crea.
luct of the Cibeonites, that they were by no means inacquainted with tures at stroke, without even that discrimination which the case before 119 the dangerthough it made no salutary impression on their conduct. (Joshoflera : for we know, that not only were children involved in the same ruin u 9-13 IX 3. &C.) On the contrary, they are charged with cross idolatry, with their parents, but, in some of those cases, also the righteous with the unnatural lewitness, and the most detestable cruelties, sacrificing their own wicked. children both unto Band and Moloch (Exod. xxxiv. 10-16; Le xviii. 19 - 29.) 9. Lastly, the employing one nation to punish another, is so far froin
5 After the time of God's forbearance was expired, they had still the al being sinsular, that it is the usual method taken by the most High in the adtemative either to flee elsewhere, as, in fact, many of them did; or to surministration of his providence. (Psalm XV 13. Isa X. 5, &c.) Thus Wero
neer them , and renounce their idolatries, and serve the God of Israel; Israel themselves punished when they became disobedient and idolatrons or in which case, there is reason to believe, the sentence of extirpation would not was this done with less severity, except as to absolute extirpation, which was have been esecuted. It is thought by many commentators, both Jewish and plainly inconsistent with the divine plan. For surely, from the foundation of hrutian, that the Israelites were bound to make overtures of peace to every the world, no judgments were more severe, no calamities more dreadful, than
y or town which they attacked, and to spare their lives on condition of those inflicted upon the Jews, especially by the Romans. And the Assyrians, the larming tributary The passage on which this hypothesis is founded. the Persians, and the Romans, were as certainly appointed to punish the is a flow. When thou comest nigh unto a city to fisht ainst it, then Jews, as were the Jews the Canaanites: only, they had not the like written
Porlam e unto it. And it shall if it make thee answer of peace, and warrant to produce. Among all incivilized nations, war is connected with O into the then it ahall be that all the people that is found therein shallmas here and devastation : us at this day between the Turks and Greeks, who bir trobutaries unto ther, and they shall serve thee. And if it will make no i are both fulfilling the divine decrecs, though they know it not, nor have any wce with the Init will make war against thee, then thou shalt besiege it; such intention ar benth Lord thy God hath delivered it into thine han is, thou shalt snite Thus mich may here suffice for vindicating Moses and Joshua, and the Cry male thereof with the edge of the gword. But the women, and the little children of Israel, in obeying the command of Heaven, especially with the con
n d the cattle, and all that is in the city, even all the spoil thereol, shaltsantiniracle of the pillar of cloud and fire before them for it is most certain, thwytak into thyself; and thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, which that their faith was built on miracles; and for those miracles we have the the Land thy Gowhith given thee. Thus shalt thou do unto all the cities that same anthority as for the ronquot of Cannan, and the marine of her chil.
y far oft from thee, which are not of the cities of these nations. But of dren. If, then miracles be denied, so may the conquest of Canaan, the al the rate of these people, which the Lord thy God doth give thee for an inhe r ed cheties of the Israelites and the whole of their ancient History In
act u ule (ie in the like case of their obstinacy) save alive nothing short. infidelity is to the Bible, leads to scanticism as to all ancient records ; tracta thi," &c. (Deut. xx. 10–19.)
and would reduce to one common Llank all universal history, prior to the preTo this ulter destruction was to take place only in cases of obstinate re- sent age.
Turs ends the Book of Deuteronomy, and with it the PENTATEUCH. com interspersed: and while they were obedient they could say, "Not one word mnly culled the LAW OF MOSES; a work every way worthy of Golitshath failed us, of all the good things which the Lord our God srake rincern1 , and only less than the NEW TESTAMENT, the Lart and Gospel of our inus." Who that dispassionately reads the Penta!Ruch, that considers it in and Saviour Jezus Christ. Its antiquity places it at the head of all the itself, and in its reference to that glorious Gospel which it was intended to in
the world, and the various subjects it embraces ronder it of the troduce, Can for a moment deny it the palm of infinite suority over all the mot portance to every part of the civilized world. Its philosophy, his systems ever framed or imagined by man? Well might the Taraclitich people y Terhy and chemoony entitle it to the respect of the whole human trium hantly exrlaim, "There is none like the God of Jeshurun!" and with
while ito system of 'henoxy and religion demonstrably prove it to be a what striking propriety dora the glorious legislator add. “Happy art thou, O Sirinn (ru Gel The Lair of Moses is more properly the Lair of Jcho Israeli who is like to thee? 0 people saved of the Lord
yenth the mand title of the Pentateuch. Could we conceive Finally, the Irnsures of wisdom and knowledce, which are amassed in M
t o have been the author of this system, we must consider him more the fire boxerky, bave enriched the whole civilized earth, and, indeed, greatly
mol -no wisdom of man has ever yet invented such a Code of Laic8.Tomoted that very civilization. They have been a kind of our book to al Hauptwr yet bas been disputed, and his laws severely criticised by per most every writer on Liboy, geogrady, chronolo9. Citronomy, natural
e interest it was to prove religion a chent, because they had none history, ethics, Misprudence, Poial econmu. theology. purtry, and throw To me, whose mental taste and feeling nre strangely perverted, criticism, from the time of Moses to the present day. Books to which the TT, tune in thanism wears not only the most fisrinating ect. lut choict writers 0. philosophers in Pazan intiquity have been deeply in. - tongrinim to, and CSS every excellence and hence they have deld; and whirn worth it.boks to all the prophets
from which un confis, Menu, Zoroaster, and Mobammed himself, to dispute the the flimy writers aans Divine Revelation. Leve derived thiur natural reli
gion, and all their moral excellence -books written in all the energy and puri. ne curt in oneral, it may be just necessary to remark, that the ut ty of the incomparable langue in which they are composed, and instly. att en braid of laws, increly human, is, that they rentrain rice, Douks, which fitim ortance of matter, variety of information, dicnity of KenAnish the terror of punishment. God's law not only restrains rice, but it in timant, accuracy of larts, impartiality. Anplicity and sublimity of narration,
1 alone brings man to the footstool of his Maker; and keris tending to improve and annoble the intellect, and ameliorate the physical and d endant on the strong for inngth on the wise for wisdom, and on the moral condition of man, have never been callid, and can only be pulle. Trifol for grace It abounds with promises of support, and salvation for the by the Gospel of the Son of God! Fountain of endless merry. justice, ont which no false system daredevor to propose : very where. Motrith, and neticenco! holy nich are thy sin nnd bounties neglected
in most confident manner, pledges his God for the fulfilment of all the by those who do not read this lain, and ly those who having read it, are ordins eat and precious promises, with which his laws are so plentifully not m ruly improved by it, and made wise unto salvation.
imacy of Parace of matte
rich the cost of ande
IN I'RODUCTORY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON EACH BOOK
THE BOOK OF JOSHUA.
se meruus quent promote eviden snare
It is not certain whether this book received its name from Joshua as the portant purposes ; as, in particular, to represent the true character of the author, or as the hero of it. It is reasonable to believe that Joshua would Deris, and to guard the Israelites against idolatry. On this subject we shall keep minutes of events in which he bad so considerable a snare ; and yet, as quote the following interesting extraci, from his " Rationale of the Hebrew several passages occur in this book which were evidently written after his | Ritual." time, it is likely that some subsequent prophet, most probably Saniuel, col. "It was far from the design of the ritual to teach only a ceremonial holi lected and arranged these memorials, and added those passares which Joshua ness; the intention of it appears plainly to set the holiness of God, as one of could not have written, and which yet must have been written before the hus governing perfections, in a full and strong light ; to teach the high imtim of David and Solomon. (See chap. xv. 63. ; xvi 10.)
1 portance of being holy, as God is holy, as well as of being holy because God However this may have been. " The Book of Joshua (as Dr. Clarke oh is holy; but the intention of the ritual will appear more clearly as we proserves) is one of the most important writings in the Old Covenant, and should ceed. never be separated from the Pentateuch, of which it is at once both the con- " The wisdom of the ritual, to make the knowledge it teaches concerning tinuation and completion. Between this book and the five book of Moses, the one only true God more useful, teaches him to be mercitul, at the same there is the sanie analogy ay between the four Gofrel and the Acts of the time it represents him to be a holy God, therefore proclaimed his name, The Apostles. The Pentateuch contains a history of the acts of the great Jewish Lord. gracious uod merciful, long-suffering. abundant in loving-kindness, goodlegislator, and the laws on which the Jewish church should be establish ness, and truth; keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving invuilies, trans tea. The Book of Joshua gives an account of the establishment of that church in sions, and sins. Not only is God represented as gracious and mercitul, but the land of Canaan, uccording to the of repeated promises and declarations his mercy and grace are exemplated in pardoning iniquity, transgressions, and of God. The gospels give an inccount of the transactions of Jesus Chnst, the sins; or all kinds of otlince's committed against him. The ritual, to encourage great Christian Legislator, and of those laws on which his church should be the hope of a sind in the mercy of God, teaches him that there is mercy with established, and by which it should be governed. The Acts of the Apostle God that he may be feund; that when he shall retum unto God with his give an account of the actual establishnient of that church, according to the whole heart, he shall be received graciously, and restored to favour. This ritual predictions and promises of its great Founder."
yet further instructs in the wise method wherein God has appointed to slow The foundation of the Jewish church and polity being laid, there are two mercy, supporting, at the same time, the honour of his perfections and govern. peculiar circumstances, which, though they have been already hinted at, now ment. The ritual therefore appointed propitiatory sacrifices, or atonements, claim a more distinct remark.
washings and purifications, to teach the guilt of sin, the punishment due to 1. The Hebrew government, as just established, wils a Theocracy: that is, sin from a holy God, and righteous governor of the world, to teach the sinner God (Theor) was hipself the Supreme Governor of the nation; the high priest to honour God by such acknowledginent and confession, which was to accomhis prime minister (it we may so speak ;) and Joshua, and his successors, the pany has sin offering and atonement; and also to express his hope in the mercy of udgcy, his commander in chief. Every tribe had its elders, who were maris God. his trust in the promise of God, that, returning to God with his whole heart, trates, or members of the police; and the army was officered in the same way, his in shall be forgiven. Hence the Psalmist conclurles, Fortliou, Lord, art by commanders of tens, of titties, of hundreds, und of thousands. (Exod. viii. good, and ready to forgive, and plenteous in mercy, to all them that call upon 21. Deut. i. 15.) These were in all cases to abide by the written Mosaic law; thee' It is observabile, that the Hebrew ritual encouraged the Hebrew nation and if any case occurred which that did not appear to reach, the high priest to hope for mercy and invour as God's favourite people." wis to put on his mysterious breast plate, and to appear before the most holy Mr Lowman proceeds:--place, without side the vuil,) and there to receive an oracular answer. This "In Ake manner, the whole ritual very plainly taught, that a pure heart, as was the original constitution of the Hebrew government; but as it was foreseen well as clean hands, were requisite in the worship of Jehornh. The very that a kingly government, and a human monarch, would be required in process washings, which purified from the filthiness of the flesh, tsuglat, by an easy of time, provision was made for such a change, as we have seen in the 17th meuning, the necessity of being cleansed from all filthinesy of the spirit, to apchapter of Deuteronomy, and later purt. Still bowever, the choice was with pear in the presence of the most holy God. The ritual actions were manifestly the Lord; and when chosen, the king had no right to make any alteration in designed to express a moral und spiritual meaning. The bare consideration of the laws; but in all difficult cases, himself, as well as the judges, was to ask the ritual itselt, the general use of ritual actions in those times, the exposition counsel of God, by the medium of the high priest. (1 Sam. sv. 37 )
of the ritual in the other parts of their law, and by their prophets, put it out The Hebrew government, though divine, appears tounded in corenant be of all doubt, that the outward actions were always to be accompanied with tween God and Israel; (Crod vin. 3-6. Deut. xix. 10 -13.) the fundamental in ward suutable tempers and affections." principle of which was, the worsbip of Jehovah, and the utter extirpation of Nor was this all The Hebrew ritual must be considered as "a plan of a idolatry from all the land of Israel. The sanctions of this law, both in its re better state of religion in the times of the promised Messiah," as is fully showti wards and punishments, were all temporal, (as among ourselves.) and neces by the inspired author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who proves at length sarily must be so, as nations have no existence in a future state. This does that all the Levitical sacrifices had reference to the atonement oflend by our not prove, however, that the Hebreus had no knowledge of such a state, Saviour; and that the tal macle, and all its poly utensils, in one way or other though it is probable that the bulk of the nation acted as little under its influ prefigurer Christ, or some circumstance connected with Christianity. We have ence as the mass of noininal Christians anong our countrymen.
already noticed this as respects the paschal lamb, the scape poat, the red her The doctrine of a future state amon, the cornws, (as the progress of truth! fer, and various other types, and when we come to the above Epistle, we shall generally in.) was like the rining of the sun, which shineth more and more have occasion to enter more fully into the subject; in the mean time, what is unto the perfect day." It is impossible to account for the faith and piety of the here said, may be enough to justify the divine character of the Mosaic ritual. carly patriarchs, on the supposition that they knew nothing of it future state. There is one circumstance. however, which demands our particular attenCould Abel or North walk with God, as they are represented to have done, una tion; namely, the minuteness and exactness with which all the directions Jer the impresion that the moment of death should aparate them from him must be complied with, and that under the severest penalties. How is this to for ever? Could Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, die in faith, as the author of the be accounted for? There may be reasons unknown to us ; but the following Epistle to the Hebrews (chap. vi.) informs is they did, without any assit sreis obvious and important. The apostle Paul represents the Jews before rance of an hereafter? Could Moses "esteem the reproach of Christ | Christ as in a state of nonage, and under the law as a "schoolmaster." (Gal. greater riches than all the treasure of Egypt." because he had respect to I i. 23-25.) Now this not only suggests a state of severe discipline. but imthe recoinpense of rewarl," when his whole life was a series of afiliations": plies, that, like children, they were to be taught obedience on the authority of when he was not even suffered to set his foot within the promised land, hund the schoolmaster, without being acquainted with the reasons on which his he not looked for a better country, even a heavenly" one? Indeed the precepts were founded, and thus taught a system of implicit obedience, a cir. apostle bath fully decided this question, when he tells us, God hath "prepared cumstance of the hihe'st importance in our Christian education for as the for them a city ;" for what city was prepard for these venrable patriarchs, apo tle to the Hebrews argues, if, when children, we were subjected to the disexcept that New Jerusalem to which we all aspire ? Indeed, it is ridiculous cipline and instruction of parents and preceptors, who chastined us for their to suppose that any man can live under the impression of a religious principle, picasure, much rather should we be “in subjection to the Father of spirits, and who expects at his death to prish like a dog.
live." (Heb. xii. 7-9.) II. We are called to consider the true nature of the Hebrew Ritual. The ene Moses died, and Joshua succeriled him, in the year of the world 2553, and mies of revelation describe it as a mere round of caremonies, unmeaning, if | 1451 years before the birth of Christ, as it is commonly reckoned. But respecte not ridiculou9 ; but the learned and ingenious Loroman, who has deeply invesling the time of the death of Joshua there is some doubt, as there are various tigated this subject, has shown that it was calculated to answer the most im- dates fixed to that event, by different commentators.
1W benchal land with c
The Book of Joshua is one of the most important documents in the Old Tes., ties with which it was overwhelmed. PROCOPICS relates, that the Phenicians tament. The rapid conquest of the Promised Land, and the actual settlement fled before the Hebrews into Africa, and spiread themsclves abroad as far as of the Israelites in it, afford a striking accomplishment of the divine predic. | the pillars of Hercules, and adds. “In Numidia where now stands the city tions to Abraham and the succeedin: Patriarchs ; and, at the same time, ber Tigisis, (Tansicrs.) they have erected two columns, on which, in Pbornician the most unequivocal and ample testimony to the nuthenticity of this sacred claracters, is the following inscription :-'We are the Phenicians, who find book. Several of the transactions related in it are confirinod by the tradi from the face of Jesus (or Joshua) the son of Naue (Nun)'" The overthrow tions current among heathen nations, and preservedly ancient s rofane huis. of (x king of Bachan, and the Anakim, is considered as having given rise torians of undoubted character. Thus there are ancient monuments extant, to the fable of the overthrow of the giantsand the tempest of hail stones which prove that the Carthaginians were a colony of Syrians who escaped was transformed by the poets into a tenipost of stones, with which Jupiter from Joshua ; as also that the inhabitants of Leptis in Africa came originally overwhelmed the enemics of Hercules in Arim, exactly the country where froin the Sidonians, who abandoned their country on account of the calani | Joshua fought with the children of Anak.
TIIE BOOK OF JUDGES.
THE term JUDORS. (Hebrew. Shophetim.) w originally applied to those Christ, and to extend over a period of nearly 320 years, to the time of Eli. It is whom Mo 08, by the advice of his friher-in-law Jethro, appointed to assist sutliniently evident that the people soon degenerated, but it may be justly interhin in hearing and redressing the complaints of the people they also forme red from circumstances, that the degeneracy was not universal, nor continued a kind of Legislature under Mist and from them. in after times, originated throughout the whole period. The first sixteen chapters seem to follow nearly in the Jewish Sanhelrun The Judaee here mentioned, were not only magis chronological order, from the death of Joshua to the deatli of Samson, buat trate, and some of the prophului venerally military chiefs and avengers the last five chapters contain some distressing incid
the last five chapters contain some distressing incidents, which form a sort of of the people. Some a r to hav. prrcised their office only in particular appendix to the former part of the history. tribes, or districts, while the authorits of others was more general and exten 'The learned Dr. Graris remarks,-" By a superficial reader of the sacred his sive of the former, some may have been contemporary
tory, the whole period under the Judgos may be easily mistaken for an unin. The writer of this book is not known; but is onerally supposed to have terrupted series of idolatrieg and crimes, from his not observing that the lang been the prophet Surel, the last of the Judges, who resigned his authority, which incurred punishinent, and the divine deliverances which attended repent by the people deire, to Saul, their first monarch. Hence it is peatedly said. | ance, are related so fully and distinctly as to occupy alnost the whole "In those days there was no kin in Isr1C! :' which plainly indicates that the narrative : while long periods, when under the government of the Judges, o kingly poverurnent had berunt.fore this book was written.
people followed God, and the land enjoyed peace, are passed over in a single The history of this book is supposed to commence about 1443 years before 'verse. as productivo of' no event which required a particular detai.
of Judges forms an import or a fluctuati sequited without
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. The Book of Judges forms an important link in the history of the Israelites. I gave rise to the story of Iphigenia, (Iphthygenia, i. e. the daughter of Jephen It furnishes us with a lively description of a fluctuating and unsettled nation ; thah) bing sacrificed by her father Agamemnon to gain the gods over to his & Etnking ucture of the disorders and dangers which prevailed without magis- side. The Vulpinaria, or feast of foxes, celebrated by the Romane at the
nacy i wlica "the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked feast of Ceres, in the month of April, (the Jewish harvest, but the Roman through by ways ;" when few prophets were appointed to control the peo-seed-time,) in which they fixed burning torches to the tails of a number of ple, and every one did that which wils right in his own eyes." It exhi | foxes, and let them run through the circus till they were burnt to death, said but the contexts of true religion with superstition; and displays the beneficial to be in revenge upon that species of animal for having once burnt up the
ts that How from the former, and the muiseries and evil consequences of felds of corn, was evidently derived from the story of Sarson, probably conparty. It is a most remarkable history of the long suffering of God towards vered into Italy by the Phanicians. In the history of Samson and Delilah, the Israelites, in which we see the rost signal instances of his justice and we have the original of Nisus, king of Megara, and his daughter Scylla, who Percy alte mately displayed; the people sinned, and were punished, they re cut off the fatal purple lock, upon which victory depended, and gave it to lus
erted, and found mercy. These things are written for our warning: none enemy Minos, then at war with him, who by that means destroyed both him should preturne, for God is JUST; none need despair, for God is MER and his kingdom. And, to mention no more, it appears highly probable, that
Samson is the original and essential Hercules of fable ; for, although the poets Independently of the internal evidence of the authenticity of this sacred have united several particulars drawn from Moses and Joshua, and have addbond the transactions it records are not only cited or alluded to by other in ed their own inventions, yet the most capital and considerable belong to Satspend writers, but are further confirmed by the traditions current among heat son, and are distinguished by characters so peculiar to him, as to render hun then pations. Thus, the circumstance of Jephthah's devoting his daughter leasily discerned throughout the whole.
Furey, a tod found m
ond is jus
THE BOOK OF RUTH.
THE anthor of this Book is unknown, but not improbably was Samuel ; and doctrine of providence; to show how conversant it is about our private conthe time, though not certain, is supposed to be yo been about the period of cerns, and to teach us " in all our ways to acknowledge God;" and to adore Gujan bring called to the office of judge of Israel. Then Israel wis grey. his mercy in all the events which concern us. 2. To lead us to Christ, who Olly
by the Midianites, who, invading the land of Israel, had strip- descended from Ruth, and part of whose genealogy concludes the book. 3. pe them of their com. and creates an artificial famine; the only fainine in the conversion of Ruth the Moabitess, we have also a type of the calling of
(as is remarked by Bishop Patrich) during the administration of the Gentiles into the fellowship of the Messiah. We may add, 1. It is partitb jura (See Jurig vi. 4,5)
cularly interesting, as attording a beautiful picture of the simplicity of ancient The narrative itself may be abridged into a few words: Elimelech, an in manners, and the best illustration of the Hebrew law of redemption. It folbr o thlehem, accompanied by his wife Naomi and two sons, (Mahlow's admirably after the Book of Judser, to which it may be considered as an by and Chubon.) being driven by famine, ae above stated, from the land of Appendir, and affords a pleasing relief, after the barbarous events related in
0 to 20Hirn in the land of Moab, where he died. His two song | the three last chapters of that book mry two Moabub women, Ruth and Omah, the former of which fonns 1 Not only has this book largely shared the encomiums of Jewish and Christhr het ofta interesting story. In the course of ten years, both the young tian writers, but the following classical remarks are from an author who can. In de and Naomi, accompanie! by her two daughters-in-law, returns to not be suspected of partiality for the Scriptures. “The history of Ruth is Je where pere and plenty were now restored. On the way, she per-written with a untural and aflecting simplicity. We know nothing in either kua them to go back to their relations in Moal), to which Ornah reluctantly | Horner or Herodotus that goes to the heart like this answer of Ruth to her COIS : but Ruth pitively refines to leave her mother-in-law. At leugth, mother, 'Whither thou zvest I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge, thuch the leadines of Providence, she become known to Boaz, a rich &c. (chi. 16, 17.) There is a sublimity in this simplicity. ..We have
S ET of the tribe of Ehraim, who was related to Elimelech, her de often said, that these times and manners have nothing in common with our €134 fath-in-law, to whom she is shortly married, and becomes the own, whether good or bad; their spirit is not ours; their good sense is not IT- tot Obed, the grandfather of David, and ancestor of David's Son and ours. It is on this very account that the Pentateuch, the books of Joshua and Liet
| Judges, are a thousand times more instructive than Homer and Herodotus." The design of this book is, according to Henry, to lead 13, 1. Into the true (Vouaire : quoted Crit. Rev. July, 1796.)
plenty wetea in Moal), to
Taim, who become mother in th
The authenticity and canonical authority of this sacred book cannot be plensing contrast to the turbulent scenes described in the preceding Book. And,
r d; end the Evangelists, in describing our Saviour's descent, have fol while it exhibits, in a striking and affecting manner, the care of Divine Provi: nar ** *** gral acrounts. To delinerte part of this genealogy appears dence over those who sincerely fear God, and honestly aim at fulfilling liia to be the wincial desit of the book: it had been foretold that the Messiah will, the circumstance of a Moabites becoming an ancestor of the Messiah
f the trib:of Judah, and it was afterinaris revealed that he should seems to have been a pre-intimation of the admission of the Gentiles into his of the family of Davidl; and therefore it was neressary, to prevent the Church. It must be remarked, that, in the estimation of the Jews, it was last picion of fraud or desirn, that the history of that family should be I discraceful to David to have derived his birth from a Moabitess; and Shi
Titten before these propheries were revealed. And thus this book, these pro inei, in his revilings against him, is supposed by them to have tauntingly reJ . PDU their accomplishment, serve mutually to illustrate each other. Hected on his descent from Ruth. This book, therefore, contains an intrinsic The whole Darrative is extremely interesting and instructive; and is written proof of its own verity, as it reveals a circumstance so little flattering to the with the most banliful inplicity. The distress of Naoini ; her affectionate sovereign of Israel; and it is scarcely necessary to appeal to its admission Cunerro for her daughter in law; the reluctant departure of Orpah; the duti. into the canon of Scripture, for a testimony of its authentic character. Add
to which, that the native, the amiable simplicity in which the story is told, is brat told The simplicity of manners, likewise, which is shown in the a sufficient proof of its genuineness. There are several sympathetic circum
Yount of Ruth's industry and attention to Naomi ; of the elegant charity of stances recorded which no forger could have inventod; there is too much of Braz, and of his acknowledgment of his kindred with Ruth, afford a very l nature to admit any thing of art.
THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL,
In th Hebrew canon, this and the following book form but one, and derive be accounted for, on the supposition that they were added by Ezra when he ti m e from the prophet Samuel; whose history and transactions are re- forined the canon of Scripture. In the Septuagint and Vulgate, they are call1art in the first book, and by whorn, it is liighly probable, the former part of it, ed the First and Second Book of Kings. The first book consists of thirty-one as far the twenty-fourth chapter, was written; while the latter part, as I chapters, coutaining an account of the birth of Samuel, with the thanksgiving Will the B ond book, are amonbed to the prophets Gad and Nathan, (see gong of Hannah; the mal-administration of Eli's sons; the call of Samuel, and Ihon mit 29.,) and in this opinion the Jews arquiesce. Oihers, with Cal the denunciation against Eli's house, the capture of the ark by the Philistines, and Int. $13, Ptiese wok to be much more recent than these persons, but the completion of God's judgment against the house of Eli; the chastisement that he were composed out of their memoirs. The equality of the style, inflicted on the Philistines for retaining the surk; its retur, and the punishment th Ingint pulch on the character and conduct of Samuel, the connex of those who profanedits sanctity; the repentance of the people at Mizpeh, and
or of material partirular quotations and remarks on certain events, are, the subduing of the Philistines; the election of Sou for a king, in consequence of C C Uw , proof sufficiently clear of what he assumes. These looks, the ill advised desire of the lsraclitee; the wars of Saul with the Philistines ; his
It is id, contain remarks and expressions which could only proceed from a sins and rejection; the anointing of David ; his victory over Goliath ; his unjust Cin tory auth, and others which are evidences of a much iter age.persecutions by Saul; the death of Samuel, whom Sauconsults by means of the Il probable, however, that these supposed marks of posteriority may easily witch of Endor; the defeat, death, and burial of Saul and his sons.
e tire born out of their and conduct of
In the book the sacred writer illustrates the characters and describes the came with great cagerness to measure themselves by the staff, and to try if the
it of his history in the must engaging manner. The weak indulgence of oil would boil in their presence; but in vain. Saul, otherwise called Sharek, E n wel traud with the firm piety of Samuel. The rising virtues ot and surnamed Talut, ie. the Tall, who was no more than a carner of wnter, De anth salt deprasity of Saul, are strikingly opposed. The sentiments or dresser of leather, came to the prophet among the rest, and inmedintely
ruri ony scattered throughout are excellent ; and the inspired hymn of the oil begin to boil in the vessel, and he was found to be just the height of Harrah which mich resemble that of Mary, discloses a grand prophecy of the miraculous staff. On these tokens. Samuel declared him king ; but the the M ah. or the Anointed of the Lord, whose attributes are proclained as heads of the tribes, especially that of Judah, to whom the royal dignity had thor of the exalted Sutereign and appointed Judge of the earth. Besides the been promised, expostulated, saying, How can this man be our king, who has numai un of the truth of this Sacred history, it may be rernarked, that bea no extate? How can he support the expense and dignity of the royal state? tha juthors have borrowed, or collected from other sources, many particulars Sanuel replied, The Lord has chosen hin. who disposes of kingdoms without
f 17w acroint which the writer gives. The Orientals relate, that Samuel control, to whomsoever he pleases. The Israelites would not yet Rubmit. En e mnd his report to Goi that the Hebrews were resolved to have a king. I but insisted on having a sign from Samuel that they might be assured from Go
un a vesselor horn full of oil and a stafl, revealing to him, that the God, that this was his will. Sannuel answered them. This is the miracle that 17 WOO presence the oil should boil in the verrel, and whose nature God gives you to contirm his choice: the ark of the Lord which was taken
be erjual to that start, was appointed for their king. No sooner was away by the Philistinos, shall be brought back to you by angels. Wben, there. was determinatinn published among the people, than all the chiefs of the tribes i fore, the election of Saul was proclaimod, the Philistines being resolved to
truth of an