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OTR Preface to this book we mainly borrow from Horne's very valuable Some of the proverbs which Solomon had introduced into the former part of Introduction to the Critical Study of the Scriptures."
the book are here repeated. It seems eertain that the collection called the . Proverbs of Solomon,' was “Part V. Comprises chapters xxx. and xxxi. In the former are included the arrence in the order in wbich we now have it, by different hands; but it is wise observations and instructions delivered by Agur, the son of Jakeli, to his Ra f ort to be concluded, that they are not the productions of Solomon, I pupils, Ithiel and Ucal. The thirty-first chapter contains the precepts which
10. We are informed, composed no less than three thousand Proverbs; (1 Ki. | were given to Lemuel by his mother, who is supposed by some to have been a js As it is nowhere said that Solomon himself made a collection of proverbs Jewish woman married to some neighbouring prince, and who appears to have and eatenees, the general opinion is, that several persons made a collection of been most ardently desirous to guard him against vice, to establish him in the them Hezekiah, among others, as mentioned in the twenty-fifth chapter; I principles of justice, and to unite him to a wife of the best qualities. Of Agur Asur. Isaiah, and Ezra, might have done the same. The Jewish writers affirm we know nothing ; nor have any of the commentators offered so much as a that Solomon wrote the Canticles, or Song, bearing his name, in his youth; 1 plausible conjecture respecting him. the Proserts in his riper years, and Ecclesiastes in his old age.
"The Proverbs of Solomon afford a noble specimen of the didactic poetry of - Michaelis has ohserved, that the Book of Proverbs is frequently cited by the Hebrews; they abound with antithetic parallels ; for this form is peculiarly basistles, who considered it as a treasure of revealed morality, whence | adapted to adages, apborisms, and detached sentences. Much, indeed, of the Christians were to derive their rules of conduct; and the canonical authority elegance, acuteness, and force, which are discernible in Solomon's wise gayof na bok of the Old Testament is so well ratified by the evidence of quota.ings, is derived from the antithetic form, the opposition of diction and sentitors as that of the Proverbs. The scope of this book is to instruct men in the ment. Hence a careful attention to the parallelism of members will contributo deest mysteries of true wisdom and understanding, the height and perfection to remove that obscurity in which some of the proverbs appear to be involved." which is the true knowledge of the divine will, and the sincere fear of the 1 To this very judicious and perspicuous account and briet' analysis of the
Prov. i 2-.: ix. 10.) To this end the book is filled with the choicest book, we shall only subjoin a few brief bints, from the excellent "Preliminary Bententious aptiorisms, infinitely surpassing all the ethical sayings of the an- Dissertation of the Rev. Geo. Holden, M. A. prefixed to his New Translation cirpt sages, and comprising in themselves distinct doctrines, duties, &c. of of that book. pity towards God, of equity and benevolence towards man, and of sobriety Mr. H. remarks that the Asiatics have, in all ages, concentrated their mora)
interanee; together with precepts for the right education of children, and political wisdom in certain aphorisms, which have been generally admired and for the relative situations of subjects, magistrates, and sovereigns. by other nations : that the early Greeks adopted a similar method, as witness "To twak of Proverbs may be divided into five parts.
| the Sayings of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, the Golden Verees of Pytha *Part L In the poem or exordium, containing the first nine chapters, the goras, &c.; and they were copied by the Romans and other western nations : Cacher gives his pupil a series of admonitions, directions, cautions, and excite- unless we rather conclude that this was a dictate of nature equally obvious
rats to the study of wisdom. This part, says Bishop Lowth, is varied, ele. to all.. ant, sublime, and truly poetical : the order of the subject is, in general, excel. On the Proverbs of Solomon, we will only add, that as it does not appear antly preserves, and the parts are very aptly connected. It is embellished that Solomon was the collector of his own Proverbs, so neither is it certain with many beautiful descriptions and personifications; the diction is polished, that they were all written or uttered about the same period. Most of the deen aand, with all the ornaments of poetry, so that it scarcely yields in ele tached aphorisms were probably delivered by him at the time when the fame panee and szilendour lo any of the sacred writings.
of his wisdom drew together "all the kings of the earth to witness it.” (2 Ch. Part IL Extends from chapter x. to xxii. 16. and consists of what may be ix. 23.) Some, however, seem to be so much the result of his experience, that strety and proper.y called procerbs; namely, unconnected sentences, ex- we are inclined to date them not long prior to the composition of his EcclesiDeen with much neatness and simplicity.
astes. On the other hand, as he "spake three thousand proverbs," of which "Part IIL Reaches from chapter xxii. 17. to xxv. inclusive ; in this part the we have not much above eight hundred, we think it highly probable that many tutor drojis the sententious style, and addresses his pupil as present, to whom of the aphorisms in the books of Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom were really his, be sives renewed and connected admonitions to the study of wisdom.
though preserved only in a Greek translation in the Apocrypha. The provethis contained in Part IV, are supposed to have been selected In Holden's remarks on the ditficulties and obscurities of the Book of Prosome larger collection of Solomon, by the men of Hezekiah ;' that is, verbs, we thank him for his manly and judicious protest, against correcting
propbet whom he employed to restore the service and writings of the and expounding Hebrew words by means of the Arabic; excert only in cases
ish church. (2 Chron. XXX. 20, A.) This part, like the second, consists of where all other means of information fail, either from the Hebrew itself, or the detachel, unconnected sentences, and extends from chapter xxv. to xxix. ! most ancient versions.
CONCLUDING REMARKS, The wisdom of all ages, from the highest antiquity, has chosen to compress tion, or rank in life, however varied in its complexion, or diversified by circumpodenmmunieate its lessons in short compendious sentencey, and in poetic stances. Kings and subjects, rich and poor, wise and foolish, old and young, larruage, which were readily conceived and easily retained, and circulated in fathers and mothers, husbands and wives, sons and daughters, masters and Srets as useful principles, to be unfolded as occasion required. Indeed, such servants, may here learn their respective duties, and read lessons of instruc
na rims, comprehending much instruction in a few words, and carrying tion for the regulation of their conduct in their various circumstances; whilo berpen evidence with them, are admirably adapted to direct the conduct, the most powerful motives, derived from honour, interest, love, fear, natural
tertiardening the memory, or perplexing the mind with abstract affection, and piety, are exhibited, to inspire an ardent love of wisdom and reasonings; and hence there are, in all countries, and in all languages, old virtue, and the greatest detestation of ignorance and vice. These maxims are purerts, or common sayings, which have great authority and influence on the laid down so clearly, copiously, impressively, and in such variety, that every Ounas and actions of mankind. Such maxims, however, want their proper man who wishes to be instructed may take what he chooses, and, among bars, the sanction of a divine original ; and, being generally the mere result multitudes, those which he likes best." He is wise," says St. Basil,"not of worldly prudence, are often calculated to impose on the judgment, and to only who hath arrived at a complete habit of wisdom, but who hath made m ean those who are directed by them. But the proverbs in this book not some progress towards it ; nay, who doth as yet but love it, or desire it, and
ons are far more ancient than any others extant in the world, and infinitely listen to it. Such as these, by reading this book, shall be made wiser; for S ass all the ethical sayings of the ancient sages; but have also received at they shall be instructed in much divine, and in no less human learning .... Die imprimatur, and are infallible rules to direct our conduct in every cir-It bridles the injurious tongue ; corrects the wanton eye; and tios the unjust Postance of human life. They are so justly founded on the principles of hand in chains. Il persecutes sloth; chastises all absurd desires ; teaches bnman pature, and so adapted to the permanent interests of man, that they prudence ; raises man's courage; and represents temperance and chastity agree with the manners of every age, and are adapted to every period, condi- | after such a fashion, that one cannot but have them in veneration."
ence there are ty, or, perplexingtone to direct the conting
persecutes corrects ined inano
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emilies a preacher mean the phis book is ke
ECCLESIASTES; OR, THE PREACIIER.
INTRODUCTION. The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint, in which it is entitled of mirth and pleasure, of riches, magnificence, power, and wealth, interspersed ECCLESIASTES, which signifies a preacher ; nearly corresponding to its name with many counsels how the vanity or vexation of each may be abated, and in tbe onrinal, koheleth, which may either mean the person assembling the frequent intimations that true wisdom is far preferable to all other acomisiDeore, or he who addresses them when convened. This book is generally tions, and that a cheerful use of providential blessings is much better than roerred to Solomon; and the Jews and Jerome hold that it was written by vetousness, (chap. 1.-VL. 9:) and in the latter part, he shows that true hapbarn in the deeline of life, when brought to deep repentance for the idolatries piness is only to be found in a religious and virtuous life, which constitutes the into which he had been seduced. That Solomon was its author appears al truest wisdom, (chap. VI. 10.-XU.) Here, indeed, the royal Preacher somemost certain from several passages in the work itself, (see chap. I. 12, 16. 11. times pauses to show the vanity of things incidentally mentioned ; yet this 4-10 VIL . XIL 9, 10;) and the occurrence of foreign words and idioms, part is chiefly occupied in teaching us where and how to seek present comfort wtech las induced come to refer it to a later period, may be accounted for by and final happiness ; inculcating a cheerful, liberal, and charitable use of tem
tended commerce of Solomon, and the circumstance of his connexion poral blessings, without expecting to derive from them any permanent or
trange women," whose languages he probably acquired. It is evidently satisfactory delight; to be patient under unavoidable evils ; not to aim at iry into the CHIEP GOOD, or what can render a man happy ; in discuss perilous, arduous, and impracticable changes; to fill up the station allotted ch Solomon first shows what is not happinesy, and then what it is. us, in a peaceable, equitable, and prudent manner; to be humble, content. ngly, the book has been very properly divided into two parts ; in the ed, and affectionate, and to do good abundantly, and persevere in so doing,
of which he shows, from his own experience, the vanity of all terres for the pleasure arising from it, and from the expectation of a gracious retrial objects and pursuits, of wisdom and knowledge, (apart from true religion,) ward.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. TEOCGH nothing can be more important, interesting, and excellent, than the thing as evil in itself. This world, according to them, cannot be too bitterly seginets and instructions to be found in this inestimable book, yet such has inveighed against; and man has nothing else to do with it, but to spend his been the ignorance, inattention, or depravity of some persons, that it would be days in sighing and mourning. But it is evident that nothing could be farther hard to find an instance of any thing which has been so grossly misrepresent from the Preacher's intention : for, though he spenks so feelingly of the instal
How often hea han lle been taken from certain passages, ill understood. hility and unsatisfactory nature of all sublunary things, and the vanity of huorse applied. to patropise libertinism, by such as pretend to judge of the man cares, schemes, and contrivances, yet. lest any one should mistake bis
from a single sentence, independent of the rest, without paying the meaning, be advises every man, at the same time, to reap the fruit of his ho egard to the general scope or desin! According to which rule, the nest labours, and take the comfort of what he possesses with a sober freedoni DiOS dieronrue that was ever written may be perverted to Atheism. and clieerful spirit. There is nothing in the whole body of Pagun philosophy
atics have fallen into the contrary extreme : for, on reading that all so elevated and magnificent as what some have written on the important sub w is vanity they have been so wicag-headed, a to condemn every joct of this poem ; but their opinions are so vanous and contradictory, and tho
INTRODUCTORY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON EACH BOOK
noat plausible so blended with errors, that their sublimest sentiments on the latter imposed both on themselves and the world, when they taught that vir sovereign good, or ultimate happiness of man, when compared with those of tue, however atBicted here, was its own reward, and sufficient of itself to renthe Royal Preacher, not only appear cold and languid, but always leave the 1 der man completely happy. Even in the brazen bull of Perillus, truth will cry mind unsatisfied and restless. We are lost in a pompous flow of words ; and out from the rack, against such fallacious teachers, and prove them liars. The dazzled, but not illuminated. One sect, by contining happiness to sensual extravagant figments, therefore, of the stoical aparity, no less than those of pleasures, No greatly slackened the cord, as to render it wholly useless ; ano the voluptuous Epicurean, both equally vanish at the splendour of the Di. ther, by their too austere and rigid maxims, stretched it so tight, that it vine truth delivered by Solomon. He alone decides the great question in such snapped asunder; though the experience of all ages has evinced, that these I a manner, that the soul is instantly convinced : it need seek no further.
relo by Crenderhed
ppiness to serano
the volun'delivered by Folins lantly convinced
THE SONG OF SOLOMON.
INTRODUCTION. In the First Book of Kings, (chap. iv. 32.) we find Solomon's Songs recorded sion, be united with him in love; that so all things may be one, as they were at "one thousand and five," some of which are probably preserved in the from the beginning." Book of Punims, and others included in the book now before us, which is The generality of Jewish expositors consider the allegory as relating to the called "the Sung of Songs," as the most esteemed and considerable, and pro God of Israel and the Jewish church, but the most eminent Christian divines bably including several of them. Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, divided the (especially Protestants) refer it to the pure and spiritual love subsisuns bepoem into seven parts, answering to the seven days of the Jewish weddings; tween Messiah and the Christian Church, which, in New Testament language, and Dr. Percy, (afterwards Bishop of Dromore.) who adopted the same notion, he purchased" with lus blood. divides it into seven eclogues; but Dr. Mason Good into twelve distinct idyls. "God is represented as the spouse of the church, and the church as the he.
Not only is this poem attributed to Solomon in the title, and by general tra I trotbed of God. This also the piety of The people, their impiety, their dition, but there are several points in the imagery which direct us to the age l idolatry, and rejection, stand in the sumne relation to the sacred covenant as and circumstances of this celebrated king. The towers of David and of Leba-chastity, immodesty, adultery, and divorce, with respect to the marriage connon, the fishpools of Heshbon, the vineyards of Engedi, the chanot and horses tract. And this notion is so familiar in Scripture, that the word adultery (or of Pharaoh, &c. woula hardly have been thus referred to in a much later age. whoredom) is commonly used to denote idolatrous worship ; and so appropri.
Should it be asked, in what period of Solomon's lite it was composed, the ate does it appear to this metaphorical purpose, that it very seldom occurs mo style and imagery oniployed, by no means agree with an advanced stage of its proper and literal sense." life, the references to his marriage certainly incline us to attribute it, with Dr. As the God of Israel was considered as the Husband of the Jewish church, Lightfoot, to a period not long after his accession to the throne, and it has so is Jesus Christ represented in the same relation to the Christian. 2 Cor. xi. generally been referred to the occasion of his marriage with Pharaoh's daugh. 2. Ephes. v. 23. And, consequently, not only is idolatry considered as adul. tor-his only marriage particularly noticed in the Scriptures; and who is dis tery, but even heresy, by which we mean some fundamental error, such as tinguished from the strange women that turned away his heart to idols. See * tuming the grace of God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, 1 kings xi. 1. Some passages have been indeed objected to, as inconsistent I and our Lord Jesus Christ:" (Jude 4.) and such heretics are threatened to be with this idea ; notwithstanding all objections, however, we still think it the punished as spiritual adulterers. Rev. ii. 19-24 most probable hypothesis.
But uimitting the conjugal relation of Christ and the New Testament That this book belongs to the sacred canon, we cannot doubt : indeed the | Church, it is proper to inquire who are intended inystically by the VIRGINS, tho late Dr Priestley (who wus not ready to believe too much) says, "There can daughters of Jerusalem, and the Companions of the Bridegroom? Commenbe no doubt but that the canon of the Old Testament was the saine in the tators seem livided on this subject : but we have a happy chue to our inquiry. time of our Saviour as it is now." It has been objected, that Josephus does from an infallible expositor. When the dispute wan aritated between the dis. not name thus in his catalogue of the Sacred Books; but though he is not so ciples of John and those of Jesus, why the former fasted and not the others, express as might be wished, there is no reason to think he meant to exclude it. Jesus calls his own disciples " children of the bride-chamber," which seems It is well kuow that the Jews reckoned their inspired books 22, (equal to the of the like import with Companions of the Bridegroom, and even John the muinber of letters in their alphabet,) and he divides them thus ; five books of Baptist himsell claims that character. (See Matt. ix. 15. John iii. 29.) Moses, thirteen of the prophets, carly and later, and " four more, containing Christ:hen is the bridegroom, and the Christian Church the bride, the Lamb's hymns to God, and admonitions to me'n;" which, though he does not distinctly wife. (Rev. xxi, 9) Those who may not be formally members of this church, name liiem, are generally and reasonably reckoned to be, the Psalms, Pro in any of its ecclesiastical divisions, but love the Bridegroom, and rejoice to verbs Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. In the Christian church, we hear his voice, may be properly considered as either the friends of the Bridefind this book in the catalogue of Melito, about A. D. 170 ; in Origen, about groom, or the virgin companions of the bride. 230 ; in Athanasius, about 326, and in every succeeding age.
But who compose the Christian Church? Most certainly we are not autho" The Song of Songs (for so it is entitled, either on account of the excel rized to confine this to the members of any national or congregational church; lence of the subject, or of the composition is an Epithalamium or nuptial but we include in it the members of every Christian society who hold Clirist dialogue; or rather if we may be allowed to give it a title more agreeable to "the head," and honour him as such. (Col. ii. 19.) This is the church univer: the genius of the Hebrew, a Song of Lores. It is expressive of the utmost gal, and we consider as bridal virgins and companions of the Bridexroom, all fervour, as well as of the nt most delicacy of passion; it is instinct, with all who desire to unite with her, or delight to hear his voice. the spirit and all the sweetness of affection. The principal characters are So Fartber, as that which is true of the whole Christian church must be gene. bonon himself and his bride, who are represented speaking both in dialogue, | rally true of all its members, MO we think ourselves authorized to apply to each and in solloquy, wlmn accidentally separated. Virgins, also, the companions and every one of them all the precepts and all the consolations of this sacred of the bride, ure introduced, who seem to be constantly upon the stare, and | book, with due regard to their peculiar circumstances. And as the language bear a part in the dialogi; mention, too, is made of young men, friends of the of the Old Testament Church to Messiah way, "Make haste, my Beloved," bridegroom, but they are mute persons. This is exactly conformable to the man. Tas in the close of this bok: so the Book of Revelation closey with a like de ners of the Hebrews, who had always a number of companions to the bride- vout aspiration for his scrond coming-" Even so, come Lord Jesus!"-Says groom, thirty of whom were present in honour of Sainson. at his nuptial feast." the excellent T. Scott in his introduction to this book: "In short, this Song
Still it may be questioned, whether it is to be considered as a secubir or a is a divine allegory in the form of a pistoral, which represents the reciprocal eacted poem. Michaelis, who considers it perfectly chaste in its language, love between Christ and his church, under figures taken from the relation and ook upon it as written in honour of marriage; but others consider it as a sal attection, which subsist between a bridegroom and his espoused bride; an em
red allegory; and the very learned and elegant critic just quoted, says, " By blem continually employed m Scripture. It has somne reference to the state of Saveral reasons, by the general authority and consent of both the Jewish and the Jewish church, as waiting for the coming of the promised Messiah; but it Christian churches; and still more by the nature and analogy of the parabolic likewise accords to the reciprocal love between Christ and true believers in style, I feel irresistibly inclined to that side of the question which considers every age, and the communion which arises from it. In order properly to un this poem as an entire allegory. Those, indeed, who have considered it in a derstand it, we must consider the Redeemer as loving and beloved of his different light, and who have objected against the inconsistency and mean. church. The marriage contract is already ratified, but the completion of this ness of ihe imagery, seem to be but little acquainted with the genius of the blessed union is reserved for the heavenly state. Here on earth the believer parabolic diction."
loves and rejoices in an unscon Saviour, and seeks his happiness from luis spi Sir I'm. Jones, Dr. Mason Good, and others, have shown that this also is ritual presence: Christ 'manifests himself to him as he doth not unto the nccording to the general style of Eastern poetry, and have given a great num world;' and these visits are earests and forelastes of heavenly joy, but ber of similar examples from the Persian poets, and even from the Greck and they are interrupted, suspended, or varied, on many accounts; they are often Roman classics : but it is of much more importance to us, that we have simi lost by negligence or sin, and can only be recovered by humble repentance and lar instances of sacred allegory in other parts of the Old Testament. Seo 1 renewed diligence : yet the love on both sides remains unchanged, as to ile Isanh v. 1. ; xxvii. 2.; liv. 5, 6. ; lxii. 4. 5. Ezek. xvi. 10-14. Hos. ii. 19, 20. principle, though varied in the expression of it. These things are represented
The poem is a sacred allegory. In this light it was certainly considered by in a sort of dialogue; in which the church speaks of Christ, or to hin; and the ancient Rubbins: though, like Christian expositors, they differ in their he answers, and addresses the church: and the daughters of Jerusalem, (who modes of exposition. An old mystical writer sayy, that "God was transformed may represent such as are inquiring after this salvation.) are frequently address into love before he made the world. And because God created all things ined, and reply : thus the varying experiences and correspondent duties of the Inve, he embrace all things with the same love :" and the sum of all that he I believer are delineated in a very animating and edifying manner." exacts of us is, "that, being knit together by mutual love, we may, in conclu- ! The following are the divisions of tlus poem, according to
wimn accie who ar
han the bride
Idyl 1. ch. I. 1-9.
2. ch. I. 9.-11. 7.
3. ch. ILS-17.
4. ch. III. 1-5. - 3. cl. 11.-V. 1. - 3. ch. III 6.-V.1.
ch. III. 6.-IV. 7.
-4. ch. V. 2.-VI. 9.
ch. IV. 8.- V. 1. 4. ch. V. 2.-VI. 9.
ch. V. 2.-VI. 10.
5. ch. VI. 10.- VIII. 3. - 5. ch. VI. 10.-VII. 11.
ch. VI. U-13, - 6. ch. VIIL 4-7.
ch. VII. 1--9. - 6. ch. VII. 12.-VII. 3 - 7. ch. VIII. 8-12.
ch. VII. 10.-VIII. 4.
ch. VIII. 5-7. -- 7. ch. VIII. 4-14.
- 8. ch. VIII. 13, 14
- 12. ch. VIII. 8--14.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. To whatever species of composition this beautiful poem belonge, it is, be- fections of the mind towards the Creator and Redoemer of the world. Nor was yond all controversy. the finest for elegance and variety of imagery, and the thiy allegorical mode of describing the sacred union of mankind and the great choicest colouring of language, that ever proceeded from the pen of man. | Creator peculiar to the Hebrew nation, but it obtained among all the Eastern * Every part of the Canticles," says the learned and eloquent Borruet, i poels, from the earliest period down to the present tine. Sir W. JONES 28"alounds in poetical bunties: the objects which present themselves on every gures us, that, according to the zealous admirers of HAFIZ, wine means devoside, are the choicest plants, the most beautiful flowers, the most delicious tion; wleep, meditation; perfume, hope of the divine favour; kisses and pin fruits, the bloom and vigour of spring, the sweet verdure of the fields, flourish. bruces, the raptures of picty: beauty, the perfection of the Supreme Being ing and well-waterori garens, pleasant streams and perennial foutains. The tresses the expansion of his glory, &c. &c. The love of Mejnoun and Leileh other sense are represented as regaled with the most precious lours, natu also bave been celebrated in the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish langues, with mland triticial; with the sweet singing of birds, and the soft voice of the tur. all the charms of poetic rapture: whilst the impassioned losers themselves are to; with milk and boney, and the choicest wine. To the enchantments are rrigarled in the same allegorical light as the bride and bridegroom in this sacred adr il that is brautiliit and graceful in the human forin, the endentments, Tem. A similar einblematic mysticism is equally conspicuous in the bands of the arresrs, th delicacy of love it any object be introduced which sem not ludin; and the Vedantis or Hindoo commentators have in like manner attribt. to birmonize with this lichtful scene, such as the awfil prospect of tremen tela double that is, a literal and spiritual, meaning to their compositions. dels princes, the wild of the nounining, or the han of the line, it This is particularly the case with the pistoral drama called the Gitarovin la, eftirtis only to hidhtar loy' th contract the pay of the other objects, and or range of Javndern, the subject of which is the loves of Chrisna on Radha, Ord'herbums of variety to those of grace andel gance" But this warred or the reciprocal attraction britween the divine goodness and the human soul, Pero was not merely designed to regule the senses, or to pleron the imaginathe style and imagery of which, like those of the Royal Hebrew bard are in Uon, but to interest the heart, and to excite, regulats, and direct the cluste af te lughost degree flowery and amatory.
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPHETS.
The early Propheta committed nothing to writing; their predictions being | Christ curses the fig tree, to prefigure the fate of a people unfruitful in good caly or e thy of a temporal nature, are inserted in the historical books, togel works. Agabus binde himself with Paul's girdle, to pre figure the imprisonther with their fulfilment. Such appears to have been the case with Elijah, ment of the latter; and a mighty angel, in the Revelation, cast a huge stone Enha, Micaiah, and others; but those who were gifted with the spirit of pro into the sea, saying. Thus shall Babylon be cast down, and found no more at R mn it must exalted sense, and were commissioned to utter predictions, I all for ever. At other times this information was conveyed in visions, and not the accomplishment of which was ay yet fur distant, were directed to write literally transacted ; as when Ezekiel is said to lie many days on one side ; to th fri, or case them to be written in a book. (Compare Isa. vui. 1.; XXX. S Jer. carry a wine-cup to the neighbouring kings; and to bury a book in the EuIII : Xuvi. 2. 28. Ezek. xl. 11. Hab. ij. 2, &c.) The predictions thus phrates. The reader must own now that in this mode of instruction there was an te to wnting were carefully preserved, under a conviction that they nothing fanatic; for fanaticism consists in a fondness for unusual actions, or curare important truths, thereafter to be more fully revealed, which were to modes of speech : whereas these were general, and accommodated to the rureceive their accomplishment at the appointed periods. It was also the office ling taste. It God spoke in the language of eternity, who could understand of th Fronts to comit to writing the history of the Jews; and it is on this him? He, like the prophet, shrinks himself into the proportion of the child, arnt that in the Jewish classification of the books of the Old Testament, which he means to revive."--(Murray's evidences of the Jewish and Christian #tiadzeveral bistorical writings arranged among the Prophets. Throughout Revelations.) that the tic and historical book, the utmost plainness and sincerity prevail.
THE SUBJECTS OF PROPHECY. Ti d the inolatries of the nation, and foretel the judgments of God, wlach were to befall the Jews, in consequence of their forsaking his worship The subjects of prophecy are various and extensive, indeed so much so, as
törvic; and they have transmitted a relation of the crimey und miscon-i has been shown by Bishop Neroton, that they form a chain of predictions from d o their bat urines. David. Solomon, and others-(who were types of the beginning to the end of the Bible, and the world: but the grand subject of te a h, and from whose race they expected that he would descend : re: prophecy is the coming and kingdom of the Messiah, who was promised as the gain the stones of their several ruigns, as presages of his) -- who are de- | seed of the woman and of Abraham, the son of David and of God. This is w
only without flattery, but also without any reserve or extenua. I indeed the prominent topic of most of the Prophets now before us, and espe1:03. The write like men who had no regard to any thing but truth and cially of Isaiah. Many of his predictions will be found to refer to him alone; the rury of Gud.
and others, though they may have a partial accomplishment in nearer events Tive canner in which the Prophets announced their predictions varied ac and interior circumstances, have in him their final and complete accomplishC ning to circumstances. Sometimes they uttered them aloud in a public ment. facf: all it is in allusion to this practice that Iswah is commanded to cry " The argument from prophecy, (says the learned Bishop Hurd) is not to be alun. spare not, lint up his voice like a truinnet, and show the people of God formed from the consideration of single prophecies, but from all the prophe
the house of Jacob their sms' (Isa. Ivui. 1) Somecies taken together, and considered as making one system ; in which, from the tires that predictions were affixed to the gates of the temple, where they mutual dependance and connexion of its parts, preceding prophecies prepare mitt besterally read ; (Jer vii. 2,;) but upon important occasions, 'when it and illustrate those which follow; and these again reflect light on the foregoWas Theessary to Touse the fears of a disobedient people, and to recall them to ing; just as, in any philosophical system, that which shows the solidity of it. Eerita see, the Prophets, as objects of universal attention, appear to have is ibe harmony and correspondence of the whole; not the application of it in was about publicis in sackcloth, and with every external inark of humilia. particular instances.
Dan and sortow. They then adopted extraordinary modles of expressing their " Hence, though the evidence be but small, from the completion of any one O
n of impending wrath, and endeavoured to awaken the apprehen. prophecy taken separately, yet, that evidence being always something, the $ 3 of the countrymen, by the most triking illustrations of threatened pu. amount of the whole evidence resulting from a great number of prophecies, all m n t Thus Jeremiah maxle bonds and yokes, and put them on his neck, relative to the same design, may be considerable ; like many scattered rays,
WET. I strongly to intimate the subjection that God would bring on the which, though each bo weak in itself, yet, concentred into one point, shall na whom Nebuchadnetzar should sul due. Isaiah likewise walked na. form a strong light, and strike the sense very powerfully. Still more: this ket; that is without the rough garment of the prophet; and barefoot, (Isa. evidence is not simply a growing evidence, but is indeed multiplied upon us, u 2.) as a sign of the distresy that awaited the Egyptians. So Jeremiah from the number of reflected lights which the several coinponent parts of birke the Deatter's Vessel ; (xix. 10.;) and Ezekiel publicly removed his house. such a systein reciprocally throw upon each: till, at length, the conviction od is ruin the city, more forcibly to represent, by these actions, some rises unto a high degree of moral certainty.” (Hurd's Sermons on Prophecy.) Cre n t calamities ready to fall on nations obnoxious to God's wrath; LS of expressing important circumstances by action being customary! It is certain that the writings of the ancient Prophets were carefully preani failuraging all Eastern nations.
scrved during the captivity, and they are frequently referred to and cited by sonetimes the prophets were commanded to seal and shut up their pro- the later Prophets. Thus the prophecy of Micah ig quoted in Jer. xxvi. 18, a pages that the original might be preserved until they were accomplished, short time before the captivity, and, under it the prophecy of Jeremiah is cited an c uared with the event, (Isa. viii. 16. Jer. xxxii. 14. Dan. viii. 26.: in Dan. ix. 2, and the Prophets generally in ix. 6. Zechariah not only quotes arui 4.) For, when the prophecies were not to be fulfilled till atter many the former Prophets, (i. 4.) but supposes their writings to be well known to the
pars, and in sine cass, not till after several ages, it was requisite that the people, (vii. 7.) It is evident that Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Zechariah, and the orical tiny should be kept with the utmost cure, but when the time was Other Prophets, who flourished during the captivity, carefully preserved the
2 ar at laod, that the prophecies must be fresh in every person's recollec writings of their inspired predecessors; for they very frequently cited and aptin that the originals could not be suspected or supposed to be lost, the pealed to them, and expected deliverance from their captivity by the accom
me car was not required, (Rev. xxi. 10.) It seems to have been customary plishment of their predictions. for the uphets to dejosit their writings in the tabernacle, or lay them up be Although some parts of the writings of the Prophets are clearly in prose, of fore the Lord. (1 Sam. X. 25.) And there is a tradition, that all the canonical which instances occur in the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Jonah. boks, as well as the law, were put into the side of the ark.”-Horne's Intro and Daniel, yet by far the larger portion of the prophetic writings are classed
by Bishop Looth among the poetical productions of the Jews, and (with the e here subjoin the following passages from other writers of eminence, on exception of certain passages in Isaiah, Habakkuk, and Ezekiel, which aptwo important points connected with this subject :
pear to constilute complete poems of different kinds, odes as well as elegies)
form a particular species of poesy, which he distinguishes by the appellation ON PROPHETIC ACTION.
of prophetic." The prophetic poesy," says the same learned Prelate, "is * There is a circumstance running through the Old and New Testament, more oniamented, more splendid, and more florid, than any other. It abounds web tas uzzled many serious inquirers, owing to their unacquaintance with more in imagery, at least that species of imagery which, in the parabolic style,
u ranner: I speak of the inode of information by action. In the first is of common and established acceptation; and which, by means of a settled 26. When ons were few, men made up the deticiency of speech by action, analogy, always preserved, is transferred from certain and definite objects, to 2. vases are observed to do at this day : so that conveying ideas by action express indefinite and general ideas. Of all the images peculiar to the para*** is veal ar conveying them by speech. This practice, from its signifi bolic style, it most frequently introduces those which are taken from natural case wil stroog tendency to imprint vivid pictures on the imagination, en objects and sacred history; it abounds in metaphors, allegories, comparisons, d ) long after the reason for its origination ceased. It appears to have been and even in copious and diffuse descriptions ; it excels in the brightness of rction to particular country. The Scythians sent Darius a mouse, a imagination, and in clearess and energy of diction, and consequently rises to
fr.in a bart, which action spoke as plainly as words could do, and much an uncommon pitch of sublimity." D e rmatically, that he should fly with all speed to inaccessible fastnesses. As it is well known the Prophets did not live nor write in the order in which
be the son of Tarquinias Superbus had counterteited desertion to Gubii, their books are inserted in our Bible, we shall here introduce a Chronological ad had found the confidence of the citizens, he sent a trusty messenger to Table of their respective dates, from Horne. The four greater prophets (as has fet to know how he should conduct himself. Tarquin led him into a they are called) we shall distinguish by putting their names in capitals. una nuck off the heads of the highest poppies in his presence ; which be These Prophets, Horne remarks, may be arranged under three periods :az
Sextus, he knew that he should take off the heads of the princi 1 1. Before the Babylonian captivity- jonah, Amos, Hosca, Isaiah, Joel, MiI ntalntants. Conformable to this urage, when Jacob feared the wrath of cah, Nahum, Zephaniah: For the history of this period, see the second book
E , a!2+1 wrestled with hun: thereby signifying that his apprehensions of the Kings and Chronicles. **te enes, and that, as he had prevailed with a divine Being, so he 2. During the captivity, in part or in whole-Jeremiah, Habakkuk, Daniel, echt be powerful over man. Conformable to this, Ezekiel puts on a yoke to P r t the bondage of his countrymen, and walks without his upper gar 3. After the return-Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Compare the Books of
that, represent their nakedness in captivity. Conformable to this, Jesus Ezra and Nehemiah as to this period.
chap. i. 1, and perhaps Manasseh. Joel ... 810 to 660. Uzziah, or possibly Manasseh. Micah . - 753 to 699. Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, chap. ii. Pekah (or Pekabiah) & Hosea. Naliun - 720 to 698. Probably towards the close of Hezekiah's
reign.. Zephaniah. 640 to 609. In the reign of Josiah, chap. i. 1. JEREMIAH 628 to 586. In the thirteenth year of Josiah. Habakkuk 612 to 599. Probably in the reign of Jehoiakim. DANIEL 606 to 534. During all the captivity. 588 to 583. Between the taking of Jerusalem by Nebu-'
chadnezzar and the destruction of the
Edomites by hiin.
INTRODUCTORY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON EACII BOOK
THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET ISAIAH.
ISAIAH, who is placed first in our sacred volume, prophesied at least during prophet; but Amoz, the son of Joash, and brother of Uzziah, king of Judah. four reigng, us stated chap. i. 1; he flourished between A. M. 3194 and 3306, His style of writing is so sublime and beautiful, that Bishop Lorch calls hin 0° B. C. 810 and 698; and, as some think, also, during part of the reign of Ma "the prince of all the prophets." He has been also called the Evangelical Pronasseh, whom the Jews charge with being his murderer, by sawing him asun. phet, from the many discoveries he exhibits of the work and character of the der at a very advanced age. He calls himself the son of Amoz-not Amos the Messiah.
may be much lab mind is und the miss
The predictions of Isainh are so explicit and determinate, as well as so mu- neve, and dignity with variety. In his sentiments, there is extraordinary ele. merous, that he seems to speak rather of things past than of events yet fuvation and majesty ; in his imagery, the utmost propriety, elegance, dienity, ture; and he may be rather called an evangelist than a prophet. Though later and diversity; in his language, uncommon beauty and energy; and notwil'. critics have expended much labour and learning in order to rob the prophet standing the obscurity of his subjecte, a surprising degree of clearners did! of his title; yet no one, whose mind is unprejudiced, can be at a loss in ap simplicity. To these we may add, there is such sweetness in the potica! plying select portions of these prophecies to the mission and character of Jesus composition of his sentences, whether it proceed from art or genius, that it Christ, and to the events in his history which they are cited to illustrate by the the Hebrew poetry at present is possessed of any remains of ils native grace sacred writers of the New Testament. In fact, his prophecies concerning and harmony, we sball chiefly find them in the writings of Isaiah; so that the the Messiah seem almost to anticipate the Gospel history ; oo clearly do they saying of Ezekiel may justly be applied to this prophet: predict his divine character, (Cornp. ch. vii. 14. with Mal. i. 18-23. and Luke
Thou art the confimed exemplar of measures, i. 27–35. ch. vi. ix. 6. xxxv. 4. xl. 5, 9, 19. xlii. 6-8. lxi. I. with Lu. iv. 18. ch.
Full of wisdorn and perfect in beauty.--Ez, chap. xxviii. 12 lxii. 11. Ixu. 1-4.); his miracles, (ch. XXXV. 5. 6.); his peculiar character and Isaiah also greatly excels in all the graces of method, order, connexion, and virtues. (ch. xi. 2, 3. al. 11. xliv. 1-3.) ; his rejection, (Comp. ch. vi. 9-12. arrangement; though, in asserting this, we must not forget the nature of the with Mar. xii. 14. ch. vii. 14. 15. lui. 3.) ; his sufferings for our sins, (ch. 1. 6. prophetic impulse, which are away the mind with irresistible violence, and liii. 4-11.); his death and burial, (ch. lin. 9, 9.); his victory over death, (ch. frequently in rapid transitions from near to remote objects, from m an to XXV. 8. liii. 10, 12.); his final glory, (ch. xlix. 7, 22, 33. lii. 13--15. Juj. 4,5.); divine: we must likewise be careful in remarking the limits of particular preand the establishment, increase, and perfection of his kingdom, (ch. ii. 2-4. dictions, since, as they are now extant, they are often improperly connected, ix. 2, 7. xi. 4-10. xvi. 5. xxix. 18-24. XXXU. I. xl. 4.5. xli. 1. xvi 13. xlix. 9-13. without any marks of discrimination, which injudicious arrangement, on some li. 3 6. lü. 6-10. lv. 1-3. lix. 16--21. ls. Ixi. 1-5. lxv. 25.); cach specifically occasions, creates almost insuperable difficulties." But, though the variety of pointed out, and portrayed with the most striking and discriminating charac his images, and the warmth of his expressions, characterize him as unequalled ters. It is impossible, indeed, to reflect on these, and on the whole chain of his il. in eloquence: and, though the marks of a cultivated mind are plampen in lustrious prophecies, and not be sensible that they furnish the most incontestable every page of his book , yet these are almost eclipsed by the splendour of his evidences in support of Christianity. The style of Isainh has been universally ad. mired as the inost perfect model of elegance and sublimity; and as distinguish uiters his enraptured strains with an elevation and majesty that uplallowed ed for all the magnificence, and for all the sweetness, of the Hebrew language. lips could never attiun; and from the grand exordium in the first chapter to * Isaiah," says Bishop Loroth, "the first of the prophets, both in order and the concluding description of the Gospel, to “be brought forth" in wonders, and dignity, alounds in such transcendent excellencies, that he may be properly to terminate in the dispensation of eternity. there is one continued display of said to afford the most perfect model of the prophetic 1oetry. He is at once inspired wisdom, revealing its oracles and precepta for the instruction and elegant and sublime, forcible and ornamental ; he unites energy with copious salvation of man.
THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET JEREMIAH.
JEREMIAN was a Priest, who resided at Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, / in his Lamentations ; but he sometime emulates the sublimity of Isaials. The and was called to the prophetic office when very young, in the 13th year of king chapters merely narrative are in prose, but the prophetic parts, which form Josiah, and about 10 years after the death of Isaiah, A M. 3375. B. C. 629. ! the bulk of the book, are in the rigual poetical style. Horne divides the book He exercised his ministry about 42 years, with great faithfulness and zeal, and into four parts: the first comprising the introduction, and all the prophe in very unfavourable circumstances; till after the destruction of Jerusalem by supposed to be delivered under the reign of king Josiah--2The prophecies the Chaldeans; and is generally supposed to have died about two years after under the reign of Jehoiakin.-3. Those in the reign of Zedekiah : and. 1. Anac. wards in Egypt. At the commencement of his labours, the sins of Judah were count of the allairs of Judah, from the capture of Jerusalem to their flight into come to their full measure, after a reformation had in vain been attempted by Egypt. good Josiah, who was called to Heaven at an early age, as a punishment for The chapters in our present copies are evidently not arranged arcording to their transgressions. His two song, who successively filled the throne after the time in which they were delivered, and perhaps cannot now be soartasid him, were as remarkable for vice, as their father was for virtue. Their history with certainty: we shall, however, give the order adopted by Dr. Blomeu, we have already seen, 2 Kings, xxiii. to xxv. compared with 2 Chron. XXXV. though we cannot from the nature of our work, adopt it. This onder is exactly and xxxvi.
adopted by Dr. Boothroyd. Dr. J. G. Dahler, Professor of Theology in the Jeremiah was a man of sincere piety, unblemished integrity, and warm pa! Protestant ncminary of Strasburg, in an elaborate and very judicious transla. triotism ; so much so, that rather than seek a separate asylum, which he might tion of this Prophet, has divided the whole into sections, each of which is inhave undoubtedly enjoyed under the king of Babylon, he chose to flee with his troduced with excellent observations relative to time, plare, circumstances, brethren into Egypt, though in that step they acted cogtury to his advice. and matter contained in that section. The discourses, or prophecios, deliver There is a tradition that the Jews of Tahapanes stoned him for the fidelity of ed under a particular reign, are all produced in their chronological order. Tornhis remonstrances against their idolatry and other vices. If so, a few years after sond, however, comparing and examining the systems of other commentators. wards they were properly rewarded by the armies of the king of Babylon, ac- has given a table of chronological arrangement, differing in several particulars. cording to his own prediction, chap. xliv. 27, 28.
which we should be glad to copy ; but, for want of room, we can only relet The style of Jeremiah was tender and pathetic to a high degree, especially 'to it.
them, and shininjurious treatment
court of Babs their hard tument of him, that he
CONCLUDING REMARKS. JEREMIAH, as a prophet and patriot, must ever occupy the highest rank. He standing their injurious treatment of him, that he chose rather to nhide with discharged the duties of the prophetic office, for upwards of forty years, with them, and share their hardships, than separately to enjoy case and afluence at the most unremitting diligence and fidelity; though, in the course of his ini th court of Babylon! His prophecies, the circumstantial accomplishment of nistry, he met with great difficulties and opposition from his countrymen of all which is often specified in the Sacred Writings, are of a very distincuishel, de ranks, whose persecution and ill usage sometimes wrought so far on bis mind, terminate, and illustrious character. He foretold the fate of Zedekian, and the as to draw from liim, in the bitterness of his soul, expressions which many calamities which impended over his country ; representing in the most de have thought hard to reconcile with his religious principles : but which, when scriptive terms, and under the most expressive images, the destruction which duly weighed, may be found to deinand pity rather than censure. He was a the invading army whould produce; and bewailing, in pathetic existulation man of the most uoblemi hed piety and conscientious inteurity ; loved his the spiritual adulteries which had provoked JEHOVAH, after long forwarance corintry, for the welfare of which he watched, prayed, and lived, with all the to threaten Judah with condign punishinent, at a time when ine false proardour of enthusiasm, and deplored her miseries with the most pathetic elo! phets deluded the nation with promises of "assured peace," and when the n0 quence; and so affectionately attached was he to his countrymen, notwith ple, in impious contempt of the word of the LORD," defied its accomplishment.
aw. romersecution and illues and opposition from the course of this with
Teconcile with me of his soul "Tought so farormen of all
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. He also predicted the Babylonish captivity, and the precise period of its dura-part, historical: but the last part, consisting of six chapters, is entirely poettteu beidetruction of Babylon, and the downfall of many nations; the gra. I cal; and contains several oracles distinctly marked, in which this Prophet falls dual and succ***te completion of which predictions kept up the confidence of very little short of the loftest style of Isaiah." His images are, in general, the Jews for the accomplistunent of those prophecies which he delivered rela perbaps less lofty, and has expresions less duified, than those of some othere use to the Messiah and his period:us miraculous conception; his divinity of the sacred writers; but the character of his work, which breathes a tenderao c atorial kingdom; and particularly the new and everlasting covenant nesy of gorrow calculated to awaken and interont the milder affections, led him wtuch was tu tertablished with the true Israel ot God upon the sacrifice of to reject the majestic and declamatory tone in which the prophetic censures th. Massinh. The character of Jeremiah, as a writer, is thus ably drawn by and denunciations were sometimes conveyed. The holy zeal of the prophet Br Jeu : " Jeremiati is by no means wanting either in elegance or sublimity, is, bowever, often excited to a very vigorous and overwhelming eloquence, in inaft with cenerally saking, interior to Isaab in both ST. JEROME has obveighing agamat the audacity with which the Jews plonied in their abominajected to him a certain ruslicity in his diction; of which, I must confess, I do tions; and his descriptions, especially the last six chapters, have all the vivid not cover the smallest trace. His thoughts, indeed, are somewhat loss cleve colouring that might be expected from a painter of contemporary scenes. The ted, and is commonly more copious and diffuse in his sentences : but the rea- historical part, which chietly relates to his own conduct, and the completion of
not this may be, that be is mostly taken up with the gentler passions of gric those predictions which he had delivered, is characterized by much simplicity ent piry, for the expressing of which he has a peculiar talent. This is most evi of style ; and possesses some marks of antiquity that ascertain the date of its dent in the Lamentations, where those passions altogether predominate ; but composition. Thus the months are reckoned by numbers; a mode which did
E otten visible also in tus Prophecics; in the former part of the book more not obtain after the captivity, when they were dy unguished by Chaldaic especially, which is principally poetical. The middle parts are, for the most namcs.
THE LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH.
INTRODUCTION. TuS Book is denominated in Hebrew, Aichah, "How," from its first word and in the fifth chapter, which is not arranged according to the initial letter, the and sometimes Ringth. "Lamentations," from its subject; wbeoce it in term: stanzas are also couplets, but of a considerably shorter measure. The prophet ed in the septuagint Threnoi tout Jeremoiu, "the Lamentations of Jere- begins with lamenting the sad reverse of fortune which had befallen his coun: miah :*which is followed by the Syriac and Arabic, and also by the Vulgate, try, confessing at the same time that her calamities were the just consequence from the Lamentations of which is derived its pane in our language. That of her sins ; in the midst of which Jerusalem herself is introduced to continue Jariah w2. th athor of tois Book is evident, not only from the current opi the wad complaint, and to solicit the Divine mercy: be then shows the dire Dar o both ancient and modern times, but also from the exact correspondence eflects of the Divine anger, in the calamities brought upon his country : the unof the stule with that of his prophetics; and, though some eminent writers, as paralleled calamities of which he charges, in a great measure, upon the false JO EPIS, JEROME, JONIUS, and Abp. USHER, have thought that it was com. prophets; and in this desperate condition, the astonishment and by word of Dimond in the death of Jusiah, (2 Chronicles xxxv. 25.) yet the whole tenor all who see her, he directs Jerusalem to seek for mercy and pardon ; he next, of it as wall as its phraseology, plainly shows that it was coinposed on the oc. by enumerating his own severe trals, and showing his trust in God, encourages eason of the destruction of Jerusalem, ani the various desolations connected the people to the same resignation and trust in the Divine mercy: vindicates
the goodness of God in all his dispensations, and shows the unreasonableness This joimitable poem is very properly divided into five chapters, each of them of murmuring under them; recommende selt exemination and repentance: conting a distinct elesy, consisting of twenty-two stanzas, according to the and from past deliverances, cncourages them to expect pardon of their bumber of letters in the Hebrew alphabet; although it is in the four first chap sins, and retribution on their enemics; he then contrasts the deplorable state of Lenny that the several stanza: begin, after the manner of an acrostic, with the nation with its ancient prosperity ; ascribes the unhappy change, in a great the d e t letters toilowing each other in alphabetical order. In the first two degree, to the profligacy of the priests and prophets ; deeply and tenderly la. cuplerafachverse, or stanza, funns a triplet, except the seventh verse of the | ments the national calamities; prelicts the ruin of the insulting Edomites; frst anul the nineteenth of the second, which have cach a su unnerary line, and promises deliverance from captivity; and in conclusion, he introducou the Ir the tourd charter each staz cousists of three verses, which have all the nation groaning inder their calamities, and hurnbly Upplicating the Divine fal sa ne initial letter, so that the whole alphabet is thrice repeated. The fourth your, to comuniserate their wretchedness, and to restore them to their ancient ebapler resembles the three former in metre, but the stanzas are only coupleta; prosperity.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. Te Lamentations of Jeremiah, as Bishop Loroth observes, consist of a hath afflicted me in the day of his fierce anger!" But to detail its beauties number of plantise effusions, commesed upon the plan of the funeral dirges, would be to transcribe the entire poem. "Nor can we too much admire,"
allem the same subject, and uttered without connexion as they rose in the says Dr. Blayney, "the full and grateful flow of that pathetic eloquence, in m in a long wure of separate stanzas. These lave afterwards been put which the author pours forth the etlusions of a patriotic heart, and piously Letle and formed into a collection or correspondent whole. In the charac: weeps over the ruins of his venerable country . . . But the prophet's peculiar trof a memer, he co-brates in plaintive strains the obsequies of his ruined | talent lay in working up, and expressing the passions of mrief and pity; and, CHI : Waleve te wented itself to his inind in the midst of desolation and unhappily for him, as a man and a citizen, he met with a subject but too well Din . whatever truck him as particularly wretched and calamitous, what calculated to give his genius its full display." "One would think," says Dr. ***The N unt sentiment of sorrow dictated, he pours forth in a kind of South. "that very letter was written with a tear--every word the noise of a
tris eflission. The propliet has so copiously, so tenderly, and poeti broken heart :--that the author was a man compacted of sorrows, disciplined ruky
b r it misfortune of his country, that he seems completely to to grief from his infancy ; one who never breathed but in sighs, nor roke but har like the ofice and duty of a moumer. It may be doubled, if there be in a groan." "David, observes Dr. A. Clarke, "has forcibly depicted the Ittant ang pen. wluch displays such a happy and splendid selection of ima sorrows of a heart oppressed with penitential sorrow: but where, in a compoALS I COLerntrated a ytate. Never was there & more rich and elegant sition of such length, bave bodily misery and mental acony been more sucvanety of bau'fil images and adjuncts arranged together within so small a cessfully painted? All the expressions and images of sorrow are here exhibit comas, or more upply chosen and applied, and though there is no artified in various combinations, and in various points of view. Misery has no cial or methoiral arrangement in these incomparable elegir, yet they are I expression that the author of the Lamentations has not employed. Patriots! to 15 frutrum wild incoherency, or abrupt transition. What can be more you who tell us yon bumu for your country's welfare, look at the prophecies el it and eucal than the description of that once flourishing city, lately and history of this extraordinary man ;-look at his Lamentations ;--take him chef anong the nations, sitting in the character of a female, solitary, atrict through his life to his death, and learn from him what true patriotism means ! e, in a state of whowhouwd, deserted by her friends, betrayed by her dearest The man who watched, prayed, and lived, for the welfare of his country : who CAU , ir: o bring relief, and seeking consolation in vain! What a beau chose to share her adversities, her sorrows, her wants, her afllictions, and dis
tentication is that of "the ways of Zior mourning because none are gruce, when he might have been a companion of princes, and have sat at tho Come to be solemn feasts!" How tender and pathetic is the following com. table of kings !--who only ceased to live for his country when he ceased to plut: Is it nothing to you, all ye that rase by, behold, and see if there be breathe that was a patriot, in comparison with whom almost all others are any sorrow like unto my sorrow, which is done unto me, wberewith the Lord obscured, minished, and brought low; or are totally annihilated."
his eman and sessing the
THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET EZEKIEL.
INTRODUCTION. * We have now come to the prophecies of Ezekiel, which were addressed ments impending over that country, with the complete destruction of Jerusato the captives at Babylon, before and after the captivity of Zedekiah, and lem, both city and temple; and inveighs against those heinous sins which the destruction of the temple. They must therefore be delivered at the same were the cause of such calamities. term anat zainst the same crimes, against which Jeremiah was denouncing As to the style of the prophet Ezekiel, Bishop Lowth, the most unquestion. thr judements of God at Jenisalem. Both prophets predicted the same able judge of Hebrew composition, this describes it :-"Ezekiel is much inerint, promises to the faithful the same consolations, and threatened the disferior to Jeremiah in elegance : in sublimity, he is not even excelled by Isaiah chordani and Adolatrous among their countrymen with the same punishments. but bis fublimity is of a totally different kind.He is deep, vehement, tragiBrh priphets united in denunciation against the false prophets, and in antici. cal; the only sensation he affects to excite, is the terrible his sentiments ratne of the ultimate restoration of the Jews from the Babylonish cap. are elevated, fervid, full of fire, indignant," &c. He is penerally charger with
being obscure ; but his obscurity is that necessary to the sublime: and the Fyklos bimaril talle u4, (chap. i 3.) was the son of Buzi, and a priest, | great critic just quoted remarks," His diction is sufliciently perspicuous; all as well as Jeterich, though of a different family. He was, according to the his obscurity consists in the nature of the subject." PEET EPIPHANIrs, born at a place callid Saresa. He was carried cap In our introduction to Isaiah we have remarked, that the propheta frequentfive from Jerusalem at the same time with Jehoiachin, and stationed on the ly made use of actions as well as words, in the delivery of their predictions ; bord of the river Clebar, where he continued statedly to reside.
and this was particularly the one with Ezekiel," who delineates the siege of In the Gfh rear of this captivity, the era from which he dates his prophe Jerusalein on a tile weighs the hair of his beard in balancescarries out his CK Erkel began his office, which he exercised about 25 years. The corn. household stuff -and joins together the two sticks of Judah and Israel. By terrement of this periodi falls on the year before Christ 595, and 34 years after these actions, the prophets instructed the people in the will of God, and con
a ls had in his office so that the last ci ht years of Jeremiah coin: versed with them in signs : but where God teaches the prophet, and in com
with the first light of Ezekiel The dream of this prophet seems to be, pliance with the custom of that time, condescends to the same mode of in Tits, to convince his fellow captives in Babylon, that they were mistaken struction, then the signification is generally changed into a vision, either na1" wing that their brethren, who still remained in Judea, were in happier tural or extraordinary, as in the prophet Ezekiel) the ideal scene of the re Cremstances than themselves : for this end, he describes the awful jurg.surrection of dry bones."
Chronological Arrangement of Ezelciel's prophecies, according to Archbishop Nero come.
Chap. I to VII, inclusive . . . . . . . . . . . . . Year 5 of Jehoiachin's captivity.-B. C. 595.
6 - Ditto.
7 - Ditto.
9 -- Ditto, when the siege began.
. . Between 10 and 12 of Jehoiachin's captivity.
• · Year 85 of Jehoiachin's captivity.
27 – Ditto. XXX. ver. 1-19.