Imágenes de páginas




he other in Grourd century ) to adminis, with Eusebius, quia

MATTHEW. surnamed Levi, was the son of Alpheus ; but not of that Alpheus much disputed of the modern critics, Dr. Townson, Dr. H. Owen, and Bp. who was the father of James. (Matt x. 3.) Matthew was a native of Gali Tomline, date it in A. D. 37 or 38 ; but Dr. Lardner, Michnelis, and Dr. Hales, Ice: but of what city, or from what tribe, is unknown. Before his conversion. I between 61 and 65. The only way to reconcile them is, with Eusebius, (an Ecb e a publican, or tax-gatherer; and is understood to have collected the clesiastical historian of the third century.) to admit two original copies, one in Custorps on all imports or exports at Capemaum, and a tribute from all pas. Hebrew, and the other in Greek; the former written for the Jews, al out A. D. sengers who went by water. While thus employed, Jesus called him to be a 38, and the latter written, or translated by the author into Greek, about A. D. diente, and when the apostles were chosen, he was numbered among the 61; thus Josephus is said to have written his Jewish war both in Hebrew and t e He was one of the most constant attendants upon our Lord during his in Greek. And we think the arguments adduced by Horne, in his Critical InLike and after his resurrection, wax, on the day of Pentecost, endowed with troduction, on this subject, very powerful, though the Greek is the only original the Holy Sint from on high. But how long he remained in Judea after this now remaining. We know that several sects of Jewish Christians boasted espat, i. unknown, as are also the time and circumstances of his decease. the possesion of a Hebrew Gospel, which we suppose some of them might

"The ( u of Mattbew is uniformly placed first among the Gospels and corrupt, to favour their peculiarities; and this was the more easy, as very tow A all the hooks of the New Testament. It has always had the same pre of the Christian Fathers understood Hebrew. Lardner and Jones, however, uudeo e given it. When, however, it was written, is a question that has been consider the Greek as the original, and the Hebrew as a translation.


sconichts, the mosested. Ten of creation (John
notice of mind the most intular in its ce of history wthority

MATTHEW being one of the twelve apostles, and from the time of his call, stantly acted, and which our Lord promised to his disciples. (John xiv. 26.) it a Cristant attendant on our Saviour, was perfectly well qualified to write the must be allowed to possess the utmost degree of credibility and authority hestory of his lite. He relates what he saw and heard with the most natural with which any writing could be invested. It is a piece of history which, it

rate simpurity, and in a plain and perspicuous style. That for which must be acknowledged; is "the most singular in its composition, the inost

Findently destinuished, says Dr. Cani pbell, in the distinctness and par toonderful in its contents, and the important in its object, that was ever t arty with such he ha, related many of our Lord's discourses and moral exbibited to the notice of mankind. For sinplicity of narrative, and an artinuiting. Of those, his sermon on the mount, his charge to the apostles, less relation of facts, without any applause or censure, or digressive remarks, his llustrative of the nature of lus kingdom, and his prophecy on mount Oli on the part of the historian, upon the characters introduced in it; without any vel, a tampi. He has also wonderfully united simplicity and energy in intermixture of his own opinion, upon any subject whatsoever; and for a mnul. Relog the replies of his Master to the cavils of his adversaries. Being carly tiplicity of internal marks of credibility, this Gospel certainly has no parallel M to the rustleship, he was an eye and ear witness of most of the things among hunan productions." "There is not, as Dr. A. Clarke justly remarks, slachberlatte And, though I do not think it was the scope of any of these "one truih or doctrine, in the whole oracles of God, which is not taught in thug w a s to adjust their narratives by the precise order of time wlierein Evangelist. The outlines of the whole spiritual system are here correctly laid Ue ( happened, there are some circumstances which incline me to think, down: even Paul himselt has added notlung: he has amplified and illustrated that Matthew has approached at least as near that order as any of them. The the truths contained in this Gospel; but, even under the inspiration of the Holy

**11n, that the gowl of St. Matthew is a history of what he heard Ghost, neither he, nor any of the other Ajastles, have brought to light one truth, ani sau, m ely allowing bim to be a man of integrity, would of itself fully the prototype of whieh has not been found in the words and acts of our blessed Ta that he would make no mistakes in his narrutive, and when we add to Lord as related by Matthew." this to influence and superintendence of the Holy Spirit, under which he con- !

ons op



MARK is reperally supposed to be the same with John surnamed Mark, who voice of antiquity, have represented it as an abridgment of that of St. Mat. 9:"${r's son to Barabas,' (Col. iv. 10.) and the son of Mary, a pious thew. But, though he doubtless relates many of the same facts, and some of 07 of Jerusalem, at whose house many were assembled together praying the parables and discourses, in cominon with St. Matthew; yei he omits many

on Peter was delivered froin prison. (Ac. xu. 12.) St. Peter a Ep. v. 13.) important particulars, and adds others, dilateg upon some facts but concisely cali in Marcos my won' probably implying that he wus converted by his mentioned by Matthew, not without considerable variation, and now and then tastry, and Erond with him in the gospel. He accompanied St. Paul in his departs from the order of time observed by that apostle. Hence there is no trash Ac. . 25 xi. 5, 13; xv. 3611. 2 Ti. iv. 4. Phil 24 :) and he is reason to suppose, that he intentionally took any thing from Matthew, but that

all to har en particularly intimate with St. Peter, under whose inspection, he wrote such things as were especially brought to his knowledge, and imili penerally agreed. he wrote bis gospel at Romne, betweethe years A. D. 60 pressed on his mind; and the coincidence seems to have arisen, rather from

65. En intrinsus, (Hist. Eccles. I. ii. c. 15.) from Papias ind Cle the circunstance of their writing the history of the same grand and interesting rt of Aliuiria, that St. Mark composed bis gospel at the eamest request eventa, than from any design in the one deducing his materials from the other. of & Pott's rarers at Rome; and that the Apostle being intormed of what That St. Mark wrote his gospel in Greckis attested by the uninterrupted voice w drop by the revelation of the Holy Spirit, authorized it to be introducer of antiquity, and is now generally admitted ; and the occurrence of several

tecburcbey With this areas the internal evidence furnished by the Gos-Latin words, which has led some to contend for a Latin original, may easily Dei fer migy things honorable to St. Peter are omitted in it, which are be accounted for, by supposing it was written for the use of the Roman metli by other Evangelists, while his weaknesses and failings are freely people, by a person then resident among them; and it is on this account Prin to view. It is also undeuiable, that from the carliest ages of the that he omits the genealogy of our Lord, and some other matters, as being chart this Gospel wa, received, not only as genuine and authentic, but as of no importance to Gentile converts, though very necessary for the Jewe. a divat inspired writing. Some learned men, in opposition to the unanimous


as doubtless h

We supposite is thoughe line of

MARK, the writer of the preceding Gospel, was doubtless born of Jewish of men would not allow his success to be uninterrupted ; accordingly, when pareat, of the tribe of Levi, and the line of the priesthood. He was sister's at Alexandria, the multitudes being assembled for their idolatrous solemni

to Peter, and by some is thought to have been one of the 70 disciples; ties, bruke in upon him during his engagements in the service of God's house,

lors suppost, that he was converted by Peter's ministry ; but, perhaps, and binding lus hands and feet with cords, dragged him through the streets thot. To other ren for this, than because he calls him his son. Mark until his flosh was dreadfully, lacerated and his blood gushed out: nature sunk furonstantly with Peter; he accompanied his apostolical progresy, and under such tortures, and he soon became a sacrifice to the rage of an infuriated prunarhert the Gospel in Italy and at Rome; where, at the request of the Chris. 1 and persecuting populace. tos of those parts, he composed and wrote his Gospel. By Peter he was. Tradition states, that Mark was of a middle size and stature, his nose long, But into Eirynt, there to proclaim the glad tidings of salvation. Euscbius his eyebrows turning back, his eyes graceful and amiable, his head buld, his

7, tht so great way the success of his ministry, that he was instrumental beard long and gray, his gait quick, and the constitution of his body strong and in copertine multitudes of men and women. The vigilant enemy of the souls | healthy.



Leie, in whom this Gonnel has been uniformly attributed from the earliest coramg to Eusebius and others, he was a native of Antioch. But, from the are of the Christian Church, is generally allowed to have been "the beloved Hebraisms occurring in his writing, and especially from his accurate knowh an mentioned by St. Paul; (Col. iv. 14. ;) and as he was the compa- ledge of the Jewish rites, ceremonies, and customs, it is highly probable that

#4 of that Anstle in all his labours and sufferings, for many years, (Acts he was a Jewish proselyte, and afterwards converted to Christianity. Though It 12 1-6: XVI. 1, 2; xxviii. 13-16. 2 Ti. iv. 11. Phil. 21.) and wrote he may not have been, as some lave affirmed, one of the seventy disciples, ** the Arts of the Apostles," which conclude with a brief account of St. Paul's and an eye-witness of our Saviour's miracles, yet his intercourse with the

fint al Rome, we may be assured that he had the Apostle's sanction | Apostles, and those who were eye-witnesses of the works, and ear-witnesses

tät be det; and probably this Gospel was written some time before that of the words of Christ, renders him an wexceptionable witness, if considered ered about A. D. 63 or 64, as is generally supposed. He would appear, from merely as a historian ; and the early and unanimous reception of his Gospel, Coll 1819 11 and his mtinate acquaintance with the Greek language, as well as divinely inspired, is sufficient to satisfy every reasonable person. as froen his Greek name Loukas, to have been of Gentile extraction; and ac


Long the Evangelist was born at Antioch, the metropolis of Syria; a city the Gospel, and Epiphanius states, that his labours were blessed to the con

by the treat orators of antiquity, for the pleasantness of its situation. version of very many persons : thus be who had been a successful physiciani ot the foniity of its oil, the richness of its trade, the wisdom of its senate, and I the body, became also a successful physician of the soul. . The lature of its profesors, and from its wealth and splendour called the The manner of his death is not certain. but Nicephorus gives the following Q**n of the East, and yet renowned for this one peculiar honour above all account: In the prosecution of his labours in preaching the gospel, Luke came them that here it was the disciples irere first called Christians.

into Grecce, where a party of intidels, enrised at his success, drew him to unded in Annoch, who had here their synagogues and schools of execution, and that for want of a cross whereon to crucify liim, they hanged

ad to their relieion Luke became a prosciute, and was afterwards him on 31 olive tree. in the soth, or according to Jerome, the Sith, year of his age. Pos t Christianity. Luke refused in this city, anuple opportunity of Ag an historian. Luke was minutely faithful in his narration, and elegant in Gall" artvantage of a sound and learned alucation, and be excelled his style ; as a minister of Jeans Christ, laborious, and Zealons for the good of Helary in the art of physic. After his conversion, our Evangelist became souls. And at last he crowned all, and pealed the testimony of his lip and e L arable companion and fellow labourer of St. Paul in the ministry of pen, in laying dow2 his life for the Gospel


kirmeli Luked and convenit St. Pa




JOHN, who, according to the unanimous testimony of the ancient fathers, 1 gen, and others, who have related the sufferings of the apostles, it seems to and ecclesiastical writers, was the author of this Gospel, was the son of Ze deserve isut little credit. The general current of ancient writers declares, that bedee, a fisherman of Bethsaida, by Salome his wife, (compare MaL X. 4, with the apostle wrote his Gospel at an advanced period of life, with which the Mat. xxvii 55, 56, and Ma xv. 40,) and brother of James the elder, whom "He internal evidence perfectly agrees; and we may safely refer it, with Chry808. rod killed with the sword.” (Ac. xii. 2.) Theophylact ways, that Salorne was om, Epiphanius, Mill, Le Clerc, and others, to the year 97. “The Gospel the daughter of Joseph, the husband of Mary, by a former wife, and that con of John (saye Dr. Pyesmith) is listinguished by very observable charactere, sequently she was our Lord's sister, and Job was his nephew. He followed from the composition of the other Evangelists. It has much less of narrative, the occupation of his father till his call to the apostleship, (Mat. iv. 21, 22. Mu. and is more largely occupied with the doctrines and discourses of the Lord i. 19, 20. Lu. v. 1-10.) which is supposed to have been when he was about Jesi The topics also of the discourses possess a marked character, indicating 25 years of age; after which he wil u constant eye-witness of our Lord's la that they have been selected with an especial view to the presenting of what, bours, journeyings, discourses, miracles, passion, crucifixion, resurrection, and during his earthly ministry, Jesus himself bad taught concerning his own ascension. After the ascension of our Lord, he returned with the other apos. person, and the spiritual and never-dying blessings which he confers upon the tles to Jerusalem, and with the rest partook of the outpouring of the Holy who believe on his name. The design of St. Jolin in writing his Goepel is said Spirit on the day of Pentecost, by which he was eminently qualified for the by some to have been to supply those important events which the other Evan. office of an Evangelist and Apostie. After the death of Mary the mother of gelists had omitted, and to refute the notions of the Cerinthians and Nicolai Christ, which is supposed to have taken place alout fifteen years after the cru tang, or, according to others, to confute the heresy of the Gnostics and Sabians. cifixion, and probably after the council held in Jerusalem about A. D. 49 or 50. But, though many parts of his Gospel may be successfiilly quoted against the (Ac. xv.) at which he was present, he is said by ecclesiastical writers, to have strange doctrines held by those sects, yet the Apostle had evidently a more proceeded to Asia Minor, where he formed and presided over seven churches general end in view than the confutation of their heresies. Ilis own words in as many cities, but chiefly resided at Ephesus. Thence he was banished by the sufficiently inform us of his motive and design in writing this Guspel-" These Emperor Domitian, in the 15th year of his reign, A. D. 95, to the isle of Patmos things are written that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, tbe Son of in the Ægean sea, where he wrote the Apocalypse. (Re. I. 9.) On the acces God; and that believing, ye might have life through his name." Learned men sion of Nerva the following year, he was recalled from exile, and returned to are not wholly agreed concerning the language in which this Gospel was ori Ephesus, where he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and died in the 100th year ginally written. Salmasius, Grotius, and other writers, have imagined, that of his age, about A. D. 100, and in the third year of the Emperor Trajan. It is St. John wrote it in his own native tongue, the Arardean or Syriac, and that generally believed that St. John was the youngest of the twelve apostles, and it was afterwards translated into Greek. This opinion is not supported by any that he survived all the rest. Jerome, in his comment on Gal vi. says, that strong arguments; and is contradicted by the unanimous voice of antiauty, he continued preaching when so enfeebled with age, as to be obliged to be car. | which athirms that he wrote it in Greek, which is the general and most protaried into the assembly; and that, not being able to deliver any long discourse, ble opinion. Michaelis prefers his style, in respect of purity, to the other Evanhis custom was, to say in every meeting, My dear children, lore one another ! gelisty, which he attributes to his long residence at Ephesus. Whether the An opinion has prevailed, that he was, previous to his banishinent to Patmos, Evangelist bad herein any allusion to Corinthus, or other ancient heretics, is thrown into a caldron of boiling oil, by order of Domitian, before the gate much disputed among the learned. That he might lave some reference to called Porta Latina at Rome, and that he came out unhurt; but on examin-them, is, we think, hardly to be doubted; but the Scripture method of coning into the foundation of this account, we find that it rests almost entirely on futing error, was by stating the opposite truths, which Jolin does very the authority of Tertullian; and since it is not mentioned by Irenaus, Ori. I fully.

this age, where he wrote in ear, bo was pocalypse


ST. JOHN is generally considered, with respect to language, as the least cor his readers, by employing in the expression of them, both an affirmative prorect writer in the New Testament. His style indicates a great want of those position and a negative. It is manifestly not without design that he comadvantages which result from a learned education ; but this defect is amply monly passed over those passages of our Lord's history and teaching, which compensated by the unexampled simplicity with which he expresses the sub had been treated at large by the other Evangelists, or, if he touches them at limest truths. Though simplicity of manner, says Canipbell, is common all, he touches thein but slightly, whilst he records many miracles which had to all our Lord's historians, there are evidently differences in the sinplicity of been overlooked by the rest, and expatiates on the sublime doctrines of the one compared with that of another. One thing very remarkable in John's pre-existence, the divinity, and the incarnation of the Word, the great ends of style, is an attempt to impress important truths more strongly on the minds of his mission, and the blessings of his purchase.





Fact No. 1. Ver. 1. In the Fact No. 1. Ver. 1. When Fact No. I. Ver. 1. Very Fact No. I. Ver. 1. The first
end of the sabbath, as the first the sabbath will past, Mary early the first day of the week day of the week Mary Mag.
day of the week began to Mag lalene, and other worneo, Mary May talene aud other dalene caine to the sepulchure
dawn, came Mary Magda- brought wpices to the sepulchre, women came to the sepulchre, while it was yet (somewhat)
lene, and the other Mary, to just as the sun was rising, and and

dark, and she seth the stone
the sepulchre, and found the Ver. 1. Found the stone 1 Ver. 2. Found the stone rolled away from its mouth.
stone rolled from the mouth rolled from the mouth of the rolled away from its mouth.
of the spulchre.

II. (Oraitted.)
11. (Omitted.)
II. (Omitted.)

II. Ver. 2-10. She runs im-
mediately to the apostles Peter
and Jobn, both of whom run
to the pulchre: John gets
there first, and louke in ; Peler
comes up and goes first in, and
then John follow; both see
nothing but the tomb and gave

clothes, ao both return home. III. Ver. 5-7. They are an III. Ver. 5. Entering the III. Ver. 4-8. Entering the DI. Ver.11-13. Mary M R angel, who comforts them that sepulchre, she sees an angel, sepulchre, they see two angels, daleve having this while stood Jesus was risen, and gone to who,

who comfort the women, as weeping without now looksin,
Galilee, where his disciples ! Ver. 6, 7. Comforts the wo ring then that Jesus would and sees two Angels, who en-
should meet with him.

men, and a re them Jesus meet his disciples in Galilee. Ceavour to comfort her ; but
would meet his disciples in

IV. They run, with a mix. IV. Ver. 8,9. They run away TV. Ver. 9, 10. They retorn IV. Ver. 14-18. Turning
ture of fear and joy, to the distrembling to the disciples, but to tell the rest of the disciples, back, she sees Jesus, whom she
ciples ; but meet Jesus by the by the way he appears to who believe not.

takes for the gardener, till he

discovers himself. Then Mary
Ver. 10, 11, Mary goes and

goes to tell the other disciples
tells the rest of the disciples,

that she had seen the Lord.
but they believe not
V. (Omitted.)
V. (Omitted.)

V. Ver. 12. But Peter runs V. (Omitted.)
(a second time) to the sepul.
chre, stes only the clothes, and

returus wondering
VI. (Omitted.)

VI. Ver. 12. He appears to VI. Ver. 13-2, Jerus ap (Omitted.)
two disciples going into the pears to two disciples going to

Emmaus,and stops to sup with
Ver. 13 They report it to them.
the rest of the disciples, who Ver. 33–35. They return to
still believe not.

Jerusalem, and acquaint the

rist. VII. Ver 16, 17. The dis VII Ver. 14, 15. He appears VII. Ver. 36. Jesus appears VII. Ver. 19. The same ciples go to Galilee, where they to the apostles and disciples At to the apostles and others, and evening Jesus appears to his se hun, Ax Was appointal, supper, and comunissions them comitiasions them to preach apustle, &c., and particularly and he commissions them to to go and preach,

the Gospel, beginning ai Jeru. addrcus Peter, preach.


The leading facts are here reduced to geven, which are marked with numerical letters, L n., &c. On No. 1. it may be proper to remark, that, on comparing the different Evangelists, it seems that the women did not come all to the sepulchre at one time, but some at day-break, and the other women not till sun-rise. None of them seem to have been aware that Nicodemus had brought spices on the might before, or that the sepulchre had been sealed and guarded.

On Fact II. we may remark, that Matthew and Mark mention the appearance of one angel-Luke and John, two. Perhaps one only spoke, and appeared the principal.




Tas is the last of the historical books of the New Testament, and forns a where he remained two year during that Apostle's first confinement. Accord link of connexion between the Gospels and Apostolical Epistles. The Acts, ingly wo find St. Luke particularly mentioned in two of the Epistles written by er transactions of the Apostles, is the title given to this book in the Codex Be- St. Paul, from Rome, during that confinement. And as the Book of Acts is s, and in all the modern versions or editions.

continued to the end of the second year of St. Paul's imprisonment, it could That St Luke was the author of this Book, as well as of the Gospel wineh not have been written before the year 63; and as the death of that Apostle is bears his name,"is evident," as Hartrell Horne remarks, "both from the not mentioned, it is probable that the book was composed before that event, introduction, and from the unanimous testimonies of the early Christians. which is supposed to have happened A. D. 65.” Michaelis, Dr. Lardner, Dr. Both are inscribed to Theophilus, and, in the very first verse of the Acts, there Benson, Rosenmuller, Bp. Tomline, and the generality of criticy, therefore, 1 reference made to his Gospel, which he calls the former Treatise....... assign the date of this book to the year 63 or 64. The history, as it gives the From the frequent use of the first person plural, it is clear that he was present only credible account of the rise and spread of Christianity, furnishes, at the at moet of the transactioas he relates. He appears to have accompanied St. same time, abundant evidence of its truth, and of its happy effects wherever

ol to Philippi: he also attended him to Jerusalem, and afterwards to Rome, it was received, in raising and improving the character of man.

city and ction, it becaption in the Cof

CONCLUDING REMARKS. THE Aets of the Apostles is a most valuable portion of Divine Revelation ; out by Christ upon his disciples after his ascension : and the Epistles of the

dependently of its universal reception in the Christian church as an other Apostles, as well as those of St. Paul, plainly suppose, that these facts

te and inspired production, it bears the most satisfactory internal evi- had actually occurred which are related in the Acts of the Apostles. So that ce of its authenticity and truth. It is not a made up history: the language the history of the Acts is one of the most important parts of the Sacred Hismander of every speaker are different ; and the same speaker is different tory ; for, without it, neither the Gospels nor Epistles could have been so clearly

manner according to the audience be addresses. St. Luke's long attend understood; but, by the aid of it, the whole scheme of the Christian Revelation spon St Paul, and his having been an eye witness of many of the facts is set before us in a clear and easy view. Lastly, even the incidental circumbe bas recorded, independently of his divine inspiration, render him a most stances mentioned by St. Luke, correspond so exactly, and without any pre

able and credible historian ; and his medical knowledge, for he is allow vious view of such correspondence, with the accounts of the best ancient hised to bave been a physician, enabled bom both to form a proper judgment of the torians, both Jews and Heathens, that no person who had forged such a history miraculous cures which were performed by St. Paul, and to give an authentic in later ages, could have had the same external confirmation; but he must and circostantial detail of them. The plainness and simplicity of the nar have betrayed himself by alluding to some customs or opinions which have ratise are also strong circumstances in its favour. The writer evidently appears since sprung up, or by misrepresenting some circumstance, or using some

been very honest and impartial; and to have set down, very fairly, the phrase or expression not then in use. The plea of forgery, therefore, in later

which were made to Christianity, both by Jews and Heathens, and ages, cannot be allowed ; and, if St. Luke had published his history at so early the reflections which were cast upon it, and upon its first preachers. He has a period, when some of the Apostles, and many other persons concerned in the

ith a just and bunest freedom, mentioned the weaknesses, taults, transactions, were alive, and his account had not been true, he would have ex

s, both of the Apostles and their converts. There is also a great posed himself to an easy confutation, and certain infamy. Since, therefore, the

kable harmony between the occasional hints dispersed throughout Acts of the Apostles are in themselves consistent and uniform ; the incidental St Paul Dustles, and this bistory; so that the Acts is the best clue to guide relations agreeable to the best historians that have come down to us ; and the es in studying the Epistles of that Apostle. The other parts of the New Testa main facts, supported and confirmed by the other books of the New Testament, ment are likewise in perfect unison with this history, and tend greatly to con as well as by the unanimous testimony of the ancient fathers, we may justly

and the doctrines and principles are every where the same. The Gos conclude, that if any history of former times deserves credit, the Acts of the

close with a reference to those things recorded in the Acts, particularly Apostles ought to be received and credited ; and, if the history of the Acts of the promise of the Holy Spirit, which we know from this history, was poured the Apostles be true, Christianity cannot be false.


HAVING one through the historical books of the New Testament, what re. l books of the New Testament, what per Imeriod can be collected. "A knowledge of the prince throw much light upon it

ing table gives that order, according to the best information which at so late a (except the last) are Epistolary; and by far the larger part of these WITH Tiiten by the Apostle to the Gentiles. The Epistles, especially Paul's, written, also the occasion which called it forth, throw much light upon its

Tessed to persons or societies already initiated into the principles of contents. The place is named in the table, and the occasion, when known, Christianity. enter more deeply into the distinguishing doctrines of the Gospel, will be found in the introductory remarks. and the controversies wbich in that early age were raised thereon, and particalarly by Jewish converts, who were extremely loth to relax their prejudices

TABLE OF ST. PAUL'S EPISTLES. i farour of the Jewish institutions.

Much has been said for and against Paul's style. Dr. Macknight, who obkets to be of the strong language of the learned Beza, still admits that it

Order of

Where written. Certains

the Books

When written. beauties of the highest character, and passages to which it would be difficult to find any of superior merit among the most admired classical writers of Greece and Rome. Pau," ays Mr. Locke, "is full of the matter he treats; and writes with

To whom written. warmth, which usually neglects method, and those partitions and panses weh men, educated in the schools of rhetoricians, usually observe." It must emembered that Paul's object was not to advance his own fame as a sier, lant the glory of his Saviour: that classical writers did not always furti suds or phrases sufficient to explain the mysteries of the Gospel : that

To the Romans

Corinth. Corinth. tlar conexion between the New and Old Testaments often led him necessarily

Int to the Corinthians. Philippi. Ephesus.
Lebrew allusions, terms, and phrases, which, though they may be con-

2d to the Corinthians. Philippi Macedonia, Sentas blemishes in Greek composition, form some of his chief beauties as

I perhape Philippi. instian teacher; and wo be to them who bang the perishing garlands of hu

To the Galatians.
Rome. Corinth.

52 or 3 To the Ephesians

Rome. man eloquence on the cross of Christ, thereby in any degree to hide him from

To the Philippians. Rome. Rome.

9 The Epistle to the Hebrecs, though it does not bear the author's name, is

To the Colossians

Rome. Rome.

I 1st to the Thessalonians. Athens. Corinth. Doe universally ascribed to St. Panl, and was written from Traly, and proba

21 to the Thessalonians. Athens. Corinth. hly from Rome, in the years 62 or 63. This, with the Epistles to the Romans

1st to Timothy.

Laodicea. Macedonia, atians, are perhaps the most difficult to explain, as referring frequently

21 to Timothy.

Rome. Rome. to the prophetic wntings and to Jewish literature.

To litus.

Nicopolis Macedonia. Considerable additional interest will be felt in the Epistles of Paul, by simply

To Philemon.


62 or 3 reading them in the chronological order in which they were written. The follow | 14 | 11 To the Hebrew

Italy. Iperhaps Rome.

62 or 3

In the
Enghsh Bible.
According to


According to

our Bible margins.

According to
Mr. Horue.

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INTRODUCTION. THAT St. Pan! was the author of the Epistle to the Romans is proved, not supported by Bishop Tomline, Lardner, Lord Barrington, Benson, and only by the whole current of Christian antiquity, but by the most satisfactory others. infernal evidence. We find that it was dictated by the Apostle in the Greek It is not certain at what time, or by whom, the gospel was first preached language to his amanuensis Tertius, (ch. xvi. 22.) and was forwarded to the at Rome: but it has been conjectured, with much probability, that it Church at Rome by Phrebe, a deaconess of Cenchrea, a port of Corinth, (ch. was carried thither by some of the Jews who were converted on the day of 1 1.) It is farther evident that it was written from that city, from his men Pentecost. (Ac. ii. 10.) St. Paul bimself bad not yet visited that city ; but ting Gajus with whom he lodged at Corinth, (ch. xvi. 23. i Co. i. 14,) as being made fully acquainted with the circumstances of the church there by well as Erastus the chamberlain of that city, (2 Tim. iv. 20.) It also appears Aquila and Priscilla, (ch. xvi. 3.) he deemed it proper to adopt this method of that it was written there, at the time that the Apostle was preparing to take establishing believers in the faith, and of giving them such a comprehensive the contnbutions of the churches to Jerusalem, (ch. xv. 25-27;) and conve- view of the Christian religion, as might guard them against the insinuations Gently, the most probable date assigned to this Epistle is A. D. 58, which is of false teachers of various descriptions.

CONCLUDING REMARKS. The Epistle to the Romans is "a writing," says Dr. Macknight, "which, course; and the sense of every part must be taken from the drift of the whole.

sitdinity and truth of sentiment, for brevity and strength of expression, for Every sentence, or verse, is not to be regarded as a distinct mathematical prutarity in its structure, but above all for the unspeakable importance of the proposition, or theorem, or as a sentence in the book of Proverbs, whose sense Coscoveries which it contains, stands unrivalled by any mere human composi- is absolute, and independent of what goes before, or comes after : but we time. and as far exceeds the most celebrated productions of the learned Greeks must remember, that every sentence, especially in the argumentative part, and Romans, as the shining of the sun exceeds the twinkling of the stars."— brare relation to, and is dependent upon, the whole discourse ; and cannot be Rt. Paul, as Dr. Taylor justly observes. "was a great genius and a fine Cnderstood unless we understand the scope and drit of the whole. And thereiter; and he seems to have exercised all his talents, as well as the most fore, the whole Epistle, or at least the eleven first chapters of it, ought to be

Christian temper, in drawing up this Epistle. The plan of it is very read over at once, without stopping. As to the use and excellency of this e: and it is surprising to see what a spacious field of knowledge be Epistle, I shall leave it to speak for itself, when the reader has studied and well

rised; and how many various designs, argumenta, explications, in digested its coatents .... The Apostle's manner of writing is with great spirit

s, and exhortations, he has executed in so small a compass.... The land force. I may add, perspicuity too ; for it will not be difficult to understand whole Epistle is to be taken in connexion, or considered as one continued dis- I him, if our minds are unprejudiced, and at liberty to attend to the subject he



iceHis transition. This one

17. viii. 17.91 ungrateful solicam

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erses are ale unord ; as chx un He was stuin

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is upon, and to the current scriptural sense of the words he uses. For he keeps ficiently guarded, explained, and defended, within the limits of a letter; which very strictly to the standard of Scripture phraseology. He takes great care to has made it a magazine of the most real, extensive, useful, and profitable guard and explain every part of his subject. Aud I may venture to say he had knowledge. He treats his countrymen, the Jews, with great caution and tenleft no part of it unexplained or unguarded. Never was an author more exact derness.... His transitions and auvauces to an ungrateful subject are very der and cautious in this than he. Sometimes he writes notes upon a sentence, terous and apposite : as ch 11.1--17. viii. 17. He often carries on it complica liable to exception and wanting explanation, as ch. ii. 12-16. Here the 13th test design, and while he is teaching one thing, gives us an opportunity of and 15th verses are a comment upon the former part of it. Sometimes he learning one or two more. So ch. xiii. 1-8, he teaches the duty of subjects comments upon a single word ; 29 ch. x. 11-13. The 12th and 13th verses are and at the same time instructs magistrates in their duty, and shows the a cornment upon pals, every one, in the 11th. He was studious of a perspicu- grounds of their authority. He is a nervous reasoner, and a close writer, who ous brevity, as ch. v. 13, 14. For until the laro sin iras in the world, &c.— never loses sight of his subject, and who throws in every colour that may en. Surely never was there a greater variety of useful sentiments crowded into a liven it. He writes under a deep and lively sense of the truth and importsmaller compass; and yet so skilfully, that one part very clearly explains ance of the Gospel, as a man who clearly understood it, and in whose heart another .... It is by this unparalleled art, that the Apostle has brought such a and affections it reigned far superior to all temporal considerations." variety of arguments, instructions, and sentiments, all slated, proved, and suf !

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THAT the first Epistle to the Corinthians is the genuine production of St. to proceed to Corinth, about A. D. 57, (Ac. xx. 1.) it follows, that this Epistle, Paul has been universally admitted by the Christian church in all ages ; nor was written about that time. The wulscription to this Epistle, which states indeed can it be doubted, as it is supported by the strongest internal evidence. that it was written at Philippi, cannot be correct, as it is contradicted by the It purports to have been written by hinn uiler lie had already been at Corinth, declaration of St. Paul himsell It appears that it was written by the Apostle in (ch. ii. 1.) when upon the eve of another visit to that church, (ch. iv. 19; xvi. answer to certain inquiries of the Corinthians by letter, (ch, vii. 1; xvi, 12, 71 ;) 5:) and, while he abode at Ephesus, (ch. xvi. 9, 19. Ac. xviii. 18, 26.) Now, and also to correct certain schisms and disorders which prevailed amon them. as St. Paul departed from Ephesus, where he had resided three years, in order land of which he had been informed by "ther which were of the house of Chlx."


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minilling of the wholutely useless.. it would be an invaluable record

CORINTH, favoured by its situation between two seas, rose to the summit oftentive reader need not be informed; while his candour, love, faithfulness, dignity and splendour. From its extensive commerce, it abounded with riches, and holy zeul, are apparent in every page. The Corinthians abounded in and was furnished with all the accommodations, elegances, and supxriluities knowledge, science, eloquence, and various extraordinary gifts and endowof life, and far exceeded all the cities in the world in the magnificence of its inents, and for these the Apostle gives them full credit; but, in many cases, public buildings, such as temples, paluces, theatres, porticoes, cenotaphs, baths. distinctly enough marked in this Epistle, they were grossly ignorant of the and other editices. But wealth produced luxury, and luxury a total corruption genius and design of the pospel. Many, since their time, have put words and of manners ; so that the inhabitants became intamous to a proverb, lascivious observances in place of the weightier matters of the law, and the spirit of the nese in particular heing not only tolerated, but forming a considerable portion gospel. The Apostle has taken great pains to correct these abuses among of their religion. Notwithstanding this, the arts, sciences, and literature, still ibe Corinthians, and to insist on that creat unchangeable and eternal truth, continued to flourish, every part of the Grecian learning being luighly cultiva that love to God and man, filling the heart, hallowing the passions, regulating ted; so that before its destruction by the Romans, Cicero (pro lege Manl, c. the aflections, and producing universal benevolence and benefirence, is the 5.) scrupled not to call it, “The light of all Greece." It possessed numerous fulfilling of the whole law; and that all professions, knowledge, and afts, schools, in which philosophy and rhetoric were taught by able masters; and i without this, are alsolutely useless. Did this Epistle contain no more than strangers resorted thither from all quarters to be instructed in the sciences. what is found in the thurteenth chapter, it would be an unparalleled monument Attention to these circumstances will account for several things mentioned by of the Apostle's deep acquaintance with God, and an invaluable record of the the Apostle in his letters to this city ; which things, without this knowlerlge sum and substance of the gospel, left by God's mercy to the church. as a of their previous Gentile state and customs, we could not comprehend. It is touchstone for the trial of creeds, confessions of faith, and ritual observances, indubitably certain, as the Apostle states, that they carried these things to an to the end of time. Though this Epistle contains inore local matter, and more extent that was never practised in any other Gentile country; and yet, even matter of private application, than any other in the New Testament ; and in Corinth, the Gospel of Jesus Christ, eflicting what leurning and plulosophy though, perhaps, it may possess less matter for general use than other parts of were utterly unable to accomplish, prevailed over universal corruption and de- the Sacred Writings, yet it is hoth highly interesting and useful; gives an inpravity, so much so thiut it became the reat of a flourishing Christian church! sight into several customs, and not a few forms of apeech, and circumstances We have already soen, that the peace of this church lad been disturbed by relative to the discipline of the pritnitive church, which we can find no where false teachers, who made great pretensions to wisdom, eloquence, and know else; shows us how many improper things may, in a state of ignorance, or ledige of the Christian liberty; and that it was to compose these differences, | Christian infancy, be consistent with a sincere belief of the gospel, and a to correct certain abuses, and to answer various questions relative to which warm and zealous attachment to it; reads a very awful lesson to those with they had written to the Apostle, that he composed this Epistle to the Church disturb the peace of society, and make schisms in the church of Christ and of Corinth. With what consummate skill and soundness of argument he es continms, illustrates, and defends, many of the most important parts of Christ tablishes doctrines, meets objections, and refutes crroneous opinions, the al lian doctrine and practice.

cumstanccall quartos Foreta

lenze sum anches for the trial of creads, colle contains more local Testament; and



THAT St. Paul was the author of this Epistle has never been doubted, and , of his sentence against the incestuous person, and gives suitable directions reis amply confirmed by internal evidence; from which it appears, that it was specting has restoration, expatiates on his own conduct in the Christian mins written by the Apostle in Macedonia, and probably at Philippi, as the sub try, intermixing many exhortations with the avowal of his motives and fervent scription athrms, after the uproar at Ephesus, about a year after the preced. aflections in the sacred work ; excites them, with great address and carestins, and in consequence of the accounts which he had received of the favour ness, to complete their contributions for their poor brethren in Judea, showing able reception of the first; and afterwards sent to the Corinthians by Titus the manifold advantages of such services; contrasts more directly, yet evidentand his associates. Accordingly the Apostle justifies himself from the charge ly with great reluctance, his own gifts, labours, sufferings, and conduct, with of levity, or worldly policy, in delaying his journey to Corinth, assigning those the pretences of their false teachers, showing himself to be "not it whit reasons for this part of his conduct which rould not have been disclosed with inferior to any of the apostles, and concludes with various admonitions, and propriety till the effect of his former epistle had appeared ; declares the justico 'affectionate good wishes and prayers.


The most remarke Apostle in the ea, as he then wassy, were deeply

The most remarkable circumstance, ohserves Mr. Scott, in this Epistle is, I sure of it. Of the effects produced by this latter epis:le we have no circumtho confidence of the Apostle in the goodness of his cause, and in the power stantial account; for the journey which St. Paul took to Corinth, after he had of God to bear him out in it. Opposed, as he then was, by a powerful and sa written it, is mentioned by St. Luke only in few words, (AC. XX. 2, 3.) We gacious party, whose authority, reputation, and interest, were deeply con. know, however, that St. Paul was there after he had written this Epistle; cerned, and who were ready to seize on every thing that coulil discredit bim, that the contributions for the poor brethren at Jerusalem were brought to him it is wonderful to hear him so firinly insist upon his apostolical authority, and from different parts to that city, (Ro. xv. 26 :) and that, after remaining there so unreservedly appeal to the miraculous powers which he hud exercised and several months, he sent Salutations from some of the principal memlwers of conferred at Corinth. So far from shrinking from the content, as afraid of that church, by whom he must have been greatly respected, to the church of some discovery being made, unfavourable to him and the common cause, he, Rome, (Ro. xvi. 2. 23.) From this time we hear no more of the fulse teacher with great modesty and meeknes9 indeed, but with equal boldness and deci and his party; and when Clement of Rome wrote his cpistle to the CorinBion, expressly declares, that his opposers and despisers were the ministers of thians, St. Paul was considen'd by them as a divine apostle, to whose authoSatan, and menaces them with miraculous judgments, when as many of their rity he might appeal without fear of contradiction. The false teacher, theredeluded hearers had been brought to repentance and re-established in the fore, inust either have been silenced by St. Paul, by virtue of his apostolical faith, as proper means could in a reasonable time ctfect. It is inconceivable powers, and by an act of severity, which he had threatened, (2 Co, xui. 2, 3:) that a stronger internal testimony, not only of integrity, but of divine inspira. or this adversary of the apostle had at that time voluntarily quitted the place. tion, can exist. Had there been any thing of mposture among the Christians, Whichever was the cause, the effect produced must operate is a confirma

was next to impossible but such a conduct must have occasioned a disclo- tion of our faith, and as a proof of St. Paul's divine missiou.


district in Asia Mire; and after a soricescenants of Gaule, who ,

INTRODUCTION. THE Galatians, or Gallogracians, were the descendants of Gands, who mi. I language, even so late as the fifth century. Christianity appears to have been grated from their own country, and after a series of disastery, got possession first planted in these regions by St. Paul himself. (ch. i. 6 ; iv. 13:) who visited of a large district in Asia Minor, from them called Galatia. (Pausanias, Altic. the churches at least twice in that country, (Acts xvi. 6; xviii. 23.) It is evic. iv.) They are mentioned by historians as a tall and valiant people, who dent that this Epistle was written soon after their reception of the Gospel, as went nearly naked, and used for arms only a buckler and sword; and the im be complains ot' their speedy apostacy from his doctrine, (ch. i 6. ;) and as petuosity of their attack is said to have been irresistible. Their religion, be there is no notice of his second journey into that country, it has been supfore their conversion, was extremely corrupt and superstitious; they are said to posed, with much probability, that it was written soon after his first, and conhave worshipped the mother of the gods, under the name of Adgistis ; and to sequently about A. D. 52 or 53. It appears, that soon after the Apostle had bave offered human sacrifices of the prisoners they took in war. Though they left them. some Judaizing teachers intruded themselves into the churches :

poke the Greek language, in common with almost all the inhabitants of Asia drawing them off from the true Gospel, to depend on ceremonial observances, Minor, yet it appears from Jerome that they retained their original Gaulish and to the vain endeavour of "establishing their own righteousness.'



GALATIA was situated between Phrygia on the south, Pamphylia and Bithy. I in the day, of his flesh, and been immediately deputed by Him. In this episne on the north, a od Pontus on the east.

tle, therefore, he reproves them with severity, that they had been so soon led St. Paul had heard, that since his departure from Galatia, corrupt opinions out of the right way wherein he had instructed them, and had so easily sufhaul gut in amongst them about the necessary observations of the legal rites, fered themselves to be imposed upon by the crafty artifices of seducers. Ho Bured by several impostory wbo had crept into that church, and who endea vindicates the honour of the apostolic office, and shows that he had received Cound to imdemmeine the doctrine St. Paul had there established, by vilifying his commission immediately from Christ, and that he came not behind the

s person, shighting him as an apostle, and as not to be compared with Peter, very chief of those apostles. James, and John, who had familiarly conversed with the Lord Jesus Christ






THE Church at Phuippi in Macedonia was planted by the Apostle Paul | his imprisoninent. The more immediate occasion of the Epistle was the re

1 D. 53, (Acts xvi. 940 :) and it appears he visited them again, A. D. turr of Epaphroditus, by whom the Apostle sent it as a grateful acknowledge

Phno Tuarticulars are recorded concerning that visit, (Acts xx. 6.) The Jment of their hindness; which occurred towards the close of his first impriPi 1 s were ureatly attached to St. Paul, and testified their affection by sonment, about the end of A. D. 62, or the commencement of 63, as is evident

han supplies, even when Inbouring for other churches; and when they from the expectation he discovers of his being soon released and restored to band that he was wder confinement at Rome, they sent Epaphroditus, one of them, as well as from intimations that he had been a considerable time at tu siers, to him with a present, lest he should want necessaries during Rome.



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Colosse was a large and populous city of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Mi. 1 of the river which is supposed to be the Lycus, and about twenty miles N. W. i ted un an eminence to the south of the river Meander, near to the of Degnizlu. By whom, or at what time, the church at Colosse was founded

3 Herodotus, (L. vii. c. 30 ) where the river Lycus cnters the earth, is wholly uncertain ; but it would appear from the Apostle's declaration, ch. ich marse it continues for five furlons, before it emerges and falls into the ii. 1, that he was not the honoured instrument. It appears from the lenor of en It was situated according to ancient authorities, between Laodicea this Epistle to have been, upon the whole, in a very flourishing state; but Il l is nearly equ-distant from each; all which cities, according to some difficulties having arisen among them, they sent Epaphras to Rome,

M . Wielestroyed by an earthquake, in the tenth year of the emeror where the Apostle was now imprisoned, (chiv, 3,) to acquuint him with the P inil alwut 1 year after the writing or this Epistle. Colosse, however, state of their atlairs. This was the immediate occasion of the Epistle; to

TUSG again, like her sister cities from her ruins; and Constantine which we may add the letter sent him by the Laodiceans, (chiv. 16,) concernPr

a nctus states that it was called in his time Chonce Colosse ising certain false teachers. This Epis:le appears to have been written about the

to have occupied & site now covered with ruins, near the village of same time with that to the Philippians, (compare chap. i. 1. with Phi. ii. 19,) A 07., ur Khongs, about three hours from Laodicea, but or the other side that is, towards the end of A. D. 62, and in the ninth of the emperor Nero,

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CONCLUDING REMARKS. The Epistle to the Colossians, and the two precedine Epistles, wluch were | Epistle to the Ephesians, without being impressed and roused by it, as by the ... ne the imprisonment of St Paul, and about the same tme, are re: sound of a trumpet." The style of the Epistle to the Philippians is very kalle form ular alhes and ardour, or raplure, as some have termed it, animated, pleasing, and easy : every wbere bearing evidence of that contented

burnerally asbl to the extraordinary consolations enjoyed by the state of mind in which the Apostle then was, and of his great affection for the A during his suittings for the sake of Christ. Critics have justly re people. i: lias been observidas reinarkable, that the Epistle to the Church of

that the style of the Epistle to the Ephesians is exceedingly elevated, Philippi is the only one of all St. Paul's letters to the churches, in which not one ( onds with the state of the Apostle's mind at the time of writing. censure is expressed or implied against any of its members; but, on the con

dith the account which their MASCT er brought him of the stead trary, sentiments of unqualified commendation and confidence pervade cuery Iron of her frith, and he ardency of their love to all the saints, and trans. part of this Epistle. The language of the Epistle to the Colossians is bold and

vith the consideration of the earchable wisdom of God displayed in energetic; the sentiments grund; and the conceptions vigorous and majestic 15 of inap' fedemp1100, and of his amazing love towards the Gentiles, Whoever, says Michaelis, would understand the Epistice to the Ephesians

02 thril. 99 fellow being with the Jews, into the kingdom of Christ, and Colossians must read them together. The one is in most places a comlocura Hate the most exalted conteinplation of these subline topics, and gives mentary on the other; the meaning of single passages in one epistle, which,

a to la thoughts in language at once rich and varier. Grotius affirms, if considered alone, might be variously interpreted, being determined by the Il p r eses the most sublime Trallers contained in it, in terms more parallel passages in the other Epistles. Yet, though there is a great similarity, ** 1 in are to be found in any human language." This character, adds the Epistle to the Colossians contains many things which are not to be fund P anghul, "is no just, tiunt no real Christian can read the doctrinal part of the in that to the Ephesians.



wilesachbo having surred up a violentantins, (Acthis Epistle to them. '1o. 52, to confirm them in the high and holy calling.

TE Gospel was first prrached at Thessalonica by St. Paul, accompanied he sent Silas and Timothy to Thessalonica in bis stead, (ch. iii. 6 :) who De as Timothy. with such success, that it excited the envy and indigna having on their return to him at Corinth. given such a favourable arront of um of the unbeleving Jews, who haviog surred up a violent persecution their state as filled him with joy and gratitude, (Ac. ii. 14, 15; XviD , he wrote

ruinst them. They were forced to for to Berea, and thence to Ath ns. (Ac 1 tbis Epistle to them from that city. (and not from Athens, as stated in the 20 1 5.) from which city he proceeded to Corinth. Having thus been prerious postscript.) A. D. 52. to confirm them in their faith, and to excite them to vented frun, arraun visiting the Thessalonians as he had intended. (ch. ü. 17. 18.) la holy conversation becoming the dignity of their high and holy calling

CONCLUDING REMARKS. Ti frat Epistle to the Thessaloniang, it is generally agreed. was the parcedonia.-"I charge you by the Lord, that this Epistle he read unto all the rewritte of all St Paul', cpistles: whenre were the neon and tor). I holy brethren." (Ch. v. 27.) "The existence of this clause," observes Polct tirely of us anxiety that it should be read in all the Christian churches of Ma " is an evidence of its authenticity because, to produce a letter, putarting

I charge you by the the existence, to produce a legiet

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