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mer to one spectacle at least such as the latter had no opportunity of witnessing, and which, under his peculiar circumstances, could hardly fail of exciting a powerful, if not a very pleasant, sensation. The spectacle to which we now allude was that of a few fellow-creatures groaning under a destiny more terrible than frequently falls to the lot of human nature; and as it could not but occur to the person who beheld them, that a similar fate might before long be his own, we are not surprised to hud that he looked upon it with a deep and melancholy interest.
Mr. Miller proceeded, in company with four Buenos Ayrean gentlemen, to visit an estancia or grazing farm, situated in a remote district, not far from the borders of Patagonia. On the 30th of October, the party crossed the river Salado; and at five p.m. reached a station called Los dos Talos. It consisted of four miserable hovels, one of which was used as a pulperia, or shop and public-house, whilst the other three were occupied by thirty-eight Spanish officers, who had been made prisoners of war at Monte Video in 1814. These unhappy gentlemen, after serving throughout the greater part of the war in the Peninsula, which they quitted so lately as 1813, fell into the hands of the Buenos Ayreans, by whom they were condemned to subsist in this secluded district, upon rations of beef and salt, without any other allowance. \\ithin the space of a hundred miles round, there was not a human being with whom they could hold friendly converse, for the neighbouring estancias were occupied wholly by Gauchos, whose antipathy to the Spaniards knew no bounds; and a basin of milk occasionally, but rarely given to them, was the only act of kindness for which they had cause to be thankful. After enduring this horrible banishment for some time, ten of these unfortunate hidalgos, headed by a Major Livinia, resolved, at all hazards, to attempt their escape. They accordingly fled from Los dos Talos, with the design of making their way to Chili, then in possession of the royalists, and trusting to find shelter and protection, by the way, among the savage Indians; but after enduring privations, under which seven miserably perished, the three survivors were compelled to return and surrender themselves once more to a patriot outpost. They were immediately removed back to their old station, where they had ever since remained, in a state, both of body and mind, the most deplorable. The Major, in particular, with whose relatives in the mother country Mr. Miller happened to be acquainted, was in a pitiable condition. His beard had grown to his chin, his countenance was ghastly, and his figure emaciated; his eyes had become diseased, and were but indifferently screened from the glare of day, by an old sack hung up before them; and he lay upon a sort of truckle bed, composed of two or three rugs placed upon cross sticks, run into the mud
wall at one end, and fastened on the other to upright sticks driven into the earthen floor. With respect to the furniture of the hovel, which contained no fewer than twelve inmates, it consisted of a three-legged stool, ten inches high, and covered with a woollen rag, upon which the poor invalid occasionally sat, leaning against a wall, the dampness of which was in part kept off by a piece of canvass battened upon sticks; while a long plank, having its extremities supported between the horns of two bullocks' sculls, supplied the place of a bench for the rest of the company. Some clasp and case knives and forks, a few horn spoons, a kettle or two, a frying pan, a ramrod, to supply the place of a spit, a couple of gridirons, an earthen dish, and about a dozen broken cups and saucers, constituted the sum of household utensils at the disposal of the entire group. A few lassos and balas, indeed, hung upon the wall, but they were seldom used, because one or two only of the prisoners were permitted to mount on horseback at a time; and as even this favour depended upon the caprice of an officer of Gaucho militia, it could very rarely be obtained. To complete the picture of utter misery, our traveller was assured by his new acquaintances, that soap was a luxury of which they knew nothing, and the general filth and squalor of their appearance gave testimony that the complaint was not made without reason. It will readily be imagined that Mr. Miller contemplated such a scene, not only with pity, but with a far livelier and deeper feeling. He did his best, we are told, to cheer these miserable men; but we must hurry over the particulars of his interview with them, as well as the remainder of this excursion, that we may follow him at once to the seat of war.
Ou the 6th of January, IS 18, Captain Miller set out for Buenos Ayres, provided with a passport and fifty dollars, as bounty money from the government. Travelling post, a distance of three hundred leagues, he reached, at the close of the ninth day, the town of Mendoza, a large place, situated in an extensive and well-cultivated plain at the foot of the Andes, and holding the rank of capital in the province of Cayo. Its most remarkable feature is a fine alameda or public promenade, sheltered on either hand by rows of poplar,—a tree so highly esteemed in the province, that the Spaniard who introduced it was, by an express decree of the revolutionary government, excepted from the hostility shown to his countrymen, declared to be exempted from the payment of all direct taxes, and taken under the especial protection of the ruling power. Here our traveller delayed a few days, partly that he might recover from the fatigues of past exertions—partly that he might be a witness to the peculiarly simple and innocent habits of the 2 G 2 people; people; after which, he addressed himself to the arduous and toilsome task of crossing the Andes. Captain Miller followed the Pass of Uspallata, by which means he reached Santiago, a distance of eighty-three leagues, about noon on the fourth day. Of the solitary grandeur of that stupendous region, no one, who has not traversed it, can form any adequate conception. From the hour that the wayfaring man enters upon it, till he arrive at the opposite side of the range, all trace, not only of human industry, but, we had almost said, of animated nature, is lost. The road leads, indeed, from ridge to ridge, so completely thrust among the clouds, that the torrents, whose roar is distinctly heard beneath, can rarely be seen; whilst to meet even the stag-like gaze of the guanco, or to watch the solitary condor, as with motionless wings he floats overhead, is felt as a positive relief to the weary senses. Nor is the passage made good without danger,—real as well as imaginary. The snow, on many of the highest table-lands, when melted by the sun, assumes an irregular and broken surface, and offers but an insecure footing to mules and horses,—which, sinking into it, are sometimes entirely lost, and never extricated without extreme difficulty; and, as the strange noises, made by the wind, come through the long deep valleys upon the ear of the guide, he rarely fails to add to the horrors of such actual calamities, by recounting stories of travellers who have perished there already, and whose souls are still believed to haunt the vicinity of their unburied remains. Subject to all these inconveniences, Captain Miller held his course. He crossed the rich and fertile valley of Chile; halted for a day or two in Santiago; and, finally, came up, on the 26th, with the army of San Martin, in bivouac, at Las Tablas, near Valparaiso. The nucleus of the army of the Andes, to which Captain Miller attached himself, was formed in 1814, out of the remains of several corps, which, under different leaders, had suffered, one after another, defeats. Two whole years were spent in its organization, and at the end of that period it amounted to no more than four thousand regular troops, tolerably well clothed and armed, besides a considerable number of mere militia. At the head of this force, San Martin proposed to carry the war into Chile, then defended by Captain General Marco, at the head of nearly eight thousand regular, and eight hundred irregular troops. But as he was not competent to take his adversary in front, he resolved to deceive him, if possible, into a division of his strength; and then attacking him in detail, to complete the liberation of a province, where he had every reason to be convinced that a strong revolutionary spirit prevailed. San Martin assembled his army at Mendoza about midsummer in 1816, preparatory to his passage of the Andes. To facilitate the latter measure, he invited the Indians of Pehuenche to a conference at Fort San Carlos; which was held with the customary pomp of presents and debauchery—and the result was, that all the caciques engaged to grant the patriots a free passage, and to conceal their designs from the Spanish general. But San Martin knew enough of these savages to be aware that the pledge which they gave one day would be violated on the next; and hence, instead of rightly informing them of his intended movement, he laid before them a plan which he never designed to execute, with the most perfect assurance that they would divulge it to the enemy. Nor was he deceived in this. The Spaniards being led to expect his arrival by the pass of El Planchon, kept a large portion of their force in that direction; while San Martin, forming his corps into two columns—one under Soler, the other under O'Higgins—and passing the mountain-barrier at points where he was least expected, debouched suddenly into the valley of Putuendo, and took possession of the towns of Aconcagua and Santa Rosa. The Royalist force, left in this district, amounted to little more than four thousand men; it retired before the invaders, and concentrated on the heights of Chacabuco, so as to enfilade the road from Santa Rosa to Santiago. On the 10th February, 1817, San Martin appeared in front of the position; and, on the 12th, was fought a battle, named after the estate of Chacabuco, which cost the Spaniards six hundred in killed, with upwards of three thousand prisoners, including the captain-general. Santiago immediately submitted to the victor; who, sending out detachments in all directions to hunt down and destroy the remains of the royalist army, returned in person to Buenos Ayres, for the purpose of demanding supplies. Perhaps to the latter measure not a slender portion of the difficulties afterwards encountered may be attributed ; for San Martin's lieutenants, unawed by the presence of their chief, appear to have executed the orders given to them with little alacrity; and the Spaniards were, in consequence, enabled to fortify the town of Talcahuano, as a point d'appui on which to rally. Talcahuano was, indeed, invested, and an attempt made to carry it by assault; but the former measure, had decisive steps been taken after the battle, would not have been necessary, and the latter was repulsed with loss. In the meanwhile the Spaniards assembled large bodies of men at different places. Troops arrived at Lima from the mother country. General Osorio came from Callao with three thousand six hundred men; and the whole uniting in Talcahuano, amounted to full six thousand effectives of all arms. Things were in this state when Captain Miller reached Las Tablas. San Martin had returned, and brought with him recruits which swelled his own column to nearly five thousand men; whilst that of O'Higgins, to
which the siege of Talcahuano had been entrusted, as well as a corps under Colonel Las Heras, were falling back towards Talca. Captain Miller having reported his arrival to the general in chief, was immediately ordered to join his regiment—the Buenos Ayres artillery, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Plaza. He presented himself accordingly to the latter officer, who, without so much as desiring him to be seated, gave directions to an orderly to lead him to an unoccupied tent. There he threw himself down (his baggage being as yet far in the rear) on the ground, and slept soundly, undisturbed by visitors or inquiries till the following morning. In the service of South America, the officers live together, according to the relative ranks which they hold in their profession; and Captain Miller found himself, in consequence, a messmate of his brother captains. They were a strange medley of persons, differing in all their habits, notions and ideas, from those with whom he had previously been accustomed to mix; but Miller was too much a man of the world to make any display of the disgust which certain of their peculiarities failed not to excite; and he was too enthusiastic in the cause to abandon his profession, because it presented an exterior somewhat more rude than his previous imagination had bestowed upon it. On the contrary, he appears to have readily and cheerfully accommodated himself to the circumstances in which he was placed; and to have found ample sources of amusement in contingencies, which, to the feelings of a more fastidious person, would have been extremely annoying. Nor, to say the truth, were causes of contentment wanting. The captains seem to have known something of the art of good living in theory, and to have been sufficiently prompt in reducing it to practice, as the following description of the daily routine in camp will serve to show.
'The style of living was simple but substantial. A benign climate permitted persons to sleep and to live in the open air, excepting in the heat of the day. Mate*, served by a lame invalid, retained for that purpose, was taken from hut to hut, before the occupant arose from his mattress. Breakfast d la fourchette was served at nine. The dinner hour was between two and three: it was composed of excellent soup, roasted strips of flesh, brought to table on a stick, or ramrod, which answered the purpose of a spit, poultry, vegetables, and fruit, in great abundance. The prices in the camp-market were, for poultry, one shilling a couple; vegetables, for six or eight people, threepence; apples and pears, one shilling per bushel; water-melons, three half-pence each; bread, and other articles of food, were proportionably cheap. The rations, which consisted of meat and salt, and sometimes vegetables for the whole corps, four hundred and eighty men, cost the government less than one thousand dollars per month.
• Matt is an infusion of the herb ilex, and is drank as Englishmen drink tea, miied with milk. '[he