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THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY.

EDUCATIONAL SERIES..

The Committee of the Religious Tract Society have long been convinced that a new series of Books for Schools and Families was greatly needed. Many of the works now in use have much merit, but they are generally destitute of that truth by which alone the understanding can be enlightened, the heart renovated, and the feet guided in the paths of peace.” It is to provide books adapted to supply this deficiency that the present effort is made.

In works of History, the object has been carefully to exclude those details which are objectionable, and to view all events as under the control of Divine Providence. In Biography, the conduct of men is estimated, not by the maxims of this world. as in most other publications, but by the only infallible standard, the word of God. In every book of general instruction, sound information is imparted on decidedly Christian principles.

The following have been published, in 12mo., strongly bound in cloth, sprinkled edges.

THE BIBLE HANDBOOK : an Introduction to the Study of the Sacred Scriptures. By JOSEPH ANGUS, D.D. With a Map. 58. QUESTIONS TO THE BIBLE HANDBOOK, 6d., neat cover.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND: to the Year 1852. With Summaries of the State of the People at different Periods; their Maritime Operations, Commerce, Literature, and Political Progress. For Schools and Families. By the Rev. T. MILNER,

With two Maps. 58. THE HISTORY OF ROME, with Maps, 3s. QUESTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF ROME, 6d., neat cover. THE HISTORY OF GREECE, with Map, 2s. 6d. LIVES OF ILLUSTRIOUS GREEKS, 3s.

PALEY'S EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY, with Introduction, Notes, and Supplement, by the Rev. T. R. BIRKS, A.M., 38.

PALEY'S HORÆ PAULINÆ; with HORÆ APOSTOLICÆ, by the Rev. T. R. BIRKS, A.M., 38.

A UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY, in Four Parts: Historical, Mathematical, Physical, and Political. By the Rev. Thomas MILNER, F.R.G.S. Ten Coloured Maps. 58.

By the and Politico; their

12mo. With milies.

*** These works will also be found worthy of the perusal of students and general readers. RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY,56, PATERNOSTER ROW, 65, ST

CHURCH YARD, AND 164, PICCADILLY; SOLD BY THE BOOK-
SELLERS.

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CONTENTS.

CIIAPTER 1.
ORIGIN OF THE CRUSADES. A.D. 622-1090.

PAGS
Rise and progress of Mohammedanism - Spirit of the system - Its

early and extensive triumphs - Inroads on Christian territory
Struggle between Christianity and Mohammedanism-The Crusades
the zenith of this struggle-Religious and military spirit of the
times-Chivalry combining both-Superstitious veneration for Je-
rusalem-Pilgrimages to the Holy City-Sufferings of the pilgrims
-Preaching of the returned pilgrims

.

CHAPTER II.

PRELIMINARY EVBNTS. A.D. 999-1096.
Letter of pope Sylvester 11.-Letters of Gregory Vit.-Peter the Her-
mit-His preaching--Council of Clermont-Speech of Urban-Its
reception-Effects of the council-Popular movement-Expedition
of Walter-Expedition of Peter-Calamities of the march-Hosts of
Peter and Walter in Constantinople Expeditions of Godescalus and
others. Their fate---Their effect on those which followed--Character
of Peter the Hermit

. . . 12

CHAPTER III.

THFIRST CRUSADE. A.D. 1096-1099,
The great leaders of the FIRST CRUSADE-Raymond, Boemond, Hugh
the Great--Godfrey of Bouillon-March of the Crusaders-Policy of
the Greek emperor-His treatment of Hugh the Great, Godfrey, and
otherg-Effect of their residence in Constantinople--Crusaders on the
plains of Asia-The siege of Nice-Surrender of the city-Battle of
Dorylæum-Siege of Antioch-City taken by stratagem-Crusaders
besieged in Antioch-Distresses--Superstition of the lance--Encoun-
ter with the Turks-Victory of the Crusaders-Advance towards Je-
rusalem-Sight of the city-Its unsuccessful assault --Jerusalem
besieged-Sacred procession-Storming of the city-Cruelty of the
Crusader. Their devotion . . . . .

. . .

CHAPTER IV.
THB KINGDOM OJ JERUSALEMA.D. 1099-1145.
Its extent-Election of Godfrey to the SOVEREIGNTY-The Battle of
Ascalon-Godfrey's death-The CONSTITUTION of the Latin kingdom
-THE MILITARY ORDBR8-The Hospitallers--Their origin; their
dress; military character; government of the order; ceremonies of
investiture; renown-The Templars--Origin, dwelling-place, habit,
and government of the order-Fate of the religious orders---ECCLE-
SIASTIOAL AFFAIRS--Conduct of Godfrey-Rapacity of the patriarche-
Their quarrels-SUPPLEMENTARY CRURADE-Its leaders, and their
follower-Its fate-Latin kings-Fall of Edessa .

62
1192.

CHAPTER V.
TAR SECOND AND THIRD CRUSADNI. A.D. 1143--1192. PA07
Second CRUSADE-Excitement on the fall of Edessa-Louis Vll. es-

pouses the cause of the Latin kingdom-Eugenius III. appoints
St. Bernard to preach the Crusade--His wonderful success-The Em-
peror of Germany sets out-lis defeat-March of Louis-Victories of
the French-Calamities--Advance to Jerusalem-Uusuccessful siege
of Damascus Return of Conrad and Louis-Review of Second Cru.
sade-State of Palestine-Rise of Saladin--His invasion of Palestine
--Surrender of Jerusalem--Clemency of Saladin-THIRD CRUSADX-
Promoted by Frederick, Philip, and Henry II.-March of Frederick-
His success and sudden death-March of Philip and Richard-Dis-
putes in Sicily-Arrival in l'alestine-Dissensions-Return of Philip
-Feats of Richard-His advance Abandons the enterprise--Con-
cludes a peace with Saladin-Return to Europe . . .

CHAPTER VI.
THB YOURTU AND SUBSEQUENT CRUSADES. A.D. 1192-1291.
FOURTH CRV ADE-Death and character of Saladin--Division of los em.

pire-Pop (elestine II. promotes & Crusade-The Germacs alone
respond to his appeals-This Crusade of brief duration-Its results
unímportant-Firti CRUSADE-Preached by Foulk--Ambassadors
sent to Venice to hire ships-Attack and surrender of Zar&--Siege of
Constantinople -- Subsequent commotions - Establishment of the
Latins in Constantinople--SIXTH CRUSADE--Crusade of children
March of the king of Hungary-Siege of Damietta-Expedition of
Frederick II. - SEVENTI CRUSADE - Proposed by Gregory IX. -
Preached by Franciscans and Dominicans-Levies to support it-
March of the new Crusaders-Expedition of Richard, earl of Corn.
wall-EIGHTH CRUSADE--Irruption of the Carizmians-Expedition of
Louis ix.-Siege of Damietta-Imprisonment of the king-His return
to Europe-LAST CRUSADE-Second expedition of Louis-His death
at Tunis-Expedition of Edward--Other attempts-Fall of Acre . 107

CHAPTER VII.
ENGLAND AND THE CRUSADES. A.D. 1095-1272.
The people of England never so much carried away by the Crusades as

those of other countries--Circumstances which account for this-The
English Leaders--Robert of Normandy, Richard 1., Richard earl of
Cornwall, prince Edward-Pecuniary aid-Tax of William Rufus-
Expedient of Richard 1.-Military Orders in England-Rise of Tem.
plars in England-Preceptories-Temple in Fleet Street-The Temple
Church--The Hospitallers-Houses-Wealth and influence

. . 134

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL CATIEW.
Means by which the crusading spirit was kept alive-Causes of its decline

--Failure of the enterprise Disappointment of the leaders-Awaken.
ing of mind-Relaxation of religious opinions.

19

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL REVIEW-continued.
Effects of the Crusades-European progress-General extension of

ideas-Partial eniancipation of mind-Extension of commerce-Con-
stitution of society-- Advancement of royalty--Promotion of cen.
tralization--Advancement of towns-Manumission of slaves-Con-
necting link between the middle ages and the present - Moral
estimate of the Crusades-Spirit of the enterprise-Unsubstantial
worth of its ostensible object-Superstition in which they originated

CONCLUSION--Religious view of the Crusader-The true Crusade 168

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