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period, was usually drank out of bowls; and we have here enumerated two nests of silver bowls, double gilt and embossed, with covers, and accompanied by two standing cups, on the covers of which stood the figures of boys, one with a shield, and the other treading on three eagles. This list of plate, somewhat scanty for such an establishment, closes with the mention of three round silver candlesticks—certainly a remarkably small number; “ but our ancestors,” observes Whitaker, “were not profuse of light: three silver candlesticks in the hall, or great gallery, at Skipton, must have spread darkness visible *.” Passing by the account of corn and grain in the garners at Skipton, and of cattle and sheep on the domains, as offering nothing worthy of particular notice, we next reach a part of the inventory which throws a strong light on the manners of the age. It is a detail of the “Ord'nance and munyclons at Skipton, with other furniture for the warrs.” The number and distributions of this formidable
apparatus throughout almost every part of the castle
* Hist, of Craven, p. 33.1, notc.
of Skipton is singularly great and curious, and reminds us of the description which the chief chronicler of this period has given us of similar stores. “As for the armories of sundrie of the nobilitie,” he says, “they are soe well furnished within some one baron's castle, that I have seene iii score corslets at once, beside culverymes, handgunnes, bowes, and sheaves of arrowes, the verie sight whereof appalled my corage *.” It would seem, however that the lords of Skipton, not content with appropriating one or more apartments to these weapons of warfare, considered their castle, in fact, as but one vast armorie; for not even the chambers of the females, as we shall perceive, were exempt from this unlady-like furniture.
In the port-lodge, in the port-ward, and on the leads of the castle, we might expect to meet with, and we find, cannon, arquebusses, culverines, &c.; but why they should have a place in the cellar, in the larder, in the ewrie, and, above all, in the nursery and Mrs. Conyer's chamber where “three brasses with three chambres” are noted down, it would be difficult to conjecture. “A modern fine lady,” as the historian of Craven very appositely expresses himself on this occasion, “would think cannon in her chamber something like Slender's bears,” which as he said, “women could not abide, for they were very ill-favoured, rough things".” It is in the gallery, however, and the apartments immediately connected with it, that the principal armorie seems to have been established; and if we recollect the tumultuary times in which many of the Cliffords lived, their border wars with Scotland, and their deep concern in the bloody conflicts between the two houses of York and Lancaster, it will not be surprising to learn, that they found it necessary to accumulate a large stock of the materials and implements of warfare. They appear, indeed, from the quantity of saltpetre preserved in their store-house, and the number of pairs of iron-moulds marked in the inventory, to have manufactured their own gunpowder, and cast their own balls; and the following brief and classed enumeration of some of the armour and weapons collected in the gallery, in the low tower at the end of it, in the middle chamber of the gallery, and in what was called the New Work, will, with a few incidental observations, afford us a
* Holinshed, v. i. p. 85, ed. 1577.
striking picture of the warlike attitude which they were compelled to maintain. In the first place then, we have a list of seventyeight coRsLETs, furnished with caps, gorgets, and vomebraces; next follow sirty-two speans and LANCEs with the accompaniment of greaves and gauntlets, sixty BACKs and BREAsts of armour; forty-four LEAD MALLETs, a deadly weapon which had probably been used by Henry lord Clifford, the shepherd, on the Field of Flodden, for in the old metrical narrative of this battle, it is said
The Morrish pikes, and mells of lead,
Thirty-two BATTLE-AXEs, many of which had, doubtless, been wielded with unsparing havoc during the contention of the rival roses. Thirtytwo ARQUEBUSSEs, a species of musket, often made of cast-iron, and so heavy that it was usually discharged on a portable rest. Twenty-five pieces of CANNoN of various kinds, such as facons, diculverons, &c. Twelve RACKs for stringing CRossBows. Three IRoN slings with chambers, an instrument somewhat similar to the balista of the ancients, and which, as Whitaker conjectures, had in all probability been used by the first earl of Cumberland in repulsing the attacks of the Pilgrimage of Grace. Three of the SEven sistERs, pieces of Scottish ordinance which, there is every reason to suppose, had fallen into the hands of Henry, the shepherd lord, as a part of the spoil of Flodden Field; for Holinshed tells us in his description of this engagement, that “all the Scottish ensigns were taken, and a two and twentie peices of great ordinance, among the which were seaven culverines of a large assize, and very fair peices. King James named them, for that they were in making one verie like to another, “the Seaven Sisters *.’” Two BRIGANTINES; these are mentioned as being covered with black velvet, one having a cap covered with the same material, and the other a helmet or morion with white nails. “ They seem,” observes Whitaker, “to have been for the use of the lords themselves;” and he then adds a remark which brings to our recollection much of what has been recorded of the character and habits of this great and chivalric family: “How frequent with the old