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lle has not been allowed commissions reject

“ Another extension of the Susquehanna and Delaed at last settlement,

5,755 86 ware Rail Road, bearing farther to the north-west, is the His board while detained at Lima, 1,609 87 Susquehanna river Rail Road. An act passed the leCompensation for the same time,

3,229 15 gislature of Pennsylvania, at its last session, authorizing The two items for (5 per cent.) commissions

the Governor to incorporate a company to construct å on distributions of stores,

1,043 99 road along the margin of the Susquehanna, on the west His passage home,

350 00 side, from a short distance below Wilkesbarre, to the Travelling to Washington,

43 50 | line of our state, near Tioga Point:-thus virtually Commission on stores handed over to P.

abandoning the North Branch Canal by the state, and

183 24 establishing the head-quarters of the Pennsyvania works Commission on $80 paid Mr. Henderson, 4 00 at the dam, on the Lackawana, a little above Pittston.

For some of the many reasons for which the Susque$12,219 61 hanna and Delaware Rail Road ought to be made, this

river Rail Road will be made; at least such is my decid

ed belief. There are overruling interests, which, when Decree in favour of United States, for $7,254 58. J. R. IngersolL and G. M. Dallas, Esquires for the This river line may be graded from Pittsten to the state

understood, will secure the stock's being subscribed. complainant. H. D. Gilpin, Esq. District Attorney for the United / line, above Tioga (about 86 miles,) at about two and

a half feet elevation per mile. From this to Owego, States,

(say 20 miles farther,) nearly equal facilities exist.

Here would be a connection with the Owego and Ithaca From the Elizabetown Journal.

Rail Road, now nearly completed; and the communicaEXTENSION OF THE ELIZABETHTOWN AND tion would be extended from thence by the Cayuga SOMERVILLE RAIL ROAD.

lake, to an intersection with the Erie Canal, forming a

splendid line of works, penetrating the very centre and LUZERNE, Co., 10th May, 1833.

the most beautiful part of the state of New York-a I proceed to answer your inquiries, and give such connection of itself of sufficient importance to cominformation as I possess upon the several subjects to mand the admiration of every friend to the improvewhich you have directed my attention-as to bitumin- ment of our common country. Proceeding still farther ous coal. Formations of this coal are known to exist up the north-east branch of the Susquehanna, a Rail in Bradford county and Tioga county, but neither the Road may be graded with nearly equal facility to Bingextent nor the depth of the strata is yet ascertained. hamton, at the entrance of Chenango canal-forming, Wood abounding, the inhabitants of Bradford county an available connection with that improvement, in case have not sought this coal for fuel, and there being little the shorter route by the Legget's Gap Rail Road should demand for it, either domestic or foreign interest, the be delayed or fail in its execution, prime mover of most things, was wanting to induce the “Returning to Tioga Point, we find the same facili. investigation. No bed has, I believe, been regularly ties for a more western extension. Ascending the Cheopened in Bradford county. In the north-east angle of mung or Tioga river, (the north-west branch of the Tioga county, some bituminous coal has been raised, Susquehanna,) with a little higher grade, but on the under the influence of the wants of a part of Western finest ground for Rail Road, at about 20 miles from the New York, and towards which part of the public works Tioga Point, we reach Newtown. Here we meet with of that state are now progressing. The nearest bitu- the Newtown or Elmira canal, and also with the Seneca minous coal to Pittston is distant about 70 miles, almost lake, and come in connection for the third time with the directly upon the waters of the Susquehanna, on the Erie Canal. waters of the Towanda creek, and at the northern base “ From Newtown, a canal is about being extended of Burnet's mountain.

still father up the Tioga river, intended, as I under“As to the communication extending still farther to stand, to facilitate the transportation of bituminous coal, the north and west, calculated to increase the amount from the deposites south of the Pennsylvania line to the of transportation or travel, upon the Susquehanna and western state of New York. Delaware Rail Road, there are several authorized public “From Pittston to Tioga Point, from Tioga Point to works, extending from the line of the Susquehanna Uwego and Binghamton, and from l'ioga Point to Newand Delaware Rail Road at Pittstown, and above it, ne. town, the grade is so easy, that on a well-constructed cessarily tending to produce that effect; one is the Leg- Rail Road, with locomotive power, a few hours travel get's Gap Rail Road, a law for which passed at the ses would connect these points. Tioga Point I have always sion of our legislature previous to the last; the line of looked upon as the key of nearly all western New this road unites with the Susquehanna and Delaware York. And I have ever believed the natural, as well Rail Road in the valley of the Lackawa near Cen. as artificial communications connected with this point, treville, about 12 miles north-east of Pittston. From destined in the progress of events to bring into and thence the proposed route of this road runs to the Great lead through Pennsylvania a great part of the rich proBend of the Susquehanna, above Binghamton, about 50 ducts of their most fertile region. miles. This would bring the Susquehanna at the Great “An early connection of the Susquehanna and DelaBend within 108 miles of the Delaware, at the Water ware Rail Road with Tioga Point, by means of the Gap. I forward you a report made on this line in 1832, Legget's Gap or river Rail Road, would enable it to by Mr. Seymour, a competent engineer. From the take charge of a great portion of the Susquehanna point whence this strikes the Susquehanna at the Great trade, to the Delaware at least, and a great portion of it Bend, a line of Rail Road may be run, at an easy grade would pass on through New Jersey to the city of New of about three feet descent in a mile, to Binghamton. York. This trade will probably treble in amount on Here we meet with the Chenango canal, now authoriz- the completion of these communications. In passing ed to be constructed at the expense of the state of New the eye over the map of western New York, from Tioga York, a work of great magnitude and extent, penetra- Point, no intelligent observer can, I think, fail to be ting into the heart of the empire state, and forming a convinced, that to that point all the products of a wide connection with the Erie Canal. Our interest continues range of fertile and populous territory must surely much higher up the north-east branch, which will be come, and that if all or any of these are ever to find evident on an examination of the map of New York; their way to their own great commercial capital, they but I confine myself in this to the authorized or com. must do so by the Pittston, Water Gap, Belvidere, and pleted public works with which we are at once con- Elizabethtown Rail Roads. nected.

“Little has yet been said of the public travel, and of

the revenue to be derived from passengers. This item,

VISÍT TO THE RAIL ROAD. under present prospects, ought surely to be taken into view. "Will not this line of communication, by the

Having one day last week taken a walk with a friend Elizabethtown and Somerville, and Susquehanna and to visit the new Rail Road, and witness the operation of Delaware Rail Roads, if extended, as it is now pretty ascending and descending the Inclined Plane, dischargevident it will be extended, by a continued line of Railing the coal into the boats, &c. we finally extended our Road into western New York, surpass all other routes walk along the Rail Road up to the village of Nesque. for the accommodation of travel, and become the most honing, and for the first time visited the Room Run desirable line for passengers, from the city of New York mines at that place. We were highly gratified with the and the New England sea-board, to the Falls of Niaga- appearance of this little village which is springing up ra, to Lake Erie, and to the whole western region?

as it were in the midst of the forest. We had before “On this subject we may, I think, with confidence seen the neat cluster of white buildings from a distance, appeal to facts, unchangeable in their nature, and ask in ascending and descending the Broad Mountain on the those who would consider this line of Rail Roads, with Berwick turnpike, on the opposite side of the Nesque. a view to test its merits, to examine the maps, and par- honing valley, but were not till this time aware of the ticularly a map of western New York, as a map more

extent of the improvements here. Several new dwel. particularly showing the whole line, the large map of N. ling houses and shops have recently been commenced Jersey, &c. &c. This, with the facts made known by and are progressing briskly, and the place bids fair to the Pennsylvania engineers, relative to the north branch become a pleasant as well as flourishing little town. of the Susquehanna

river, the plan and facilities of the The buildings are nearly all painted or white washed, authorized improvements, the report of Captain Beach which gives it a very neat appearance from a distance. on the Susquehanna and Delaware Rail Road, the ac. One of the Contractors at these mines very politely companying statements of the Commissioners and the escorted us up into those parts of the mines which are report of the engineers upon the line from Belvidere, now worked. A number of drifts or tunnels have been via Clinton, Somerville, and Elizabethtowon, to New penetrated several hundred feet into the banks, on each York, will afford a view of the outline of this interesting side of Room Run, nearly horizontally, in veins of the project, from which I think its merits cannot fail to be most beautiful anthracite, from 20 to 40 feet in thickduly appreciated.

H. W. D. ness, exhibiting as at the old mines, an inexhaustible

supply of the first quality of coal.

The loaded cars are let down two short Inclined From the United States Gazette.

Planes-drawing up the empty ones as they descend. TIOGA COAL MINES, AT BLOSSBURG, PA. From the foot of the lower Plane at Nesquehoning, the

The abundance of stone coal and iron ore, which the Rail Road descends to the head of the Plane near the discoveries of a few years have brought to light, as the new landing, on a grade so inclined as to let the loaded product of the mountainous districts of Pennsylvania, cars descend by their gravity. have given an immense value to sections of the state This Rail Road may challenge a comparison with al. which ten years since were considered as burdensome most any other in the United States, both in its materito their owners.

als and manner of construction. Its bed is laid of earth The promise of the future is as cheering as the pros and stone, and the rails are firmly set it cast iron knees, pect before us, for every year brings new discoveries bolted to stone blocks which gives them a solid and perof mineral wealth, and unseated lands are now becom- manent situation. ing objects of deep interest and value to their owners, It is now in successful operation, and capable of al. who have so long held them without remunerating for lowing a much greater amount of business than is yet the expenses to which they have been subjected,

done upon it for the want of a sufficient number of The great extent and central position which Penn- Cars. sylvania holds on the map of the Union, with abundance number of new ones as fast as they can be made, and

The Company are, however, increasing the of coal in almost every direction, shows to what amount the quantity of coal brought from these mines, is conher sister states may be benefitted by her mineral re.

sequently fast increasing: sources; and that to New York and the eastern states,

Mauch Chunk Courier. who are less fortunate in possessing the same natural advantages, those resources are becoming objects of deep interest, is no less evident than gratifying to her citizens.

From the Easton Argus. The mines at Blossburg in Tioga county, which are

REMARKABLE CIRCUMSTANCE. the immediate subject of this notice, produce the finest quality of bituminous coal.

The following may be relied on as a fact, and perThe same veins, extending south and south-west, sons are now in this borough who were present when have been opened in Lycoming county, and prove to be the occurrence took place. There is no doubt but that of similar quality.

during the prevalence of the cholera, numbers were A recent accurate, geological survey and exploration interred prematurely. have been made of the Blossburg mines, by a scientific Albert T. Whelden left Easton on the 27th of June, engineer and geologist from England, Richard C. Tay- 1832, and arrived on the line of the Chesapeake and lor, Esq. whose report in a pamphlet form, accompa-Ohio canal, near Shepherdstown, Maryland, on the 3d nied by a lithographic engraving of the coal sections, of July. On the 15th of August, at 3 o'clock, P. M. was published last spring.

he was attacked by the cholera, which was then raging Mr. Taylor's high reputation in England, and in this in that neighborhood, and which in almost every case country, as a geologist, must entitle his report to the proved fatal. Whelden sent for a physician, who at. fullest confidence; and he proves incontestibly the inex- tended, and prescribed the usual remedies. At 6 o'clock haustible quantity, and superior quality, of this coal. he was pronounced in the collapsed stage of the disAlthough from his survey, there appears at this point to ease, and at 7 was to all appearance dead. At 8 o'clock be 20,000 acres coming under the denomination of coal he was placed by a few friends in a coffin, and taken in land, he estimates the supply only upon one fourth that a light wagon to the place of interment, about half a amount; and from the thickness of the veins at their mile distant. When arrived at the

grave, a groaning crop only, which have been explored, he shows that one was heard proceeding from the coffin, and on opening hundred thousand tons may be annually sent to market it, poor Whelden exhibited signs of life, and was liber. for the space of 500 years, from 5000 acres of this body ated from his disagreeable confinement. He is now of mineral wealth.

TIOGA, alive and well, and resides in our borough,




VOL. XII.-NO. 6.


NO. 293.


I had witnessed was but a part of the disturbance which Note of the effect upon the Magnetic Needle of the Aurora had actually taken place, and which seems to have af.

Borealis, visible at Pkiladelphia, on 17th of May, 1833. fected the horizontal needle especially, By A. D. BACHE, Professor of Natural Philosophy and

The needles to which I have referred are three in Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania.

number, two long horizontal needles, of which one is To the Committee on Publications.

within-doors, and the other* is under cover in the yard Gentlemen-Circumstances having prevented me with a knife edge suspension, contained in a small ob

attached to my residence, and a long dipping needle from witnessing more than a very small part of the unu. Servatory, constructed for the purpose, and also in the sually brilliant aurora which was visible on the evening yard of my dwelling house. The observations of the of the 17th of May last, I am indebted for the following horizontal needle, within doors, were made very regu. description of it to my friend J. P: Espy, Esq., who larly, and also of the dipping needle out of doors, but has kindly furnished it to me from his journal. being 68°, and the dew point 66°, a brilliant aurora ap- tion of the horizontal needle out of doors, throughout "On the 17th May, 1833, the temperature of the air the observer not being aware of the appearance of the

aurora, did not take the corresponding hourly observa. peared in the north, about twenty or thirty degrees the whole of the evening. above the horizon, and extending about thirty or forty degrees on each side of the north point.

In order to convey a better idea of the variation on "I first saw it a few minutes after nine o'clock, when by those made on the tollowing day and

night, on which

the evening in question, I precede the observations it was brighter than it appeared afterwards. Stream the changes of variation and dip were nearly the regu. ers, not in motion, were distinctly visible, rising from a lar mean diurnal changes at this time of the year. The dense light below, which seemed to rest on dark clouds variation is referred to the mean variation for the day, underneath, reaching the horizon. All the rest of the sky or to a point nearly corresponding to this, the sign was clear, and had been so all the afternoon. In a few mi. nutes the streamers disappeared.clouds, which suddenly variation, and the sign — to those east of the same line.

being prefixed to the positions west of this line of mean formed, seemed to take their places, the northern The height of the thermometers contained in the boxes lights still appearing nearly the same, only interrupted with the needles is given. in part by a greater number of clouds. I continued to observe the aurora with intervals of but few minutes,

Horizontal Needles. Dip.Needle and at nearly ten o'clock, I discovered that a very bril. liant arch had been formed, passing through the zenith, and terminated by the horizon, about twenty egrees south of east, and the same number north of west.

“ The arch was much denser, brighter, and narrower, near the horizon than in the zenith. It passed gra

Weather.) dually towards the south, and disappeared, at twenty minutes past ten, about eleven degrees south of Lyra. The clouds, at the time of the disappearance, were ra. pidly forming north of the arch, all the south being yet clear: in fifteen minutes afterwards the whole heaven

Minut, Fah° Minut. Faho was overcast, and the light in the north was hardly vi. sible through the clouds. The air had been coming A.M from the north in the morning, and had changed round 8}||- 7.5

0.0 72|171 40 71.4||Cloudy. by the west, and at the time of the occurrence of the 9 1-16.5 70 0.0 73 " 36 72.51 Do. arch it is believed was nearly south-west; below, the

101 7.5 72 -1.5 73|| • 36 72.5

Do. direction of the clouds was not observed.

11 4.5 741-3.0 74 56 36174.2 Do. “ The dew point had risen, since the preceding day, 12 | 0.5 74 0.0 74|| " 3675 3

Dotwelve degrees Fah. It is highly probable that an up-P.M per current (not the uppermost) of air, was moving in 1 113,5 77 0,0

74|| " 3378,1 the direction in which the arch moved, as the air had been

Roccoly. moving in that direction a few hours before, and I have

2:||-412.5 8213.0 75|“ 30/82 1 frequently observed, when the wind changes, the lower

3 | 15.0 83 13.0

182.6||Sout, c. strata next the ea th, change first. From the 10th until


821 13.0 76|| " 42183.8 Clear. the afternoon of the 15th of May, the wind had constantly

5*|| 6.0

821–1.5 761 - 4282.6 Do. been, by night and day, almost exactly south, with a 6 1 1.5 81 43.0 76|| ~ 48 81.5 Do. high dew point, carrying an immense quantity of va- 7 4.5 791-3.0 75 66 51179.31 Do. 1 pour to the north; on the evening of the 15th, until the 8

0.0 75 « 45 75.9|| SL.fle's night of the 16th, the wind was N. E. with rain, and on

2 (Cirr.) the morning of the 17th the wind was north."

- 10,5 76 0.0 74" 48 74.8 On returning home at eleven o'clock, on the evening | 1011-10,5 0.0

741| " 48 74.8 just referred to, and observing the different magnetic 11 3.51 74

« 42174,0|Clear. 'se needles which I have arranged for observations on the diurnal variation, a considerable disturbance was indi. * A complete description of this needle is given in a cated. The journal of the hourly observations, kept paper read before the American Philosophical Society, during my absence in the evening, confirmed that what 'in November last. VÖL, XI. 11


Time of observation.
Diurnal changes of
variation. Needle
Attached Thermo-
out of doors.

Diurnal changes of
variation. Needle

Attached Thermo-
in doors.

Dip of the needle.

| Thermometer at.




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From the table just given, it appears that on the 18th In the interval of an hour and a half, between 9 and 101, of May, the westerly variation, as given by the horizon. P. M., the needle had moved to the eastward 12', or tal needle out of doors, had two distinct points of mini-one-afth of a degree; and the observations during the mum, the first at 9, a. M., and the latter between 91 early part of the phenomena tend to show, if they do and 103, P. M., and two points of maximum, the first at not prove, that this motion took place in the latter part 3, P. M., and the second at some period, not ascertain of the interval, the mean hourly rate of motion, as ed, after 11, P. M. The same variation shown by the shown by the observations at 8 and 9, P. M., being needle within doors, had its minima at 11, A, M., and only three minutes. I regret that the observations from 6 to 7, P. M., its maxima between 2 and 45, P. were not more regular; but as no particular interest atM., and at some hour of the night which was not ascer- tached to the evening, the observer, as I have already tained. The Temperatures of the two needles being stated, not being aware of the presence of the aurora, very different, the effect of changes of temperature I considered myselt fortunate in the frequency of those should be ascertained to render the results strictly com- observations which were made; this being a part of the parable; a remark which suggests the object, in part, of evening in which, usually, there is nothing to require the observations upon those two needles, so differently regular observations, being the interval between the situated.

evening minimum and the night maximum. In the dip we find a minimum at 2), P. M., as the The observations on the horizontal needle out of only point very decidedly marked: there is an appa- doors, do not contradict any of the remarks just made, rent maximum at 7, which the subsequent observations and they show further, that at 11, P. M., forty minutes seem to indicate to have been the result of causes for after the disappearance of the arch, the effeet on the reign to those producing the regular diurnal changes of needle was still strongly marked; the westerly variation dip.

at 11, P. M., having been 10 minutes less than on the The observed changes for this day, just given, are same hour of the next succeeding evening. The very not entirely regular, and should be considered, of rapid formation and disappearance of clouds during course, in the light of particular results affording mere- the evening, and the low stratus which forined about ly a term of comparison, which is sufficiently accurate eleven o'clock, would all, in ordinary cases, have profor the purpose in view.

duced slightly marked changes in the variation, but I now give a table of some of the observations for nothing of the character of those noted in the table. May 17th, with a column of remarks, the portion of the temperature having remained stationary, within which relating to the aurora, is drawn from the descrip. doors, during the evening, no part of the changes in tion by Mr. Espy, already given.

the position of the horizontal needle noted in the third

column, were due to variations of temperature. The Horizontal Needles. ||Dip.Needle.

results, in the absence of correction for these changes, are therefore the more valuable,

The dip, recorded in the fifth column of the table last giyen, has its minimum at 4, P. M., a rise then be.

gins, which is so very irregular as not to permit any inRemarks.

ference from it; diminishing between 74 and 87, P. M., it increases between 8% and 9, decreases between 9 and 103, and subsequently increases to 11 o'clock. These changes do not seem to attach to the different phases of the aurora, and are not more considerable than ordi

nary meteorological phenomena would produce, such, Minut. Fa.° Minut. Fa.


for example, as are recorded in the first table.

My aim having been merely to establish that a decide A.M

ed disturbance of the horizontal needle was produced 87 51 60 -9.0 70 1171 33 59, 6 cloudy.

by the aurora of the 17th, I have not thought it neces11 -1.0 70.31

sary to supply the corrections for the temperature of P.M.

the needles which the successful establishment of the 1 17.01 71

changes in diurnal variation will require. 3 17.0 72 “ 12074 8|cloudy.

Journal of the Franklin Institute. 4. ||115.01 67 17.01 72 66 0975.9||sun out. 5 1 1.5 77) 15.5| 72 «« 18175.9| clear.


" 36173.4 81

-3.01 72
56 3071.9

It affords us much pleasure to congratulate our fel9 -1.5 72

low citizens of this region of country, and society at

66 34171.4|| * 103 -13.5 72 “ 3070.3) sky ov'ct. It was incorporated by an act of our Legislature about

large, with the brightening prospects of this Institution. 11 -13,51 68

" 36 69.1||low strat. Aurora bright; streamers; arch forms about 10, P. and raised up, by the enterprise and activity of a band

fifteen ycars since, and was commenced, carried on, M.; arch disappears 10h. 20m.

of zealous friends, aided by the unexampled liberality

of a few; and kindly patronized by the commonwealth. By comparing the third column of this table with the A few years since it arrived at a state of completion for corresponding column of the first table, we find the reception of students, so far as relates to a noble col. throughout the day, the general accordance in the re- lege edifice, an extensive and highly valuable Library, lative positions of the needle of a minimum of westerly and a respectable Philosophical and chemical apparavariation at about 8, A, M., a maximum between 1, P. tus, but having reached this important point, and as we M. and 4. P. M,, a second minimum about 8 P. M., a fondly hoped, about to dispense its blessings Laroughtendency touards a second maximum, which was inter- out our land, to our great mortification, we learned rupted by the aurora. There does not appear to have through the many ineffectual attempts of its warm been any marked change from 81, P. M., to 9; so that friends to put it into active operation, that the prospect the first part of the phenomenon does not seem to have of doing this without the further generous aid of the affected the variation. Observations are wanting to Legislature, was entirely hopeless for years to come show when the effect began to be felt, and when it was that the funds necessary to procure and support a suitaat the greatest, and the near coincidence of the observa- ble faculty of the college, could not under its existing tion at half past ten with the time of the disappearance circumstances be raised, in the ordinary mode of indiof the arch, must, of course, be regarded as accidental. (vidual donations. Thus situated, it has for the last few

Hour of observation. Changes of variation. Needle out

meter. Attached Thermo

tion. Needle with2. Changes of varia. of doors.

meter. | Attached Thermo. in doors.

Changes of dip.
Attached Thermo-


sun out.

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years been standing the silent but imposing monument therefore, sell for any price, or lose all. We hold it to of noble, but unsuccessful efforts in the cause of Liter- be a sheer fabrication, got up in malice, or in envy, at ature and Science. In this embarrassing state of things, the prosperity which Columbia enjoys above most of and when the extensive internal improvement system the towns of the river. Still, it must be admitted, they now in progress in the state, precludes the expectation are a shrewd and long-headed people-tight hands at of receiving much at this moment from that source, a a bargain—who do all they can to make hay while the kind Providence, as we sincerely trust, is opening its sun shines, or rather to make money while the river way to usefulness and fame, and, that at no distant day is high. Allegheny College, surrounded as it is by a widely er. We have another reason for selecting Columbia as a tended country, healthy and fertile, and rapidly in place of temporary sojourn. It contains one of the creasing in population and wealth: and where no insti- pleasantest and best conducted taverns in the state, tution of the kind, has yet been commenced, will justly making no great pretensions to style, but embracing rank among the most useful of our nation. With these every thing essential to comfort. The landlord, Joe introductory observations relative to this College, the Jeffers, is a wag moreover, of the first order, brim-full brightening prospects alluded to, we will now explain. of droll stories about the men and things of Lancaster Some few years since an interchange of sentiment took county, and ringleader of all the fun and frolic of Coplace between some of the Trustees of said College, lumbia, for the last twenty years. His humour and his and clergymen of the Methodist denomination of Claris. gossip have more than once refreshed us after a long tians, having for its object an arrangement for securing ride, quite as much as his glass of good wine, or bowl to the College, the patronage of the Pittsburg Confer. of iced punch. ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church. With a view As a preliminary to an attempt at describing the to effect this desirable object, an agent from the board Susquehannay it is necessary that we complete our view of trustees of the College attended the meeting of said of the great mountain ranges of Pennsylvania, two of Conference at Wellsburg, Va, in August last, and which (the Mine Ridge, and the Blue Ridge,) we have made known to them the wishes of the College. With already described, as also of some other leading geoa desire, therefore, to be prepared to act with the best graphical features of the state. Without a previous information on the subject, the Conference kindly re- knowledge of these, no one could fully comprehend solved to hold their next session at this place. The Con- what we propose to say in regard to the river, since the ference met here on the 16th instant, consisting of the relative position of certain great features affects, mate. Rev. Bishop Roberts, presiding, and upwards of one rially, the character of all. one hundred clergymen. Those of us who have view. The third important mountain range of Pennsylvania ed them in the transaction of business sitting in Confer- is the Kittatiny, or Blue Mountain, (we shall use the ence, or have listened to them from the pulpit, or have former title,') which crosses the Delaware at the celehad intercourse with them in private life, must feel a brated Water Gap, 20 miles above Easton, and then trapleasure in attesting to their virtues--their talents, and verses the state in a general direction from north east their amiable deportment. A more pleasing state of to south west. It crosses the Lehigh at the Water society has never blessed our village, and with such Gap of that name, the Schuylkill just above Hamburg, an interest and influence united with the College, it the Swatara half way between Jones' Town, and Pine cannot, under the smiles of Heaven, do otherwise than Grove, and the Susquehanna about six miles above prosper. We believe the bounds of the Conference Harrisburg. West of the Susquehanna, it forms the extend to more than equal the size of Pennsylvania. On northern boundary of Cumberland County, separating the first day of their meeting they visited the College it from Perry, and then entering Franklin, is inflected, Edifice, and viewed the Library, &c, and after a few like the Blue Ridge, to the South, which course it condays, resolved unanimously to accept ihe proposition of tinues till it enters Maryland, and crosses the Potomac the Board of Trustees, by taking the College under at the village of Hancock. In Franklin county, where their patronage, and appointed a committee to unite it is crossel by the Turnpike to Pittsburg, it is called with the College in carrying the same into complete ef. the Cove Mountain. East of the Delaware, this great fect, and which has since been accomplished so far, as Range traverses the Northern part of New Jersey and relates to organizing a Board of Trustees, and appoint- a portion of New York, till it reaches the Hudson, where ment of faculty, &c. A Roberts' professorship, in ho- it is known as the Catskill Mountain. South of the nor of the venerable Bishop of that name, has been Potomac, it pursues a south western course, under the endowe:l, and the college will be opened for the recep- name of the North Mountain, through Virginia and into tion of students, the first Monday in November next. North Carolina. By this time it has approached so near The following gentlemen have been selected Profes- the great Allegheny range, as that it can hardly be dissors, viz. Rev. Martin Ruter, D. D., President of the tinguished from it, and indeed the two are frequently Faculty and Professor of Moral Science; Rev. Homer J. confounded, on the map. In its course through PennClark, A. M., Vice President and Professor of Mathe- sylvania it is far more distinctly marked, and exhibits a matics; and Augustus W. Ruter, A. B., Professor of more uniform appearance than any other. Hence it Languages.-Crawford Messenger.

often proves a boundary between counties, dividing

Lehigh from Northampton, Berks from Schuylkill, From the Commercial Herald.

Cumberland from Perry, and Franklin from Bedford.

Viewed from some elevated and distant point, and parSKETCHES OF PENNSYLVANIA.

ticularly from the Blue Ridge, it has the appearance of No. 7.

a vast wall built across the state, of nearly uniform Having reached the banks of the Susquehanna, we height, except where a deep notch indicates that it is shall remain stationary for a while, in order to describe broken by the course of a river. There is a hill not far the course and character of that magnificent river, as from Easton, from which may be seen the whole line of accurately as our opportunities of knowing and our the Kittatiny Mountain, from the Delaware to the Suslimited space will admit. Columbia too is one of those quehanna, with the passes of those streams, and of the places where we always liked to tarry longer than for Lehigh, and Schuylkill, and Swatara, plainly marked. à change of horses. It contains an intelligent and en-Half way between the Lehigh and Delaware is a reterprising population, several of whom we have found markable depression called the Wind Gap, not because very agreeable companions. As to the story, that the it abounds in wind, but because it appears to have been merchants of this place lay in annually a stock of blind made without the agency of water. It is a deep notch horses, and of watches without works, to trade away to in the Mountain, suddenly reducing its height by about up country people, whose rafts or arks chance to be two-thirds, and which seems to have been produced by wrecked on the rocks near the town, and who must, some potent natural cause that has now ceased to ope

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