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oftener than they were aware, and still more often than the father had any idea of, or would sanction. That has been proved to be the case by the incredulousness of both, frequently, upon receiving the report. One woman, honestly, I believe, said, “she only kept her son now and then to mind the baby." The report corrected her fond delusion, by showing her that he was detained three-fifths of his time for these “occasional” duties. Without these reports, the parents are left, especially the father, to wonder how it is the boy does not improve, and, of course, the master gets all the blame. The proportion of time now lost by absence and lateness, compared with that before the reports were issued, is just one-half; and I trust to make it still less.

6. Another master statesNo sooner was this plan adopted, than the majority of the boys evinced a sincere desire to gain a good report. It was astonishing to find how surprised some of the parents were, when the report was sent in, to find that James or John had been late nine times, or absent six. Those parents who were anxious for the welfare of their children, set about to remedy this evil at once. I have known instances in which it has not only been of great benefit to the boys, but to the parents as well, by making them

early risers.

“ This is something, but more even than this may be accomplished.

In some schools, I have found teachers issuing written certificates to boys on their leaving; not indiscriminately, or for slight reasons, but as a testimony to their general good conduct, personal manners and habits, diligence in duty, and invariable* regularity and punctuality of attendance at school. One of these masters writes :

I proposed to give to every industrious and well-conducted pupil, on his leaving school, a certificate of character and attainments, founded on the monthly report.

This testimonial is of service to them as a recommendation. One boy, who had a drunken mother, was anxious to gain a good certificate, to obtain which, he was well aware, depended upon himself. He persevered, and was successful, in spite of the bad examples set him at home, and the result of the whole was that he obtained a clerk's situation. I might mention numerous instances of a similar kind, and, further, that at a neighbouring factory, none of our boys can find employment without first showing their reports, or a certificate. Hence the parents perceived the necessity of procuring good reports.

“I know of no instance in which this plan has been worked out so completely as in the excellent British School at Cheltenham, under Mr. Moore. He shall give his own account of the matter.

For years I have been endeavouring to cure the monster evil of irregularity of attendance, and with something like success. In order to be more successful, I determined to try the effect of a reward for punctuality, or, rather not a reward, which on principle might be objected to, but an acknowledgment that the boys had been regular. I therefore, two years ago, wrote and printed an address to the parents, urging them to send their children regularly and punctually to school, promising to give a “Certificate of Merit” to those scholars who had so attended for twelve months, –

* The following is the form of certificate recently issued by the Committee of Coancil, in an ornamental border, with the legend inscribed at the head, “Well begun is half done.SCHOLAR’S CERTIFICATE.

Thorpe School. The undersigned certify that John Styles for Mary Smith], aged twelve years six months, at the date hereof, has attended the above-named schood for six years nine months, and that he can now read fluently, write a good hand, work sums as far as Simple Rule of Three, and that his knowledge of Geography is good.

Grammar is fair.
English History fair.

[Add other subjects, if any.] [Add other subjects, if any.] During the whole tinfe that he has been in the above-named school his conduct has been unexceptionable.

day of

185

Certified or Registered Teacher.
Name
Address
Name

Managers of the
Address

School.
Name
Address

Signed this

H. M. Inspector of Schools.

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provided their conduct and progress were satisfactory,--and, that the boys might value the certificate the more, a drawing of the school-house was made and engraved, with the certificate, upon copperplate. Parents and children took the matter up, and entered warmly into the plan; and it is amusing, but very satisfactory, to hear that the parents keep check upon me with regard to the attendance of their boys; and should, by accident, an incorrect monthly or quarterly account be sent in, down they come to rectify it at once, because "they should not like William, or John, to lose his certificate, and not his fault."

The certificates are divided into three classes, as follows:-An absence of less than four days in a year would entitle the boy to a first-class certificate. More than four but less than ten days, to one of the second class. Above ten, but less than twenty days' absence, to a third-class certificate.

The certificates are only given to those scholars who are in school from January to December, and are limited to the four highest sections of the school, Last year there were 128 boys who were eligible to compete for certificates, and the following award took place :: Of First class certificates

42 Second

14 Third

24 making a total of 80, or nearly two-thirds of those who might have obtained them had their attendance been as above.

That they are valued is evident from the fact that, as soon as they are distributed, they are beautifully framed and glazed. Some of the mountings must have cost a great deal of money, and the parents must be delighted with the certificate, or they would not go to such expense. I may add that they are always distributed publicly.

Lateness, as such, we now never have. It is very rare for more than three or four boys to be late out of 280. Many boys, I know, last year refused to go into the country on a visit to their relatives, fearing they should lose their certificates.

“ Another mode in which the school is exerting a good influence upon the coming age, is the encouragement given by it to pecuniary economy. It is quite beyond the comprehension of persons whose attention has not been directed to the matter, that very considerable sums of money are squandered by the children of our poor in worthless trash, or even in what is worse than worthless. The amount wasted is of small consequence compared with the babit, which is being thus constantly strengthened, of rendering themselves always moneyless, and consequently strangers to the dignity and self-reliance which a sense of proprietorship, however limited, may help to sustain. In several ways I have found British teachers endeavouring to supply an antidote for this evil, and with a measure of success far beyond their own expectations. The difficulty, yet still the point to be aimed at, is, to find such a mode of investment for this loose cash as shall be thoroughly popular, and attract to it the largest amount, especially if there is but one such mode. A savings' bank specially for the school, is slowly growing into favour, and, if worked with spirit, proves a most valuable auxiliary to the elevating tendencies of the school. Some gentlemen of the school committee commonly undertake the treasurership; and the master, or better still, the pupil-teachers, if there are any, fulfil the duties of secretary. Such a bank exists in the British School at Cheltenham, and the master says

It has been established rather more than three years, and owes its origin to the fact of my having noticed, for some considerable time, that many of the boys were in the habit of spending important sums of money in the purchase of sweetmeats, tops, marbles, and similar articles. I thought it would be a great benefit, not only for the present, but also for the future, could they be induced to save this money. The subject was mentioned to the treasurer of the school, and we determined to ask the boys if they would wish to have their money taken care of by putting it into a bank, because, if so, a savings'-bank in connection with the school should be at once established. This was done; the scholars were delighted with the proposal, and the bank was established. The first morning it was opened, about £2 was paid in, made up of pennies, sixpences, and shillings. Twenty-four depositors appeared the first morning, and at present there are upwards of one hundred paying weekly, monthly, or as they feel disposed, into the bank. About £160 have been deposited since its commencement; last year upwards of £60 was paid in. Not only are present scholars at liberty to deposit, but any of the former scholars, now at work, wishing to put their mouey into the bank, are invited to do so; and it is a pleasing fact that several of them have availed themselves of the opportunity. This brings the former scholars and their teacher into frequent and intimate contact, and enables him to say " a word in season.”

I have never regretted the establishment of the bank in the school. I am convinced it has created among the children a greater amount of carefulness and economy, whilst it helps to bind them to the school much more closely, because the bank is theirs, and they have an interest in it, and therefore in the school. Oue little circumstance connected with ii is pleasing, and may be useful. Last autumn we took all the scholars, for a day's pleasure, over to Gloucester, and each boy had to pay his own travelling expenses, viz., sixpence each. In the "first section,” all had purchased their tickets but four, who, for some reason, could not go. On the Monday prior to the day of our excursion, four boys, who had money in the bank, and interest upon it, drew out sixpence each. I thought this was for themselves. Not so, however, it was to purchase tickets for the boys above mentioned, whose parents could not, or would not, pay for them; and who, without this manifestation of kindness, would have been deprived of the pleasure of joining in the trip.

“ The amount of money thus preserved from waste, and turned into some useful channel, is very considerable, and often proves of great value to a child when entering on the business of life. It is not an uncommon thing for a youth thus to save enough, during his stay at school, to purchase the tools necessary for him at first entering on a trade, and to have a few shillings of spare cash in addition. When a safe and ready investment is at hand, and the child is interested in it, parents are stimulated to an effort to furnish even an extra sum to invest. The poverty of a district need not discourage the attempt. In a large village in Wiltshire, and in a school with less than 200 boys, the large sum of £100 found its way into the school bank last year.

From a gentleman who for many years was master of a British School in one of the southern counties, and secretary to the town savings' bank, I have the following statement :

The school savings' bank was established in the year 1827, and intended for the girls only. In 1833, I introduced it into the boys' school, and in 1838 the two banks were amalgamated, since which time I have taken the deposits. When a child makes the first deposit, I give him or her a book or card, with an entry of the sums paid in. When the sums respectively amount to twelve shillings, I transfer the account to the local savings' bank, giving to the depositor, at the time of transfer, a book, for which I pay sixpence. I still continue to take the child's pence, till they amount to a sum large enough to transfer to the greater bank.

As actuary of the savings' bank, I have means of knowing the advantage of juvenile banks. Early habits of economy cannot be too strongly inculcated; for encouraging them to take care of the pence will make them see how the pounds can take care of themselves. In going through the accounts since the establishment, I have no hesitation in saying that a sum of not less than £5,000 has been deposited by those who began in this little way. This is encouraging to those who wish to try the experiment.

I feel it is the duty of every teacher of youth, not only to instruct intellectually, but, what is of infinitely higher importance, to establish a good sound moral and religious foundation--teaching them habits of industry, punctuality, and economy; they will then be in no danger of keeping the intellectual in the back-ground.

“ All will see that the amount of money thus saved is an inferior consideration, compared with the habit engendered. I have no wish to train up a race of misers, but to lead them first into the exercise of that self-control which is necessary to resist effectually the ever-ready impulse which most children feel to spend every penny they can get; and, next, to make them sensible that they, as well as others, can have a material as well as social and moral interest in the preservation of order, of reverence for law, and the maintenance of justice and of right through every part of the social fabric."

TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS.

CHIPPENHAM.—A meeting of British School Teachers took place at Chippenham on the 24th ultimo. The meeting was called by circular, and was numerously attended. Teachers were present from Bath, Corsham, Moor Green, Chippenbam, Sherston, Wotton Bassett, Highworth, Devizes, Melksham, Bromham, Trowbridge, Westbury, Bratton, Warminster, Frome, Beckington, Coleford, and Paulton. Mr. Baxter attended and took part in the proceedings. A series of resolutions were passed,

forming the British Teachers of North Wilts and East Somerset into an association for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the schools under their care respec. tively, and furthering the cause of popular education generally. The teachers afterwards took tea together, and were then addressed on a variety of topics relating to school matters, including the importance of elevating the personal, social, and domestic manners and habits of the children ; the kinds of knowledge which it is of the highest importance to teach, and to teach early; the training of pupil-teachers, especially in relation to their personal habits, their school occupations, and their scriptural studies. The proceedings were of a truly interesting character, and we doubt not but much real and lasting benefit will result to the teachers themselves and to the schools which they conduct.

Kent.—The usual quarterly meeting of this association was held on the 17th ult., when schoolmasters and mistresses from a large district, including Canterbury, Ashford, Deal, Faversham, Broadstairs, Chart, Folkestone, Elham, &c., attended. A model lesson was given to a class of children by Mr. Sanders, of the Canterbury British Schools ; after which, Mr. Baxter addressed the teachers on the duties and responsibilities of their profession, and in a subsequent conversation imparted much important information and practical advice.

DAYLIGHT REFLECTORS. As a few British Schools are still carried on underneath places of worship, and in crowded and darkened neighbourhoods, it may not be unimportant to mention that a recent invention has done much to facilitate the removal of the main inconvenience complained of in such schools. The new daylight reflectors, which have, we believe, been patented by an ingenious foreigner named Chappuis, * are already extensively used in offices and warehouses, and have proved very successful in the more crowded parts of the city of London. The invention is a very simple one ; it consists of a plain metallic surface, fixed to a window, and inclined at such an angle as to cast the maximum of reflected light into the apartment. We feel sure that the adoption of this simple contrivance would prove most beneficial in those schools which already suffer from want of light. There are few circumstances which affect the spirits of teachers and children more injuriously than this; and when it is considered that in schools under chapels, and in narrow courts, the air is often vitiated by the burning of gas throughout nearly half the days of the year, any contrivance which tends to diminish the necessity for so doing, and to increase the amount of daylight in the school room, will be seen to possess great importance in relation even to the health of the children. We strongly recommend this subject to the attention of all those who have to teach schools in dark rooms.

SKETCHES OF COLLECTIVE LESSONS.

LESSON 1.-ROADS.

This lesson is intended for the upper classes in an Elemenlary School, containing

boys from 12 to 14 years old. INTRODUCTION.

:-" Picture out” a desert scene—An Eastern Caravan roaming over the thirsty plain (aided by the patient camel). Notice difficulty and danger of such a journey (from shifting of sand), TRACKS soon INVISIBLE (guided as on sea

* The manufactory is at 10, St. Mary Axe, Leadenhall Street.

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only by sun and stars). Supposing the nature of the country admitted, how could these dangers be avoided ? (By road-making.)

I. HISTORY.–At first, forefathers in Asia Minor content to ramble over plains on camels (no beaten path). In more fertile climes obliged to cut narrow paths (through woods, over mountains), &c. As traffic increased (these made wider and more durable). About this time the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Carthaginians had much improved. These latter instructed the Romans, whose roads in time became superior to any. They built,

a. MILITARY ROADS, devoted exclusively to State purposes (principally for the soldiery).

b. COMMERCIAL ROADS; distinct from the former (devoted to trade and commerce)

c. BYE-ROADS, or branches from the main or principal roads.

After the conquest of Britain by the Romans it was intersected by roads, or streets, as they termed them (such as Watling-street, Akerma-street, &c.)

Some of our roads are founded on the old Roman works (especially in Kent, Middlesex, Bucks, Lincoln, and Northumberland.)

Recapitulation. Here all the words in italics should be entered on the black board, a map referred to, and great attention given to spelling the words in capitals. Etymology of street, invisible, durable.

II. CONSTRUCTION.—Roman roads, straight, leading direct from station to station (taking nearest route)-used in their construction Roman cement and pieces of granite-(this very durable)-one now at Lyons, 600 years old, in excellent condition.

In England circuitous (thus joining towns that would otherwise be remote from the COMMERCIAL world). Improved by McAdam and Telford, who cut stones to weight of 6 oz. each, used no CEMENT, but formed solid mass of itself.

London streets excellently paved in some parts with Aberdeen granite. Commercial-road from Whitechapel to West India Docks one of finest in England. Most durable from King William-street to London Bridge. Cost of, £2,000.

Wood has been given a trial (but in wet weather, and especially during frost, is too slippery to come into general use). Reason why wood adopted (to diminish the noise.)

In most countries roads are formed by the Government in England by the people), a consequence (more numerous and regularly attended to.)

Recapitulation.-See last note on Recapitulation. The words, circuitous,” station,” “ diminish” should be particularly noticed, as to their meaning, orthography, and etymology.

III. USES.-Endeavour to draw from the class that blood is carried over the body by the veins and ARTERIES. Compare these with the roads of a country; and trade, learning, and CIVILIZATION with the blood. (They render the inhabitants of a country far more accessible than they would otherwise be, just as the Romans in Britain.)

This may be illustrated by the Allied Armies in the Crimea-transport of materiel from Balaklava to “ the Heights," since the improvements in the roads.

Recapitulation.—Etymologies-arteries, civilization, accessible, transport.

N.B.-(1.) The words enclosed in parenthesis () are those to be drawn from the class--others to be taught.

(2.) Words in italics are those to be written on the black board, so as to present to the class an outline of the whole.

(3.) Words in capitals are principally characteristic, and should be spelt indi. vidually and simultaneously.

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