« AnteriorContinuar »
IV. Remember that very few of the Latin and Greek prefixes can be satisfactorily explained by a single English synonyme. Nearly every one of them has two mean. ings; a primary and prepositional one, and a secondary or adverbial one. The former only is given in books, but the latter may be easily discovered, is generally allied in some way to it, and helps to explain a vast number of words which would otherwise be unintelligible. For example, the syllable in is a preposition in some words, and an adverb, meaning “not,” in others. So, trans, in “transport,” means literally " beyond ;” but in “ transfigure” and “transmute,” it means “thoroughly.” The same remark will be found capable of very wide application. All these derived adverbial meanings should be understood, for by the simple use of the ordinary prepositional synonyme it will be impossible to explain the e in “eloquence,' the con in “conscience,” the super in “superstition,” or the de in “ deface,” and a very large number of similar words.
V. Accustom yourself and the pupils to distinguish carefully between the literal and the metaphorical meanings of words, and to discover the process by which those meanings bave developed themselves. In almost every list of derivatives from a given root, some of the words will be found to contain the primitive or physical meaning of the root; and others to have gained a secondary or metaphysical meaning. These should be carefully separated, and the suitableness of the metaphor should be pointed out. Thus, “morsel ” and “remorse," “ effigy” and “fiction,” image “imagination," "pound” and “ponder,” “refract” and “infringe,” “ integer" and “integrity,” “ epiglottis” and “glossary,” and a host of similar pairs of words, not only suggest the necessity of careful verbal discrimination, but furnish useful exercises in logical analyses also.
VI. Always demand from the pupil an exact definition of the English derivative at the same time as its root. You will find this in itself a good exercise, but it is chiefly useful here, because it serves to bring to light any confusion which may exist between the English and the Latin word ; and to secure that the etymology really answers its purpose.
Finally, do not suppose that the science of derivation is an easy thing, either to teach or to learn. Few subjects look easier at first sight; few present greater attractions to those superficial students who desire to look learned, without taking the trouble of becoming so; yet few subjects require more real study, or more delicate logical discernment than this. The list of roots and derivatives to be found in a book, is no true representation of the extent and difficulty of the subject. You may learn them all by heart, and yet have no effective and available knowledge of etymology. The subject is valuable in precisely the degree in which thought and judgment are exercised upon it, and almost worthless otherwise.
Whoever desires to understand the kind of mental exercise which the subject ought to suggest, may study with advantage Trench on the Study of Words, and on English, Past and Present, and Whately’s English Synonymes. Of course the best thing for a teacher is to know one of the ancient languages, in its structure as well as its vocabulary; but in the absence of such knowledge, the books we have named will do something to show how the subject should be treated.
By attention to these precautions, etymology may be redeemed from the disrepute into which it has of late fallen ; and take its place as one of the principal subjects in the curriculum of an elementary school.
SYSTEMATIC EXAMINATION OF SECTIONS UNDER
PUPIL-TEACHERS. Most teachers who conduct large schools in which pupil-teachers are employed, have found more or less difficulty in securing at once the assiduity of these assistants, and the decided progress of the sections with which they are entrusted. Experience has proved to the writer, that one of the most effective methods that can be devised,
is to examine the scholars periodically and systematically, in the subjects in which they receive instruction from the pupil-teacher. The following remarks are suggestive of the mode in which this examination can be carried on. It should be premised that it is expedient to commit to the pupil-teachers the entire management of their sections, in all except scriptural instruction, for in proportion to the responsibility which attaches to them will, most probably, be their earnestness as teachers. Each pupil-teacher should be allowed to have charge of his section for a lengthened period—for six or twelve months, or more, as the case might be. In large schools, it is of importance that the pupil-teachers should vary, as much as possible, as to the years of their apprenticeship, and thus, when they are properly graduated, an opportunity is afforded them of successively teaching all, or nearly all, the sections into which the school is divided. It must not be disguised that some difficulty will arise in the instruction of pupil-teachers who are in different years of their apprenticeship; but it is submitted that these disadvantages are more than counterbalanced in other ways.
In the school where this plan is adopted, each pupil-teacher is provided with an examination book, ruled and headed as under. In some schools, additional subjects would be taken, but the method would be equally available. Scriptural subjects are not mentioned, as it is not thought judicious to apply to these this mode of examination.
G., Good; F., Fair; M., Moderate ; B., Bad; N., Neat; C., Clean; P. C., Pretty Clean;
S., Slovenly. In many large schools, the master devotes his especial personal attention to the highest section, and in such cases, when he proposes to examine any particular part of his school, which should be at least every month, he can employ his own section in some study which does not require much supervision; and if he select two or three of the most advanced and active pupils to assist him in his examinations, his task will be greatly facilitated.
On entering the section, the master should ascertain the number of scholars on the class list, and the number present; by a comparison of these, he is able to judge of the zeal and interest which the pupil-teacher exhibits in endeavouring to secure the attendance of all his scholars ; for, whenever it is feasible, he should visit the homes of the absentees, and ascertain the reason of their absence.
To test the character of the reading, each scholar should be taken apart, and required to read a paragraph from some work, of about the same difficulty as that in which he is accustomed to read, and a mark given--" good,” “ fair,” “moderate," or “bad.” The total of each kind should be entered in the examination book, under the proper heading.
In spelling, it is assumed that the scholars prepare every evening a part of the reading lesson as a spelling exercise, and that they are daily examined in this por tion. To test their proficiency, twelve words should be selected from the lessons learnt since the previous examination, and these words dictated to them. Those who spell all correctly should be added together, and put in the first column, under the figure 12, those who have eleven, ten, or nine correct, in the second column, and
In grammar, a sentence should be written on the black board of pretty much the same character, or slightly increasing in difficulty at each examination, and the result would be determined in the same manner as the spelling.
The examinations in geography and history present greater difficulties than the two last, because the aid of the elder scholars is less available ; but if questions are given which require a brief answer, the trouble is lessened, and the amount of knowledge, nevertheless, fairly ascertained. A few general questions should also be given, and oral answers demanded, the character of which, if requiring special notice, should be entered under the head of “ General Remarks."
The copy-books should be examined one by one, and a comparison instituted between the writing of the present and last period, and the marks given accordingly. Additional remarks should be made if want of neatness or of cleanliness were apparent. In the heading of arithmetic, it will be noticed that the various rules are given, one after the other; and it is believed that in all sections, except those which are greatly advanced, it is judicious to give a sum in each rule. To test the pupils' accuracy in notation, some number, such as ten millions one thousand and eight, should be dictated ; and to ascertain with what readiness they could assign the proper value to numbers, they should be required at once to read off the numbers written on their slates by the master, or the senior scholars who were assisting him. It has been found advisable to write a different number on each slate. Methods of this kind will ensure not merely the progress of the children in arithmetic, but will secure the remembrance of all that which they have previously done.
Few good schools of the present day neglect to appoint a certain amount of work to be done at home. The home lessons, of which the character is to be registered, should be chiefly those written on paper or slate; and when the master proposes to examine a section, he should not give any prior intimation. As, therefore, the particular day would not be known, the care with which they had been written would pretty well represent their average character.
It remains to indicate how the marks under the head of personal appearance are obtained. The faces, hands, shoes, &c., should be observed, and the letters N., C., or S., given accordingly. Probably it would be well to tell each scholar, as he came up to you, the estimate which you had formed of his appearance. The teacher would take care that they had no intimation of the day on which he would judge of their appearance, or, of course, there would be preparation for the occasion.
The advantage of this method of testing the efficiency of the pupil-teachers is, that the comparison of numbers enables the master readily to learn whether the section is advancing, stationary, or retrog rading; and the assistants are naturally emulous to secure a larger number of good marks on each occasion. In some instances, it would be well to place prominently in the school the comparative skill and efficiency of the teachers, as evidenced by the examination.
It may be objected to the above sketch, that very great labour is involved in such examinations, and hence teachers, who have had no opportunity of observing its results, may hesitate before putting it into operation. To such we may remark, that after a little practice the scheme is easily worked, and that whatever the amount of exertion involved, the valuable results that ensue more than compensate for any reasonable expenditure of time and toil.
SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION -CHRISTMAS, 1857. Some modifications of importance have recently been made in the scheme of examination for students and other candidates for certificates of merit. The object of these modifications, it will be seen, has been twofold :-first, to give greater general prominence to school management; and, secondly, to narrow the range of the second year's course, with a view to make it deeper and more thorough. As several minor changes in the curriculum have also been made, we think it better to give our readers the entire document.
COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL ON EDUCATION. Syllabus of Subjects in which Students in training, and other Candidates for Certificates of Proficiency as Teachers in Elementary Schools, must be examined.
FIRST YEAR. Reading.- To read with a distinct utterance, with due attention to the punctuation, and with a just expression, a passage from Mr. Warren's “ Select Extracts from Blackstone's Commentaries.'
Penmanship.—To write a specimen of the penmanship used in setting copies. – 1. A line of large text hand.-2. A passage in small hand.
Arithmetic.-1. To prove the usual rules from first principles.—2. To compute with precision and accuracy.-3. To make (with a knowledge of the principles) simple calculations in mensuration.t
Mechanics.-1. To describe the mechanical powers, and the most common modes of applying them.-2. To make simple calculations on the work of mechanical agents.
School Management. I-1. To answer, in writing, questions on the expedients to be used for the purposes of instruction in reading, spelling, and writing.-2. To draw up time-tables for use in a school under given circumstances.
English Grammar. 8--1. Its principles.-2. To parse (December, 1857) a passage * In Scotland, the four Appendices to Hume’s History of England (infra, p. 6), if preferred as an alternative.
+ The course proper for a national school is here meant, being that which can be intelligently taught to persons having a good knowledge of arithmetic. The examples should be taken from a “ Builder's Price Book."
# Passages taken from the Reading Lesson-books commonly used in schools will be given in the papers on all subjects which admit of it, and candidates will be expected to show how they would explain such passages to cluldren. Each paper will also contain questions on the method of teaching the elementary parts of the subject to which it relates.
All the answers made by the students on whatever subject (not confined to bare figures) will be examined as evidence not only of their knowledge of the particular subject, but also with a view to determining the marks to be allowed to them for grammar and composition. The power of writing plain and clear sentences, with correct syntax, orthography, and punctuation, is the immediate object of grammar. The greater part of the questions proposed on grammar will be founded on words
from the Chapters on “ Master and Servant,” and “ Husband and Wife,” in Warren's Extracts from Blackstone. *—3. To paraphrase the same passage.
Geography.-1. To be able to describe † the outline maps of the four quarters of the globe.-2. To be able to describe t the map of each country in Europe. 3. To be able to draw the outlines of the above maps from memory.
History.—The outlines of the history of England to be known thoroughly.
Drawing.11-1. Drawing free-hand from flat examples.-2. Linear ometry by
Arithmetic.-1. The use of logarithms.-2. Compound interest and annuities.3. Methods of teaching arithmetic generally.
School Management.**--1. To teach a class in the presence of the inspector.– 2. To answer questions in writing on the following subjects :
:-a. The different methods of organizing an elementary school;—6. The form of, the mode of keeping, and of making returns froin, school registers.- -3. To write a theme on some practical questions of education, founded on moral considerations.
English Grammar and Composition.--1. To paraphrase (December, 1857) a passage from Milton's Paradise Lost (Book 1.), or from Shakespeare's “ Lear" tt-2. To analyze the same passage (according to Mr. Morell's work). 11–3. To answer questions on the style and subject-matter of the work, or part of work named.
Geography.- 1. Physical.—2. Political.-3. Commercial.-4. Popular astronomy.
History.-A paper of questions will be given, such as can be answered from a perusal of any one of the standard histories of England (Hume, Lingard, Pictorial, &c.) The paper will be divided into five sections, each section containing not less than five questions. The sections will reach (1) to the battle of Hastings, (2) battle of Bosworth, (3) death of Charles the First, (4) death of Queen Anne, (5) to 1815.
No candidate will be examined in more than one section. The object of the second year's reading in history should be to deepen and quicken some specific part of the first year's reading. or sentences taken from the work specified. It should be carefully read through, therefore, in short portions, as so many exercises in language, in illustration of the English Grammar used in the College, just as the Greek or Latin classics are read in public schools.
* In Scotland, the first Appendix from Hume's History of England (infra, p. 6) may be taken, if preferred, in lieu of this exercise.
+ The word “describe" is meant to be confined to words written, as distinguished from drawing, in paragraph 3.
The neatness as well as the correctness of these outlines will be taken into consideration. The degrees of longitude and latitude must be given.
Instead of (but not in addition to) this subject, students may be examined in Latin as far as the end of page 84 of Yonge’s “ Eton Grammar” (E. P. Willians, Eton). This grammar is mentioned only for the sake of defining the extent of knowledge required, viz. accidence, concord, genders of nouns, perfect tenses, and supines of verbs. The paper will be confined to grammatical questions and to exercises within the limit prescribed.
|| If candidates have already obtained prizes from the department of science and art in either of these two exercises, they may work two (but not more) of the next exercises in which they have not obtained such prizes, aceording to the course of drawing in the second year.
This paper will not be given to any candidate who does not produce a certificate signed by the principal of the training school that he can sing or can play on some instrument. Acting teachers who are candidates must produce a similar certificate from some competent person, such as the organist of their church, &c.
** Passages taken from the Reading Lesson-books commonly used in schools will be given in the papers on all subjects which admit of it, and candidates will be expected to show how they would explain such passages to children. Each paper will also contain questions on the method of teaching thie elementary parts of the subject to which it relates.
tt A passage from each author will be given; either (not both) may be taken by the candidate. It Tlie“ Analysis of Sentences explained and simplified.” Theobald, London.