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exercises, to see that the whole meaning is conveyed, and that no part of the substance of the original is omitted in the paraphrase. Conciseness of expression is, of course, worth aiming at, but it is often attained at the sacrifice of some part of the meaning. It should be kept in view, as a rule, that the first requisite in a paraphrase is, that it shall comprise the whole signification of the text.
Care should be taken in paraphrasing to use sentences as short as possible, and even when the sentence in the original is long, it is often desirable to break it up into separate portions. It is a great art in composition to avoid long and entangled sentences. When conjunctions, relatives, and other connective words are used, especial care is needed to secure clear construction, and to avoid confusion in the meaning. Participles should be sparingly used. When any doubt arises as to the right construction of the sentence, try to parse it, and if there is any difficulty in deciding the case of a noun, the antecedent of a pronoun, the force of a conjunction, or the government of any word, always strike out the sentence, and write it again on a simpler plan. It is always a good test of the success of a paraphrase as a piece of composition, to make it the subject of a separate exercise in parsing and analysis, and to apply the rules of syntax to each of the words it contains.
Never use more words than are absolutely necessary; and when your meaning can be expressed in one word, never use two. This caution will be particularly necessary in the use of adjectives and verbs. It will not always be possible to condense a paraphrase into as few words as the original; because some authors use a highly concise style, and express their thoughts in remarkably few words. But whenever it is possible, the number of words employed should not be more numerous than in the original.
No attempt, however, should be made to retain the same structure of sentence as in the original, or to make a paraphrase by substituting an equivalent for each word, one by one. The sentence should always be read more than once, and then examined and understood as a whole, before any attempt is made to reproduce its meaning in another form. In transmuting poetry into prose, for example, many inversions, and forms of phraseology peculiar to poetry, must be got rid of, and the natural and usual order should be followed in the paraphrase. It is not necessary or desirable to translate figurative language into literal, for the sentiment and general character of a composition should always be preserved ; the exercise simply requires that the language and grammatical structure should be varied, while the thought to be expressed remains unchanged.
It is worth remembering that no exercises in English composition are of any value unless they are definite in character, and admit of easy correction. The evil of giving themes and miscellaneous topics to serve as the subjects of original exercises in composition is, that there are so many forms of error, as well as so many ways of being right, that it is difficult for a teacher to correct them efficiently, and to prove to each scholar how he has erred. Paraphrase is a far superior exercise, inasmuch as in it all errors admit of easy detection, by comparison with a known standard.
We subjoin two simple examples, the one of a prose and the other of a poetical extract, in which it will be seen, in part at least, what a paraphrase should contain, and how far it may lawfully deviate from the original.
I. ON STUDY. “Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. The chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots, and marshalling of affairs, come best from those who are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humour of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience; for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by duty, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.
“Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them: for they teach not their own use, but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.
"Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider."-Bacon's Essays.
Learning is valuable in three ways :-as a source of pleasure, as a means of adding grace and beauty to life, and as an instrument for the discharge of duty. In regard to the first of these, the advantage is chiefly enjoyed in solitude, the second is mostly available in social intercourse, while the third enables us to arrange and order the business of life. For although men of natural acuteness can perform particular acts, and even come to wise conclusions respecting details; yet the power to view things comprehensively, to group them together, and to exercise a wise forethought in the arrangement of business, is rarely possessed except by the well-instructed man.
It is a mark of indolence to give ourselves wholly up to the enjoyment of literature; it is a proof of self-conceit to value our reading only as a means of display; while to determine every question solely by what books say, is the sure characteristic of a pedant. Learning supplements and improves natural gifts, but itself needs to be further improved by the experience of life ; for our natural gifts are like trees, which need discipline and culture; and learning itself is apt to mislead a student, unless its counsels are submitted to the control of actual experience.
Learning is not unfrequently despised by the clever man of the world; it is regarded with childish wonder by the foolish : but it is only truly appreciated by the wise; for learning does not teach its possessor how to employ it-the power to do this being a higher attainment than any scholarship, and one only to be acquired by much thoughtfulness,
Nerer study that you may obtain victory in argument, nor merely that you may passively believe every thing you read, nor that you may be able to find something to talk about; but rather that you may ponder and meditate on the subject.
II. NTRODUCTION TO TE “PARADIS T.”
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
And justify the ways of God to men."NILTON. Celestial muse, thou who of old, on the summit of Horeb or of Sinai, didst instruct that pastoral prophet, who first revealed the history of the creation to the children of Israel ! assist me to sing concerning the first human transgression, and that fatal fruit which God forbade; the taste of which was the prime cause of death and every other human woe, and will continue to produce these evils, until the second Adam recover our lost position and privileges. But if thou art more willing to be associated with the mount of Sion, or the brook of Siloam, that flowed so near to Jehovah's boliest seat, from thence I call upon thee for aid in my ambitious enterprise ; for I am purposing with no mean or timid effort to mount beyond the Parnassus of the ancient poets, and to write of things which neither bards nor historians have ever ventured to describe.
But most of all do I desire thine aid and teaching, Thou Holy Spirit ! whose choicest dwellingplace is the guileless and reverent heart; for Thou wast present at the beginning, and like a dove with out-stretched pinions didst hover over the formless infinite, and impregnate it with life.
In so far as I am ignorant, enlighten me; when my thoughts are mean or poor, elevate and sustain them : that so I may be enabled by Thy help to utter words not unworthy of my lofty theme; to speak rightly of the Divine Providence, and to vindicate God's dealings with mankind.
NOTES OF LESSONS.
I. THE REINDEER.
For Children of Six to Eight Years. A PICTURE of the reindeer may be at hand, but must be kept out of sight until after the description of the various parts of the animal.* I. Its VARIOUS
HEAD. — Something like a cow's, only smaller. (Question as to name of the various parts of a cow's head.) HORNS.-(Sketch the , cow's and deer's on black board before children, and then draw from them that the horns are covered with little branches. Ears.—Long and broad. BODY.Lightly but strongly made. Tail.-Short; comparison between sheep's. (Ask for names of animals with short tails, that they know.) Legs.-Shaped like a cow's— goat-sheep. Feet.—Divided in the middle into two. (Names of other animals ?) (Give name -“cloven-footed.”) HAIR and Skin.-Short and thick.
II. WHERE IT LIVES. COLD COUNTRIES.—(When it is very cold here, what part of the year do we call it?) Winter. (Tell something seen in winter, not seen in summer.) Ice and snow. (Here speak of reindeer living in countries where, most of the year, the ground is covered with snow.) Speak of sliding and skating. PEOPLE OF THESE COUNTRIES.—Short, thick, wrapped in furs—why? FOOD OF PEOPLE.—Fish, reindeer-flesh, fat, oil, &c. (Show difference between these people and the people of hot countries, with respect to food and clothes.)
III. Its Habits. Fond of Man—PATIENT.—(Meaning of patient? illustrate by example.) INDUSTRIOUS—rery OBEDIENT— -(meaning of obedient ?) Lives on GREEN Moss in summer, and dried in winter. (Tell something that we dry for animals ?) Hay. (What is it before bay ?) (Supposing the sheep are in the fields when they are covered with snow, how will they get at the grass ?) (Compare their manner with reindeer's.) Both scrape away the snow. Kept together like cattle.
IV. Its Uses.-Induct the answer from uses of the horse. TO DRAW LOADS. (Inquire whether a cart goes easier in summer-time, or when the ground is covered with snow. Speak of amusements of winter-sliding.) SLEDGES.—(A sketch on the board to be made.)— Travels very fast; 100 miles a-day. Different uses than horse—flesh for food—milk for drink. Sinews.—(Show the strings or muscles in wrist, as example)-thread. SKINS.-Clothing; hair kept on-(Why ?) HORNS. -Knife-handles, &c. Fat.-To burn in lamps, &c. (Speak of difficulty and expense of their making gas.)
REMARKS.—This lesson will occupy about half-an-hour ;-a thorough recapitulation at each division. Every word in capitals to be written on the black board— those in italics should be carefully spelt, at first simultaneously, and then separately —the remarks in parentheses ( ) for teacher, as special hints.
II. VOLCANOES. ILLUSTRATIONS AND SPECIMENS.-1. Picture of a volcano. 2. Piece of lava, or furnace slag. 3. Map of the world.
INTRODUCTION.-Deduce the differences between a volcano and ordinary mountain, by questioning, with the aid of the picture.
GENERAL FEATURES. Generally isolated-send forth, from summits or sides, Description - isolated - flame, smoke, ashes, streams of melted matter, called flame, smoke, &c.-Lava lava—sometimes have eruptions merely of mud. Not -changeable in character permanent-number and character liable to constant
- sides often deeply fur- change.-(Why?) Because of action of internal fire.rowed.
This description to be deduced from the children by
questions. * Each part to be sketched on the board as it is described ; so that, when the description is finished, a chalk drawing of the animal will be on the black board.
Signs of Eruption.- (1.) Stillness of air. (2.) Unusual agitation of Stillness of air—agitation waters--sea swells and roars without wind-water of of waters-noises—explo- springs muddy and impure. (3.) Deep, rumbling sions.
noises—comparison, carriages on a rough pavement. (4.) Explosions and earthquake. (These signs to be
told, with occasional questions.) Eruptions.-Most fre- Eruptions most frequent in volcanoes of moderate quent in volcanoes of mo. elevation.—Contrast Stromboli and Cotopaxi or Etna, derate elevation · these -(Why?) Those of moderate elevation the only ones eject lava.
which eject lava.—(Why?) CAUSE, or How PRO- The gases in earth rarefied by subterranean heatDUCED.—Explosion of ra- then expandexplode. Illustration-bursting of a refied gases. (To be care- cannon or boiler ; hence volcanoes are safety-valves, fully deduced by compa- through which gases find vent. rison.)
VOLCANIC Districts. America.-Whole line of Andes—Mexico-Rocky Western America and West Mountains. Indies—Eastern Isles of Asia.—Kamtschatka — Aleutian Isles — Japan Isle Asia--Sunda Isle.
-Phillipine and Sunda Isles-Barren Isle. Extinct
volcanic region in West of Asia Minor. Isles of Africa on West. Africa.-Active volcanoes confined to Island of St.
Helena-Canary Isle (Teneriffe)-rocks composing
Mount Atlas of volcanic origin. Central and North Ger- Europe.-Some islands of Grecian Archipelagomany, and Italy-Azores rocks in Central and Northern Germany and Italy, -Sicily-Iceland.
Lipari Isles-Etna-Auvergne-Azores - Hebrides
Iceland. LESSONS, Moral.-1. God's goodness in giving volcanoes, and thus preGod's goodness. 2. God's venting the dreadful destruction of earthquakes. power. Duties.-1. Thank. God's power.—"He looketh on the earth, and it fulness. 2. Fear.
trembleth ; He toucheth the hills, and they smoke." The words in italics, in the right division of the paper, should be explained. The words in italics in the left division of the paper should be spelt. The notes on the left side should appear on the board.
III. THE OYSTER.
A Lesson for Children from Ten to Twelve. ILLUSTRATIONS.—Pearl buttons, or knife with pearl haft. Specimen of common English oyster and mussel, and of mother-of-pearl oyster ; if possible, one with pearls partly formed. Diagram of animal. Map of Asia.
Introduction.-Looking in a jeweller's window, one sees ornaments made of various materials. What? Gold and silver. Others ? Different sorts of stonespearls. Which of these are got in same manner? Gold and silver. Where are pearls got? From the oyster. Our common oyster ? No-yes, sometimes. Right, small ones sometimes are, large ones very seldom indeed. (Show pearl oyster.) What is this? An oyster. (Show English variety.) And this? An oyster, too. Both, then, are oysters. Localities.—Where did they come from? Out of water. River ? No; out of
Then what sort of water do they live in? Salt. (Look at specimens.) Was either of these found in the sea near England ? Yes, the smaller one. The other, too? (Not know.) No; it was most likely brought from the Indian Ocean. Where is that? South of Asia. Its chief inlets ? Red Sea, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf. (Map.) (Tell children that) it is found most plentifully near the entrance to the Persian Gulf, and near Ceylon. (Point out.)
Habits.-Was it caught with rod and line ? No. With net? No. Why not? It does not swim about. What does it do? It lives at bottom of sea. Crawling about? No. How then ? Lying at bottom, or growing fast to a stone, rock, or some other shell.
Classification.— What is the great difference between the oyster, and what we commonly call fishes ? It has no bones. Have birds bones? Yes. Serpents ? Yes. Have all animals, except the oyster, bones ? No; a fly has none. will divide all animals into-(1) Those that have bones; (2) Those that have no bones. Now what is the difference between an oyster and a fly? (Not know.) Point out that the body of a fly is notched or jointed. Tell me some other ani. mals most like the oyster? The snail, periwinkle, mussel. Which of these would you put together? The oyster and mussel. Why? The shell has two pieces. Make out on the board a classification as this questioning proceeds, as follows :
Animal.- Why does not the oyster drown? (Not know.) It breathes by gills. (Explain by diagram.) If we cut an oyster with a knife, does it bleed ? No. (Explain that it does, but its blood not being so red, we do not observe this.) What is the blood for? (Explain, to nourish the body.) What is it made from? The food the oyster lives on. What does the oyster live on? (Explain, on animalcules and small fragments of vegetables.) But it grows fast to one spot, we said, so how can it get this food? (Explain the action of the cilia around its mouth.) Then has the oyster teeth ? No. Has it any arms, legs, head, eyes ? No. Why not? It does not need them. (Speak of the wise arrangement of Nature, which provides all that is wanted, but nothing which is not needed.)
Shell.- What is its shell for? To keep its soft body from being hurt. Then is it always shut up ? No. When open ? Getting its food. How can it open and shut? (Explain the hinge, and by comparing it with that of the mussel, show how these differ; and mention that the bivalves are generally distinguished by the nature of the teeth of the hinge.) How came it to have so hard a shell? (Not know; perhaps say it was born with it.) Then correct this, explaining that when born it had no shell, but swam about for a time, and then, settling down, its shell was developed. Explain, too, the formation and deposit of shelly matter by the mantle, also the formation of pearls.
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF
SOCIAL SCIENCE. The second annual meeting of this Society will be held at Liverpool, on Monday, the 11th of October, 1858, and five following days, under the presidency of the Right Hon. Lord John Russell, M.P.
The Association is established to aid the development of social science, and to guide the public mind to the best practical means of promoting the amendment of the law, the advancement of education, the prevention and repression of crime, the