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THE CAMEL. I. DESCRIPTION. Let a picture of a camel be presented to the class, the children having been told on the previous day what the lesson would be on, so that they might notice the appearance of the camel.

Á camel is about as high as a very tall man. How high, then, should you suppose a camel is ? Six feet. Colour brown. Compare it with the dromedary. Long lips-heavy eyelids-broad chest.

II. STRUCTURE.-See here, boys, I have a picture of—(a camel); and I wish you to describe its several parts to me- -(It has a long neck.) Of what service is the long neck to him ? You know that they have to travel through long and dreary deserts, sometimes a long way without meeting with any verdure; they are, therefore, very anxious to get to some. Now their long neck enables them-(to see a long way off, and to feed more easily.)

What is the next thing you observe about the camel ?-(It has a long nostril.) Now there are very often hot sand-drifts in the desert ; therefore, the long and close nostrils—(keep the animal from suffering pain or injury).

What next do you observe about the camel ?-(It has loose and shaggy hair.) By induction, the children may be made to tell that-(the hair is a good defence for the skin). In like manner, infer the use of the broad feet, cushions upon feet and knees, &c.

III. Food.—(This part may be treated interrogatively). Of what does its food consist? What difference is there between the food of the camel and the ass ? Should

you think that very coarse food is the most suitable for the camel ? Why not? What kind of food do we give pigs, if we wish them to look well ? And to horses, if we wish them to work well ? Thus the children may be led to see that coarse food keeps animals in a very poor state, renders them weak, and consequently unable to perform so large an amount of work as they might do with better support.

IV. CHARACTER.—Here some anecdote may be given about the camel, showing its gentleness, patience, and docility; and then the question may be asked—What animal is like the camel, as regards these qualities ?-(The ass). Did you ever see an ass beaten ? What did you observe ? Now the camel is like it in this respect; therefore, if a camel is beaten—it becomes stubborn.) How does the camel masticate its food ? Name some other animal that resembles the camel in this (The cow.) Another—(The deer.) Another—(Sheep). Now all these chew the cud), and have four stomachs. Here the teacher should endeavour to describe the purpose of each stomach.

V. Uses.-Can any child tell me what ships are used for? Do these animals in any way resemble a ship ? But ships carry various articles across the water, and camels—(across the desert); therefore a camel is called-(the ship of the desert). Here it may be shown that it would be impossible for the Arabs to traverse these deserts without the camel ; and also how highly they are valued by the Arabs.

You told me that the camel and the cow had four stomachs. Of what great service is the cow to us ?—(It gives us milk.) This is used—(for a refreshing drink), and it is made into—(butter and cheese.) Now the camel is just as valuable to the Arabs as the cow is to us, in this respect. But is the cow of any other service to us ?-(Yes.) And the Arabs eat the camel's flesh. What is done with the hide of a cow? And the hair of a camel is manufactured into clothing and fabrics for tents ; and we get some benefit from it, for its finer hair is used for painter's brushes.

VI. LOCALITY.-A map being before the class, many of the places may be pointed out in which the camel is found, viz., Southern Russia, Italy, Turkey, Asia, &c., &c.

VII. Lesson AND APPLICATION.—(To be treated interrogatively.) Name the qualities of the camel. Its uses. If it is so gentle, patient, and docile, how should it be treated ? If it is so useful, how should it be fed? What lesson should we learn from its history? Now camels are of no service to us in this country; but we have many animals that are. Name one- -(The cow.) Another-(The horse.) Another-(The ass.) Now let me ask you how you generally act towards these useful and patient animals, when you meet them? Set a good example yourselves, by treating them kindly; and if, at any time, you should see others ill-treating them, tell them the history you have learnt to day, and try to persuade them to deal gently in future with animals.



HOPS. ILLUSTRATIONS REQUIRED.-Map of England; drawing of hop-plant; specimens or drawings of leaves and hops; ruser and string.

A. DESCRIPTION.--(1.) Of hop-gardens.-(Introduce by description of walk through hop grounds in Kent or Sussex.) Generally a larye field, inclosed by high hedges-crossed by long rows of high poles- ten or twelve feet (eompare beiglit of two men, &e.)-about wide enough apart for two persons to walk abreast between. Poles are COVERED, in the autumn, with a long CLIMBING plant. Picture the appearance, looking down between the rows- - gradually appearing to narrow-the opposite hedge in the distance--the dark green leaves-sometimes very thiek-long STREAMING BRANCA ES intertwined and hanging down from the top-on these are the yellow “hops," or FLOWERS, growing in clusters.

(2.) Of Plant.-- Long, climbingn(educe : therefore supported on poles-consequence if noth-winds round from east to west. (Illustrate by string round ruler). Leaves large, HEABT-SHAPED, notched, dark green colour--front main stem (explain) long branches with smaller leaves, and on these the flower. Recapitulation.

(3.) Of Hops.--(Illustrate by specimen, or a drawing:) Cone-shaped (explain, and draw on board, cone)--composed or a number of little scales OVERLAPPING one another (ask for examples, tiles, cones, &e.)—under each a small seed, and a httle yellow powder. The hop is yellow---two or three inclies long (compare with finger)-vitter taste--pleasant smeti--stains the hard, when crushed.

B. CULTIVATION.-Educe: plants peculiar to different climates—hops in temperate--south of England, &c. Ground is carefully prepared, highly manured, &c. (Educe : modes of producing plants--sowing-planting) -planted (describe) -shoots put in the ground in rows three or four feet apurt (educe : why in rows)-little hills raised over them-several sprouts spring up in the first and second years small, and otten bearing no hops--afterwards stronger and more nunierous—best are taken and trained up the poles, of which there are three or four to each Hill-flowers appear and ripen in Augusť and September. Recapitulation.

C. GATHERING AND PREPARATION.---When ripe (i.e., powder appears, and have strong smell and taste), meny eut vit plarit; near the ground-pull up the pole feduee: why)-pole, with plant on it, laid across a basket, or “ bin_women and children pick the nous oth-carried to a building-put in a room where the ffoor is a coarse cloth on wooden frame-work--in a room underneath, fires are burning twelve houry_thus dried, fall to pieces (educe : wliy dried, to preserve them) sified in a large siers-packed elose in bags sold. Recapitulation.

D. Usp.-To give a strong bitter FLAVOUR to beer, and to assist in preserving it. (Educe, or tell them the fact.) General Recapitulation.

NOT..- Words in italics to be written on the black board. WORDS IX CAPITALS to be spelt.


SALT. PRELIMINARIES.-(i.) Specimens and illustrations required-lump of common salt, lump or bay-salt, cube of wood, prism of wood, a crystal, some grains of sand, map of Lingkund. (ii.) Experiments to be performed with two old saucepan lids fbecause such articles are available to the boys), and a little salt and water, illustraving (i.) crys!alline structure, (ii.) granular structure of salt. The lessen to continue thirty minutes. If not found suficient, experiments to be left to be performed by the boys at borne, to report results afterwards to the teacher.

1. NATURE AND KINDS OF SALT.-Front what place do the men in the streets get the salt they sell ?-(from the warehouse). Who lias locked into a salt sted, or been into a salt warehouse? What hare you seen there? Anything like the man was selling? What colour was the man's salt? What colour was the salt in the warehouse ?-(white). Did you see any other substance in the shed not looking much like the salt the man was selling :-(a substance of a brown colour). Did it at all look like the salt you use for dinner?-(no, a different colour). How would you tell whether it was salt or not?—(taste it). What does it taste like ? -(like salt). What taste do ali substances have that are like salt?-(salty taste). But ** salty” is not the proper word, (saline). By its saline taste, and by its being found in the salt dealer's warehouse, what might re suppose this brown substance was?-(salt). Some boy will be sure to give it its name-bay salt. (Exhibit specie miens of common and bay salt.) This bay salt is like the salt we use at dinner in taste, but not in colour. What makes this difference in colour? (Show that differ. ence in colour is often the result of circumstances in which the body or substance is placed, e.g., water at Hampton Court, clear and bright looking-water at London Bridge, dirty and dull. The one has something which the other has not-hence, a difference of colour arises) Bay salt is obtained from sea water, and common salt from brine springs; the sea water contains may substances that the salt spring does not contain. Bay salt often called rock salt--a mistake. Roek salt obtained not from sea water, bat from salt mines. Salt mines present a very beautiful appear. ance; why?--sparkling, transparent, crystalline). A mise of common salt would boc look so beautiful. (Examine and compare specimens of common and rock salt.) Common salt-apoque, granular.

RECAPITULATE-Substances seen in the salt shed of different colour game tasteone is bay salt-other common salt-sparkling -- saline transparent-crystalline-opaque-granular.

(Exhibit specimens of crystalline and grmular structure.) How is it that we have the same substance, in one form opaque and granular, in the other transparent and crystalline ? (Perform experiments, Nos. 1 and 2, showing that the one substance has passed through two different processes, hence often difference in formation and sprearance ensues. If not time, give boys directions how to perform them.

Experiment, No. 1.-Take two saucepan lids, and put some salt and water in each. Pat in

very cold weather, in a very cold place in the open air, and the other on the hob of the fire-place, but not on the fire. The water will disappear in both cases.

In the vessel in the open air crystals of salt will be found of a prismatic shape (show prism of wood), and in the other vessel crystals of salt of a cubie skape (show cube of wood). The result of different temperature.

Experiment, No. 2.- Take a saucepan lid, and put some salt and water in it. Place the vessel, not on the hob of the fire-place, but on the fire. Stir well, and as the water passes away an opaque granular substance will be left, i.e., common salt.

II. Slow OBTAINED.-PROCESS, &c.-From mines—from sea water or brine springs, by evaporation. Describe processes-Experiment, No. 2, on a large scale. Pieture out the famous salt mine of Poland. Recapitulation.

IIL WHERE FOUND IN ENGLAND.-Cheshire -Valley of the river WeverBrine springs at Droitwich in Worcestershire. Recapitulation.

IV. How USED.-Why use it at dinner?-(gives a relisk, and helps digestion). Does man only use it?—(wild animals, salt licks). Why does the farmer put it on bis land ?-(manure). Why used so largely in Newfoundland :-(salt fish).

T. H.


EXAMINATIONS IN DRAWING. Er has been determined by the Committee of Council to separate the drawing examinations henceforth from the general examinations for certiticates of merit. In future, one day in November in each year will be devoted to the drawing esamination, which will be held entirely under ihe directicn of the Department of Science and Irt. Teachers who have passed in one or more of the five branches required for a memorandum of competeney in drawing, under the Minute of 24th February, 1337, and who desire to pass in others, will also be permitted to present themselves fur examination either at a training college under inspection, or it any one of the local drawing schools in connexion with the departinent. Tie value of the exercises will continue to be marked as at present, and the inarks will be kept on record until after the next December examinations, and will then be carried to each candidate's total for a certificate.

Teachers who are not yet certificated or registered, but who have received, or tke managers of whose schools are about to apply for, permission from the Committee of Council to attend for that purpose one of the general examinations in December, will not find (after December, 1859,*) exercises in drawing given on those occasions; but in order to have the benefit of their marks in drawing, must have passed a separate examination in drawing some time in the previous part of the same year, either at a drawing school or at a training college.

The Department of Science and Art have fixed Saturday, the 26th of November, for holding the drawing examination at the Borough Road.

. For the convenience of eachers who intu n'i to present themselves at the general examination for this year, and to prevent disappointnient from want of notice, it has been arranged to give them the same opportunity as heretofore of being cxami..ed in drawing.

EXAMINATIONS IN SCIENCE. TEACHERS wishing to attend the examinations of the Science and Art Department in-1. Practical and descriptive geometry, with mechanical and machine drawing, and building construction. 2. Physics. 3. Chemistry. 4. Geology and mineralogy (applied to mining). 5. Natural history, -for the purpose of obtaining augmentation grants to their salaries (under the Science Minute of the 2nd June, 1859), must send their names, addresses, and present occupation, to the Secretary of the Department, South Kensington, on or before the 31st October, 1859. The examinations will be held in the metropolis, in the last week of November. Certificates of three grades will be granted in each subject, giving the holder an augmentation grant of £10, £15, or £20 a year on each certificate, while giving instruction to a class of operatives in that subject. These payments will be in addi. tion to the value of any certificates of competency for giving primary instruction, should the teacher have already obtained any such from the Committee of Council on Education.

West Indies.-Salt Cay, Turk's Island, Bahamas.-Mr. James T. Pressley, who has passed successfully through a two years' course of instruction at the Normal College in the Borough Road, has been appointed by the Colonial Government to the head mastership of the principal school in the colony. Mr. Pressley sailed in June, and arrived at his destination in July last.



From June 1st, 1859, to August 31st, 1859.

LEGACIES. ALLEN, J., Esq., late of Liskeard

£10 00 RICKMAN, J., Esq., late of Wellingham

200 0 0


ANNESLEY, Earl of, 25, Norfolk-street, May Fair, W. ............
BENNETT, Mrs. J. R., 15, Finsbury-square, E.C.
CRUIKSHANK, A. S., Esq., 8, St. George's Terrace, Camberwell, S.
Evans, Mrs. B., 32, Hertford-street, May Fair, W.
Evans, D. W., Esq., M.P., Dartmouth House, Westminster, S.W.
FOSBROOK, L., Esq., Ravenstone, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch
GRAINGER, Mr. James, Pall Mall, S.W.
HABTINGTON, Marquis of, M.P., 78, Piccadilly, W.
HEYWOOD, James, Esq., 26, Kensington Palace Gardens, W.
RIPON, Earl of (additional).......
SHEPPARD, S. G., Esq., Threadneedle-street, E.C...
TEAPE, T., Esq., George-street, Tower Hill

, E.C. TURNER, Mr. J., St. Martin's-lane, W.C... Waugh, W., Esq., 48, Eastcheap, E.C...

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SPECIAL SUBSCRIPTIONS-£5,000 FUND. Pero, Sir S. M., Bart., Kensington

£500 0 0 Remittances from Auxiliary Societies and Corresponding Committees, &c., from June 1st, 1859,

to August 31st, 1859.
£ s. d.
£ s. d.

£ s. d. Apsley Guise 1 0 0 Chipping Norton...... 1 1 0 Malton

3 10 0 Bakewell 4 4 0 Doncaster...... 2 16 6 Norwich

1 10 6 Banbury 11 6 0 Downton ............. 1 0 0 Rochdale

2 0 0 Bardfield 2 0 0 Earls Barton

1 0 0 Sawbridgeworth 1 1 0 Barnsley 0 10 0 Faversham

1 1 0

5 10 0 Bedford.. 1 1 0 Hertford

3 2 0 Stowmarket.... 0 10 0 Bensington 1 1 0 Hoddesdon 2 15 6 Worcester.....

3 12 0 Carlisle 1 1 0 Leicester

5 12 0 S. Wales, &c., Blaina. 5 5 0

Subscriptions and Donations will be thankfully received by Messrs. HANBURYS and Co., Bankers THE

to the Society, 60, Lombard-street; and at the Society's House, Borough-road. Printed by JACOB UNWIN, of No. 8, Grove Place, in the Parish of St. John, Hackney, in the County of Middlesex

at his Printing Ofice, 31, Bucklersbury, in the Parish of St. Stephen, Walbrook, in the City of London; and Published by Tas Society, at the Depository, Borough Road.-SATURDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1859.





On Friday evening, the 9th of December, the students of the Normal College met in the presence of the Committee of the Society. The meeting was presided over by Henry Edmund Gurney, Esq., the Treasurer of the Society, and, subsequently, by Robert Forster, Esq. Selections from papers prepared by the students in the course of the college examination of the previous week were read, and a statement, showing the position attained by each student in the several branches of study, was presented to the Committee by the Principal and the other officers of the Training College. The young were afterwards addressed by the Rev. Thomas Binney on their prospects and responsibilities as teachers; and also by the chairman, and Josiah Forster, Esq.

On Tuesday, the 13th of December, the annual examination of students in training, and masters and mistresses of British Schools, for certificates of merit, took place at the Borough Road. John D. Morell, and William Scoltock, Esqrs., Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, conducted the examination.

One hundred and twenty-four students in residence were examined on the occasion, of whom 12 were young men who had completed their second year's course, 53 who had been in the Institution one year only, and 59 were female students. Twenty-three masters and eleven mistresses of British Schools were also candidates for certificates on this occasion.

On the following Tuesday, the 20th of December, an examination of candidates for Queen's Scholarships was held, under the direction of the same examiners. Eighty-one young men, and seventy-five young women, making a total of 156 candidates, presented themselves for examination, with a view to subsequent admission as students into the Normal College.

We shall give the results of these examinations in our next number.

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