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fion of the last". He had his land free. Every young musician within the district, when he laid aside his Telyn rawn, or hair-stringed harp, and became' a graduate in the art, paid him a fine of XXIIII pence. Every woman upon her first marriage paid him XXIIII pence. The marriage fine of his daughter was CXX pence. His heriot money was CXX pence. The recompense for an affront given him, was fix cows and CXX pence. The compensation, or penalty upon whomsoever flew him, was CXXVI cows". But what remains to be said of the manner of his election, and the nature of his office, I must defer, till the institutes of Prince Gruffudd ab Cynan enable me to speak more largely, and with greater certainty, of this dignified person.

In these constitutions we discover the first account of the Clera "?, or triennial circuit of the Bards, as we before traced the origin of the Eisteddvod, their triennial assembly, in the annals of Cadwaladr. We likewise find that a vaffal by the practice of Poetry and Music, which he could not adopt without the permission of his lord or prince, acquired the privileges of a freeman, and an honourable rank in society". Nothing can display more forcibly the estimation and influence which the Bards enjoyed at this early period, than their remarkable prerogative of petitioning for presents " by occasional poems. This custom they afterwards carried to such an excess, and such respect was constantly paid to their requests, that in the time of Gruffudd ab Cynan, it becamne necessary to controul them by a law, which restrained them from asking for the prince's Horse, Hawk, or Greyhound, or any other possession beyond a certain price, or that was particularly valued by the owner, or could not be replaced. Many poems of the succeeding centuries are now extant, written to obtain a horse, a bull, a sword, a rich garment, &c.

It appears that Music and Poetry were inseparably united in the same person, in the reign of Howel: nor is it clear at what period they were divided, till the time of Gruffudd ab Cynan. Milton, elegantly says:

Blest pair of Syrens, pledges of Heaven's joy,
Sphere-born harmonious fisters, voice and verse,

Wed your divine sounds, and mix'd pow'r employ!
About the year 1070, Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, Prince of North Wales, the author of another code of Welsh
Laws, established some regulations respecting the musical Bards "s, and revised and enforced those which
were already made.

About the year 1100, the great Prince Gruffudd ab Cynan invited to Wales some of the best musicians of Ireland 16; and being partial to the music of that ifland, where he was born, and observing with displeasure the disorders and abuses of the Welsh Bards, created a body of institutes for the amendment of their manners, and the correction of their art and practice". Accordingly I find in an old MS. of Welsh Music", in the library of the Welih school, a curious account of so remarkable a



10 Leges Wallicae, p. 68, &c.

mans and Saxons, against Gruffudd ab Cynan. We might perhaps 11 Leges Wallicae, or Howel's Laws, p. 68, &c. We find the have been convinced of Cellan's great abilities in the arts, had fame relpect paid to the musicians, in other constitutions. “Who. he lived, and also of the beauty of his eloquence, as he ever shall ftrike a harper, who can harp in a public assembly, shall could have described the brave exploits and warlike atchieve. compound with him by a compensation of four times more than ments of his Prince, for which his fame was signalized in for any other man of the same condition," Leg. Ripuariorum et Wales, Ireland, the Danish Ilands, and among other nations. Weinorum. Lindenbroc. Cod. LL. Antig. Wilgoth. &c. A. D. A MS History of Prince Gruffudd ab Cynan. 1613. Tit. 5. § ult.

17 Jbid. Also Powel's Hiftory of Wales, p. 115 and 191. 12 Howel's Laws, p. 37. § 11, 12.

Clarke's Preface to the Welsh Laws, p. 25. and Rhydderch's 13 Howel's Laws, P. 307. gist Triad.

Welsh Grammar, p. 177, &c. 14 Howel's Laws, p. 37. § 12.

18.“ Some part of this MS, according to a memorandum Llewelyn's Bard had such a high opinion of his prince's gene which I found in it, was transcribed in the time of Charles the rosity, that he exclains,

First, by Robert ap Huw of Boduigen, in the idle of Anglesey, • Were I to ask my prince a boon,

from William Penllyn's book." Dr. Burney's History of Mulic; 6 Even if it were the full-orb'd moon,

vol. II. p. 110. William Penllyn is recorded among the success“ He'd give it -- prince of gen'rous soul !

ful candidates on the harp, at an Eistedel vod at Caerwys

, in 1568, " He'd give his faithful Bard the whole !

where he was elected one of the chief Bards and Teachers of 15 Dr. Rlys's Grammatical Institutes of the Welsh Language, infrumental fong. Pennant's Tour in North Wales, printed p. 295.

1778, p. 438. This MS. Dr. Burney informs me,

si contains 16 Dr. Powel, in his notes on Caradoc, informs us, that either pieces for the harp that are in full liarmony or counterpoint: our Music came hither with Prince Gruffudd's Irish musicians, or they are written in a peculiar notation, and supposed to be as old was composed by them afterwards. Mr. Wynne, the other as the year 1100 at lealt. Such is the known antiquity of many editor of Caradoc's History, miltaking this passage in Dr. Pawel, of the songs mentioned in the collection.” History of Mufic, ibid. and not diflinguishing instrumental music from musical instru The 24 meafures of Mufic are here annexed from the MS. in the ments, hath milled his readers by afferting that the Harp and original Welih, for the purpose of alliiting future enquiries, and Crwth came from Ireland. See Wynne's History of Wales. edit. shewing, by the variety of its technical terms, what perfection 1774, p. 159. Further information may be ieen in the next page. the art had formerly acquired. As they have never been ex

It is recorded, in the life of Prince Gruffudd ab Cynan, that plained, I forbear attempting a translation, from apprehension Cellan, Pencerdd Telyn, his chief musiciar of the Harp, fell in a of mistake, and misleading the reader. battle which was fought in Anglesey between the invading Nor


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revolution, beginning with these words : Here follow the four-and-twenty measures of instrumental Music, all conformable to the laws of harmony, as they were settled in a congress by many Professors, skilful in that science, Welsh and Irish, in the reign of Gruffyd ab Cynan, and written in books by order of both parties, princely and principal's, and thence copied, &c!

This grand reformation of the Bards was effected by dividing them into classes, and assigning to each class a distinct profeffion and employment. We have hitherto viewed thein in a very various and extensive sphere. It was their office to applaud the living and record the dead : they were required to possess learning and genius, a skill in pedigrees, an acquaintance with the laws and metres of poetry, a knowledge of harmony, a fine voice, and the command of an instrument. This diversity of character is well expreffed by Drayton, in the sixth song of his Polyolbion :

“ Musician, Herald, Bard, thrice may'st thou be renown'd,

“ And with three several wreaths immortally be crown'd!” Such variety of excellence was unattainable by hunian capacity. The Bards were now therefore distributed into three grand orders, of Poets, Heralds, and Musicians ; each of which again branched into subordinate diftinctions.

Neither of these orders or distinctions was any longer compatible with those with which it had been connected, or with any other profession.

“ One science only will one genius fit;
“ So valt is art, so narrow huinan wit :
“ Not only bounded to peculiar arts,
“ But oft in those confin'd to single parts.

According to a more minute arrangement, there were of regular Bards, proceeding to degrees in the
Eisteddvod, fix classes : three of Poets, and three of Musicians.

The first class of the Poets consisted of historical or antiquarian Bards, who sometimes mixed prophecy - with their inspiration : they were also critics and teachers : and to them belonged the praise of virtue and the cenfure of vice. It was their duty to celebrate the gifts of fancy and poetry. Of them it was required to address married women without the air of gallantry, and the clergy in a serious strain suitably to their function, to satirise without indecency, and without lampooning to aniwer and overthrow the lampoons of the inferior Bards.

The second class was formed of domestic or parenetic Bards 3, who lived in the houses of the great, to celebrate their exploits and amiable qualities: they sung the praises of generosity, contentment, domestic


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Llyma 'r Pedwar Mefur ar hugain cerdd Dant, ability of each being confonant to one another towards forming

the song, to preserve it in memory, to perform, and to explain yn ol rbeul vefur oll, val y cyvansoddwyd mewn Eisteddvod &'c. MS.

it with correctness. The names of the four chief musicians
Mac y mw’n bir. Cor-Vinvain, Irwsgwl Mawr. were, Alban ab Cynan, Rhydderch the Bald, Matholwch the
Cor Wigog.
Tudyr Bach.

Gwythelian, and Alav the Songfier. The audience were Henry
Cors goloff

Redback, Carfi the Harper, and many others, affisting with their

y mwynvaen.
Bratb yn ysgol. Toddyv.

advice and scientific knowledge. And by the countel of those
Cor- Aldan,
Fflam gur Gwrgan. Hatyr.

learned men, the kill of the Doctor of Music, and the four pro-
Treh beli,
Mac y miún byrr.
Mac y Delgi.

feffors of the art, and by the unanimous agreement of all, were
Yr Álhan Hyvaidd.

made the twenty-four measures ; and to give itability to those, the
Cordia tytlach.
Brut Odidog:

twenty-four canons were formed. They were made for three In the fame MS. are preserved the five principal Keys of Well reasons: the first

, for composing a piece; the second, for Mulic, established by the fame authority.

knowing the merits of it; and the third, for preserving it in Is g ywair, the Low Key, or Key of C.

memory; as their names follow farther on, in the Welsh and Cras gywair, the Sharp Key, or A.

Hibernian language. And Mwrcban the Gwyddelian was Lord Lleddv g gwair, the oblique Flat Key, or F.

of Ireland at ihat time ; by whom they were confirmed in the Go gywair, the third above the Key-note is flat.

place called Glyn-Achlach, through his power and offices; and Bragod g ywair, the Mixt, or Minor Key

he further decreed, that every person should support them.”

That was about the year 1096, when Gruffyd ab Cynan, and A manuscript, belonging to Sir Watkin William Wynne, con Cadrugan ab Bleddyn, were retreated to Ireland: Hugh, Earl of tains fome curious information respecting the weith Mulic; Chester, and Orven ab Edwyn, having taken pofleifion of their which I have given here, literally translated.

lands, and of the Idle of Anglesey, Cerdd Dannau.

2 Prydydd.

3 Teuluwr, Posvardd: or Family Bard. " This Book is called the Preservation of Instrumental Mufic;

When the king rode out of his cattle, his attendants were 36 that is to say, the Harp, and Cwrth, within the three pro

men ; that is to say, the 24 officers and 12 guests, besides his vinces of Cambria ; formed of the science of Music, through the family, his gentlemen, and his Bards. Leges Wallica, P. 11 knowledge and invention of a Doctor of Music, afitted by four

We find the King had always a civil judge to attend him, chief professors of the Harp, and Cruth; and the good will and



happiness, and all the social virtues : and thus eminently contributed to enliven the leisure of their patrons. It was also their province to request presents in a familiar, eafy vein, without importunity.

The third class, though last, was probably not least in esteem, were the Arwyddveirdd, which consisted of Herald Bards“, who were the national chroniclers, and were also well versed in pedigrees and blazonry of arms, and the works of the primary Bards, such as Taliesin Pen Beirdd, Myrddin Emrys, and Myrddin ab Morvryn. According to the account of them which Giraldus s has given in the succeeding century, they were admirably qualified for Poetry, if invention be one of its principal requisites : for he affirms that they could trace back the defcents of their princes and nobles, not only to Roderic, but to Beli, Sylvius, Æneas, and even to Adam himself. But their Poetry was of an humbler kind: it was usually confined to subjects of jocularity and mimickry, invective and reproach.

Of the musical Bards, the first class was appropriated to the performers on the Harp. Athraw, a Doctor or Master of Music, should know the 3 excellent Mwchwl, which were deemed equal to 4 Coloun; and each Coloun was equivalent to 10 Cwlwm. The 3 new Mwcbwl were ranked equal to 4 Cadair ; and the 4 Cadair were 5 Cwlwm each. Concerning the musicians, the reader niay collect further information in page 32 of this history, and from an account of the Welsh musical instruinents further on in this volume.

The second contained performers on the six-stringed Cruth; concerning whom also I refer the reader to the same places for information.

The third consisted of fingers, whose employment was to fing to the harps of others the compositions of the poetical Bards; but from whom a variety of other qualifications were expected. “A finger, said the Laws, should know how to tune a Harp, or Crib, and to play several essays and embellishments, two preludes, a cwlwm, a caniad, and the 13 principal tunes, with all their flats and Tharps. He should understand likewise the 13 principal styles of expression, and accenting them with his voice to several tunes; he should know the 24 metres of Poetry, and 24 measures of Music, and be capable of composing in two of the Englyn metres?, and one of the Cywydd metres. He should read Welsh with propriety, and write it with exactness, and be skilful in correcting and restoring any old poem or song that has been corrupted by transcribers.”

At and one of the chief lords to consult with upon all emergen- / light would be thrown on this dark subject. Till that desirable cies. He had a Bard to celebrate the praises of his ancestors ; object is accomplished, the candid reader will accept the followa Chronicler to register his own actions ; a Physician to take ing imperfect attempt to explain it. care of his health ; and a Musician to entertain him. These Cwlwm, a congruous piece of music, with words. were obliged to be always prelent, and to attend the King Colovn, fundamental subject, or part of a piece of music. whitherfoever he went. Besides these, there were a certain Cylgerdd, harmony, music in parts, or accompaniments. number of heroic men called Milwyr, who attended him, Cad'air, a masterly piece of music, I conjecture, by the perwhen he went on his progress, or marched out with his army, formance of which the musical Bards rose to the superior deand were resolved to stand by him, even at the expence of their grees, and to the chair ; whence it probably took its name. lives.” Dwen's History of the Ancient Britons, po 21 and 22.

Caniad, a tune, or fong. * Clerwr, Arwyddvardd: Itinerant or Circuit Bard, or Herald. Gosteg, a prelude, or overture. s Cambria Descriptio, cap. 3:

Deivr, a diverting air, or divertisement. Query, whether this . These technical terms of Welsh music are very obscure, and was a species of National Melody, so called from the county of are too unintelligible to admit of a positive translation. If I Durham? fhould hereafter be able to decypher the notation of the ancient Mwchwl, this famous piece of music, it seems, was acquired and very curious musical MS. which I have quoted before, much I only by a pencerdd, or Doctor of Music of the Harp.

Cywydd,{ Llog yrnog

? Y Pedwar Mesur ar bugain Cerdd Davod. The


Metres of Poetry
Unodl union

Unirythm direct.
Unodl gyrch

Unirythm recurrent.
Engyln. Unodl grwucca

Close Metre. Unirythm inverted.
Proft cyvnewidiog

The vowel-varied rhyme.
Proft cadwynodl

Alternate rhyme.
Deuair birion

Long distich recitative.
Deuair vyrion

Short distich recitative.
Parallel Metre.

Tailed, or Saphic.
Awdl gywydd

Multirythm pentametric.

Hör a tboddaid

Long and melting.
Byr a thoddaid

Short and melting.
Cybydedd ver

Short trochaic.
Cybydedd hir

Long and of equal extent.
Cybydedd nawban

Nine fyllabled lambic.
Huppynt här

Long Brunt.
Awdl. Huppynt byr

Lyric Metre.

Short Brunt.
Grawdodyn hir .

Long Heroic, or Parenetic.
Gwawdod yn byr

Short Heroic, or Parenetic,
Cadwyn wyr

Short chain.
Tawddgyrch cadwy nog

Soft concatenated incursive.
Cyrcb a cowita

Uncurlive with a little tail.

Irregular stanza.
Gorchefky Beirdd

Master-piece of the Bards.

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At the nuptials of the prince, or any of the princely blood, the singer waited upon the illustrious Bride, and at those entertainments was expected to carve dextrously every kind of fowl that might come before him.

Such, and so various, were the regular Bards, who by a noviciare and probation of an appointed term of years, and the performance of poetical and inusical exercises, acquired degrees in the Eisteddvod. As that venerable assembly existed long before the period I am describing, a description of it oughit, perhaps, to have been already exhibited: but I chose to wait till, under the auspices of a prince to whom our Poetry and Music are for ever obliged, I am evabled to display it to the eyes of the curious in its most perfect form.

The Esteddvod was a triennial assembly of the Bards, (usually held at Aberffraw , the royal seat of the Princes of North-W'ales formerly, fituated in Anglesey; likewise Dinevawr, the royal castle of the Princes of Soutb-Wales, in Caermarthenshire ; and Mathravael, the royal palace of the Princes of Powis, in Montgomeryshire ;) for the regulation of Poetry and Music, for the purpose of conferring degrees, and of advancing to the chair of the Eisteddvod, by the decision of a poetical and musical contest, some of the rival Candidates; or establishing in thar honourable seat the Chief Bard who already occupied it.

Withing to convey to my readers a clear idea of this important subject, I annex an extract, faithfully translated, from the patute of Prince Gruffudd ap Cynan, concerning the manner of holding an Eisteddvod.

“ When the congress hath affembled, according to notice and summons previously issued, at the place appointed, they shall choose as umpires twelve persons skilled in the Welsh Language, Poetry, Music, and Heraldry; who shall give to the Bards a subject to fing upon, in any of the 24 metres; but not in anæbean carols, or any such frivolous compofitions. The umpires shall see that the candidates do not descend to satire or personal invective, and shall allow to each a sufficient interval for composing his Englyn or Cywydd, Mufic, or other talk that they shall assign. They shall moreover cake down the names of the several Bards present intending to exhibit, that every one may be called by his name, in order, to the chair to perform his compofition. The unsuccessful candidates shall acknowledge in writing that they are overcome, and thall deliver their acknowledgment to the chief Bard, that is, to him who shall win the chair : and they all shall drink health to the chief Bard, and all shall pay him fees : and he thall govern them till he is overcome in a future Eisteddfodo."

From this injunction it appears, that the duties which upon this occasion, in the reign of Howel, belonged to the judge of the palace, were afterwards held in commiffion.

What served greatly to heighten the emulation of the Bards, if they wanted any additional incitement, was the presence of the prince, who usually presided in these contests. Their compofitions delivered upon these occasions are frequently upon historical subjects, and are valuable for their authenticity; for it was the business of the Eisteddvod, not only to give laws to Poetry and Music, but to extinguish falsehood, and establish certainty in the relation of events. “ A custom so good (says Drayton) that, had it been judi“ ciously observed, truth of story had not been so uncertain : for there was, we suppose, a correction of “ what was faulty in form or matter, or at least a censure of the hearers upon what was recited. Of which “ course some have wished a recontinuance, that either amendment of opinion, or change of purpose in

publishing, might prevent blazoned errors to."

Before any person could be enrolled in the Eisteddvod, the permission of the prince or lord, within whose jurifdi&tion he lived, was necessary. If he desired to proceed to degrees in Poetry, he was obliged at his presentation to explain the five Englyn Metres, and to sing them in such a manner, that one of the principal Bards would declare upon his conscience that he was competent to be admitted. He then became the pupil Of all these metres, specimens are exhibited by Dr. Rhys, Fohr unrivalled lustre." Walter's Disert. on the Welsh Language, p. 51, Rhydderch, and the Rev. Mr. Gronw Owen (see Beirdd Mon, by * Roderic the Great, King of all Wales and the Ille of Man, Hugh Jones, 18mo. Loudon, 1763:) also in the constitutions of changed the royal relidence from Caer Segont, in Caernarvonshire, the Society of Cymmrodorion, reprinted 1778. There are other to Aberffraw, in Anglesey, about the year 870. He divided his metres, now accounted obsolete and irregular; such as Triban dominion into three principalities, which he left to his three or Englyn Milwr, the Warrior's Song; 'Englyn ör hén ganiad, fons. Gwynedd, Venedoria, or North Wales ; Deheubarth, Den the Song of the Ancient Sirain; Englyn gar-hír, the song of metia, or South Wales; and Mathraval, or Powis ; which, before the Long Thigh; Engl;cild-wrn, the song of the Clinched the year 793, the royal residence was kept at Pengwern Powis,

or Shrewsbury. Afterwards there were Five Royal Tribes of The Metres were probably antecedent to the 24 measures of Wales : Prince Griffith ab Cynan, of Aberffraw, in Anglesey, A. D. Music, for the latter feem to have been adapted to, and founded 1080; Prince Rhys ab Tudor, of Dinevawr, Caermarthenshire,

1080 ; Prince Bleddyn ab Cynuyn, of Mathraval, in Montgo “ The Cambro British Muse hath, at the instance of her vo. meryshire, 1070; Elyftan Glodrúdd, of Maes yved, Radnor. çaries, condescended to put on various other garbs wherein me mire, Prince of the Marches ; and Prince leftyn ab Gurgant, of hath appeared not only not ungraceful, but even with some de- Dindryval, Glamorganshire, 1090. gree of dignity and ease ; yet the robes the hath ever gloried in, 9 John Rbydderch's Welsh Grammar, p. 188, 189, are the Twenty-four celebrated antient British Metres, unknown to 10 Notes on the Fourth Song of the Polyolbion. every Mule belides, and wherein me hash always done with

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upon them.


of some one of the principal Bards, whom he was obliged to attend annually in Lent, and without whose approbation he could make no compusition public; and during three years, that is, till the next Eisteddvod, remained a non-graduate, and was called Disgybl Yspas cerdd davod, a probationary fiudent of Poetry.

At the next Eisteddvod, three years having expired, Disgybl Yspas was examined for the degree of Disgybl Disgyblaidd, or Bachelor of the Art of Poetry, and was required to be versed in the five Englyn Metres, the four Cywydd Metres, and three Awdl Metres; and to produce, in a scholar-like manner, compositions of his own, free from the 15 common errors.

After the same interval, the Bard took the degree of Disgybl Penceirddiaidd, or Master of the Art of Poetry, for which he was required to understand the rules of Grammar and Rhetoric, and analize and explain the alliterative concatenations of the language; to escape all the errors; and to sing melodiously, in parts, 21 of the metres,

To the Pencerdd, or Professor of Poetry, who obtained his degree at the end of the same period, belonged the whole mystery of the art. He knew to sing in harmony, or concord, and was well versed in transposed alliteration. Among his qualifications are enumerated, fertility in poetical subjects, a store of matter and invention, authority of decision, and a facility in composing in praise of the great, what would be heard or read with most delight, and longest retained in memory.

If a Disgybl, or disciple of any degree, was discovered in taverns or secret places playing for money at dice, or any other game, any person was authorised to take from him whatever money was found in his purse. For mockery and derision, and the invention or propagation of falsehood, the Disgyblion were also punished with fines and imprisonment. For, say the laws, the Bards shall be easy and peaceful in their manners, friendly in their dispositions, and humble in their services to the prince and his adherents.

Those Bards alone who had acquired the degree of Pencerdd were authorised to teach : nor were more than a fingle pupil allowed to each Pencerdd. The pupils were expressly enjoined to refrain from ridiculing their teachers, for that absence and inattention which is natural to a contemplative mind. But the most valued privilege of the Penceirddiaid was their exclusive right to the chair of the Eisteddvod. All those among them who aspired to the honour of presiding over the Bards, came forward (as the statute prescribes) at the triennial assembly, and contested it with each other, and with the Chief Bard who already possessed it. The successful candidate was seated in a magnificent chair, and was hence called Bardd Cadeiriog, the Chair-Bard. He was at the same time invested with a little filver or gold chair, which he wore on his breast as the badge of his office. As his rank was high, his emoluments were considerable: they arose from the Disgyblion, or students, when they laid aside the hair-strung harp, at the expiration of three years study, and were admitted to the practice of their art; from brides on their nuptials; and the marriage. fine of the daughters of all the Bards within his jurisdiction, &c.

Whoever defired to proceed to degrees in Music, was presented to the Eisteddvod by a musical Pencerdd, who vouched for his capacity. During his noviciate of three years, he was called Disgybl Yspås heb râdd, a probationary student of Music without a degree : and, if he learnt to play the harp, was only suffered to use that inftrument strung with horse-hair, that he might not (as I conjecture) by his rude attempt at harmony, torment the ears of the principality, and might pursue his studies with greater diligence, incited by the hope of relinquishing it for one furnished with strings of a more audible and pleasing sound. His next step, after three years study, was to the degree of Disgybl yfpâs graddol

, a graduate probationary student of Music, for which he was obliged to know ten cwlwm, one coloun, five cwlwm cydgerdd, one cadair, and eight caniad.

His second degree, after six years study, was Disgybl Disgyblaidd, or Bachelor of Music, but was pre.. viously required to be master of twenty cwlwm, two colovn, ten cwlwm cydgerdd, two cadair, caniad, and the twenty-four measures of Music; and to play them with facility and correctness.

At the expiration of nine years he became Disgybl Penceirddiaidd, or Master of Music, a degree which implied a preparatory knowledge of thirty cwlwm, three colovn, fifteen cwlwm cydgerdd, three cadair, twenty four caniad, and four gofteg; and skill in defining them properly and distinctly.

The fourth degree he was admitted Percerdd, Athraw, or Doctor of Music, and was obliged to know forty cwlwm, four colovn, ewenty cwlwm czdgerdd, four cadair, thirty-two caniadau, and four gofleg; to understand all the laws and modifications of harınony, especially the twenty-four Measures of Music, and



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